CGRN 99

Dossier of purity regulations at Cyrene

Date :

ca. 325-300 BC

Justification: lettering (Dobias-Lalou); more specifically, the letters appear to be a bit less careful and early than face C (cf. SEG 9, 2), which is dated to ca. 330 BC.

Provenance

Cyrene . Discovered in 1892 in two joining pieces in the frigidarium of the Byzantine baths—located in the earlier sanctuary of Apollo—where it served as a bench. Now reconstituted in the Museum of Cyrene (inv. no. 51).

Support

Rectangular marble pillar, inscribed on three faces. The texts of face A and B (to the left of A) form a continuous series, and constitute the present document (the lines are numbered continuously here as in Dobias-Lalou's edition). Face C, to the right of A, contains a different document: a list of deliveries of grain provided by Cyrene to mainland Greece (cf. SEG 9, 2).

  • Height: 133 cm
  • Width: (faces A and C) 39-40 cm
  • Depth: (face B) 37.6-38 cm

Layout

There are clear paragraphoi at the left margin of both faces A and B, thus clearly indicating sections in the document. We follow these paragraphs in the translation and number them as Dobias-Lalou does, in the Commentary below.

Letters in lines 1-3: 15 mm high; letters in the remaining lines: 10 mm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Dobias-Lalou 2000: 297-309 (Appendix), with a full apparatus criticus but primarily a textual and dialectological commentary.

Note however the following variant readings and restorations (Carbon, on the basis of the ph. in Oliveiro): in lines 6-7, we restore the epithet of Apollo as Apotropaios following Wilamowitz and others (instead of Dobias-Lalou's unattested form Apotropos, itself following Herz and Oliverio; there is not much room on the stone, but the two iotas could have been squeezed in); line 37, we correctly print δὴ instead of δὲ; in line 49, we add the verb οἰσεῖ which has dropped out in Dobias-Lalou's transcription; lines 75 and 78-79 contain minor differences; line 140 in Dobias-Lalou's text appears to have been miscopied (from line 139), and so we maintain an earlier reading (again, confirmed on Oliverio's ph.).

Other editions: Ferri 1927, with ph. (editio princeps); Oliverio 1933, with ph. pl. I-IV.

Cf. also: SEG 9, 72, based on Oliverio's text; Sokolowski LSS 115; Rhodes - Osborne GHI 97; SEG 50, 1638, reprising the text and apparatus of Dobias-Lalou; Robertson 2010: 259-374, with different restorations based on Oliverio's ph. and a substantially different interpretation.

Further bibliography: Stukey 1937; Chamoux 1953: 286-287 and 301-320; Servais 1960; Parker 1983: 332-351 (Appendix 2); Brulé 1987: 225-261; Dobias-Lalou 1997; Dobias-Lalou - Dubois 2007; Peels 2016.

Text


Face A


[Ἀ]πόλλων ἔχρη[σε]·
[ἐς ἀ]ε καθαρμοῖς καὶ ἁγνηίαις κα[ὶ δε]-
[κατ]ήιαις
χρειμένος τὰν Λεβύαν οἰκ[έν]·
[αἴ] κα ἐπὶ τὰγ γᾶνἐπὶ τὰμ πόλιν ἐπείηι νόσο λι]-
5[μὸ]ς
θάνατος, θύεν ἔμπροσθε τᾶμ πυλᾶν [ἐναντ]-
[ίον]
τῶ Ἀποτροπαίω, τῶι Ἀπόλλωνι τῶι Ἀποτρ[οπ]-
[αίωι]
χίμαρον ἐρυθρόν. vacat
[κ]ᾶλον ἐν ἱαρῶι πεφυκός· αἴ κα τῶι θεῶι τὰν τιμὰν
[ἐ]ρεῖσες, τῶι κάλωι χρησῆι καὶ ἐς ἱαρὰ καὶ ἐς βάβ[α]-
10[λα]
καὶ ἐς μιαρά. vacat
[ἀπ] γυναικὸς ἀνὴρ τὰν νύκτα κοιμαθὲς θυσεῖ[τ]-
κα] δληται· τὰν δὲ ἁμέραν κοιμαθὲς λωσάμεν[ος]
[..?.. ε]τι, ὅπυι κα δήλ[ητα]ι, πλὰνἐς [...]
[..?..]ΤΑΝ· τὰν δὲ [..c.4..]
15[......1 line......]
[ἁ λ]εχὼι ὄροφομ μιανεῖ· τμ μ[ὲν ὑπώροφον μιανεῖ, τὸν]
[δ᾽ ἐ]ξόφορον οὐ μιανεῖ, αἴ κα μὴ ὑπένθηι· ὁ δ᾽ [νθρ]-
[ω]πος
, ὅ κα ἔνδοι ἦι, α⟨ὐ⟩τὸς μὲν μιαρὸς τέντα ἁμ]-
[έρα]ς
τρῖς, ἄλλον δὲ οὐ μιανεῖ οὐδὲ ὅπυι κα ἔνθ[ηι ο]-
20ὗτος
ἄνθρωπος. vacat
[Ἀ]καμαντίων ὁσία παντὶ καὶ ἁγνῶι καὶ βαβάλω[ι]·
πλὰν ἀπ᾽ ἀνθρώπω Βάττω {τω} τῶ Ἀρχαγέτα καὶ
Τριτοπατέρων καὶ ἀπὸ Ὀνυμάστω τῶ Δελφῶ{ι},
ἀπ᾽ ἄλλω, ὅπη ἄνθρωπος ἔκαμε, οὐκ ὁσία ἁγνῶ⟨ι⟩·
25τῶν δὲ ἱαρῶν ὁσία παντί. vacat
αἴ κα ἐπὶ βωμῶι θύσηι ἱαρῆιον, ὅ τι μὴ νόμος θύεν, τ[ὸ]
ποτιπίαμμα ἀφελὲν ἀπὸ τῶ βωμῶ καὶ ἀποπλῦν-
αι
καὶ τὸ ἄλλο λμα ἀνελὲν ἐκ τῶ ἱαρῶ, καὶ τὰν ἵκ-
νυν
ἀπὸ τῶ βωμῶ καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἀφελὲν ἐς καθαρόν·
30καὶ τόκα δὴ ἀπονιψάμενος, καθάρας τὸ ἱαρὸν κα
ζαμίαν θύσας βοτὸν τέλευν, τόκα δὴ θυέτω ὡς νομ-
οκώχιμος
μέστα ἐς ἀδελφεῶν τέκνα. vacat
αἴ κα δέκατος ἦι ἄνθρωπος ἡβατάς, καθάρας α-
[ὐ]τὸς
αὐτὸν αἵματι, καθαρεῖ τὸ ἱαρὸν πωλη-
35[θὲ]ς
ἐν τᾶι ἀγορᾶι ὁπόσσω κα πλείστω ἄξιος [ι],
προθυσεῖ πρὸ τᾶς δεκάτας ζαμίαν βοτὸν τέλ-
[ευ]ν
οὐκ ἀπὸ τᾶς δεκάτας, καὶ τόκα δὴ θυσεῖ τὰν
[δ]εκάταν καὶ ἀποισεῖ ἐς καθαρόν· αἰ δμή, τῶν α[ὐ]-
[τ]ῶν
δησῆται· [σκ]οίκιον δοἰσεῖ πᾶςθύων·
40[ἄ]νηβος, αἰ μή τί κα κμ μιᾶι, ἀποχρεῖ καθάρασ[θ]-
[α]ι
αὐτὸν καὶ ζαμίας οὐ δεῖ· αἰ δέ κα ἑκὼμ μιᾶι, κ[α]-
[θα]ρεῖ
τὸ ἱαρὸν καὶ ζαμίαν προθυσεῖ βοτὸν τέλευ[ν].
[α] κα χρήματα δέκατα ἦι, ἐκτιμάσας τὰ χρήματ-
[α]
, καθαρεῖ τὸ ἱαρὸν καὶ τ χρήματα δίχα, καὶ τόκα
45[δ] προθυσεῖ ζαμίαν βοτὸν τέλευν, οὐ τᾶς δεκάτ-
[ας]
, καὶ τόκα δὴ θυσεῖ τὰν δεκάταν καὶ ἀποισεῖ ἐς
[κα]θαρόν· αἰ δὲ μή, τῶν αὐτῶν δησεῖ· τῶν δὲ χρημά-
[τω]ν
, ἇς κα δέκατα ἦι, ἐντόφιον οὐκ ἐνθησεῖ οὐδ[έ]-
[πω
ο]ὐδὲ ἕν, οὐδὲ χύτλα οἰσεῖ πρί[γ] κα τῶι θεῶι ἀπο[δε]-
50[κατε]ύσει
· αἰ δέ κα χύτλα ἐνίκειἐντόφια ἐνθῆι, κα-
[θά]ρας
τὸ Ἀπολλώνιον ζαμίαν προθυσεῖ κατὰ τὰν
[ἁμα]ρτίαν βοτὸν τέλευνvacat
[αἴ κ]α δέκατος ἐὼν ἄνθρωπος ἀποθάνηι, κατακομ-
[ξα]ντες
τὸν ἄνθρωπον τᾶι μὲν πράτισται ἁμέραι
55[ἐπι]θησεῖτι κα δήληται ἐπὶ τὸ σᾶμα, δεύτερον δ-
[ὲ ο]ὐδὲ ἕν, πρίγ κα ἀποδεκατεύσει τῶι θεῶι, καὶ ο[ὐ]-
[δὲ
θυ]σεῖ οὐδ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ σᾶμα εἶτι· ἐκτιμασέντι δὲ π[όσ]-
[σω
πλ]είστω ἄξιος ἦς, κοινὸς ἐὼν τῶι θεῶι· καθάρα[ς]
[δὲ τὸ] Ἀπολλώνιον καὶ τὰ χρήματα δίχα, προθύ[σα]-
60
αὐτὸ]ς ζαμίαν βοτὸν τέλευν οὐκ ἀπὸ τᾶς δεκά-
[τας
προ]βώμιον, θυσεῖ τὰν δεκάταν προβώμιον [κα]-
[ὶ ἀπο]ισεῖ ἐς καθαρόν· αἰ δὲ μή, τῶν αὐτῶν δησεῖ.
[αἴ κα ἀπ]οθάνηι δέκατος ἐὼν καὶ τὰ τέκνα καταλ[ίπ]-
[ηι
ὧν κα τ]ὰ μὲν ζῶι, τὰ δὲ ἀποθανῆι, ἐκτιμάσας τὰ [ἀ]-
65[παλλαγ]μένα
ὁπόσσω κα πλείστω ἄξια ἦι, καθάρα τ]-
[ὸ Ἀπολλώ]νιον καὶ τὰ χρήματα δίχα, προθυσεῖ ζαμ[ία]-
τὰν τῶ ἡ]βατᾶ προβώμιον, καὶ τόκα δὴ θυσεῖ τὰν δε-
[κάταν
προ]βώμιον· τὸν δὲ ζοὸν καθάρας αὐτὸς αὐτ[ὸ]-
αἵματι κα]ὶ τὸ ἱαρὸν δίχα, πωληθὲς ἐν τᾶι ἀγορᾶι θ-
70[υσεῖ
τὰν τ]ἡβατᾶ ζαμίαν βοτὸν τέλευν, καὶ τόκ δ]-
[ὴ
θυσεῖ τὰ]ν δεκάταν καὶ ἀποισεῖ ἐς καθαρόν· αἰ [δὲ]
[μὴ, τῶν αὐτ]ῶν δησεῖ.
[....c.8....]ν ἐπεί κα ἄρξεται, θύεν κατὰ νόμον [...c.5..]
[....c.8....]θηι, τὸ λοιπὸν θυσεῖ ὁπόκα κα δήλη[ται ..]
75[.....c.9....]ηι, καθαρμὸς ἀποχρεῖ, ὁπ[..c.4..] τις [...c.5..]
[....c.8....] καθᾶραι οὐ δεῖ· αἰ δέ κα δήληται [...c.5..]
[......c.11.....] προβώμιον, οἰσεῖπ[......c.12......]
[...c.6...]Ν[.]ΡΩ[...c.6...]ΧΑ[.]ΛΞΕ[......c.11.....]
[..?..]Ε[..?..]
[......1 line......]
[......1 line......]
[......1 line......]

Face B


[νύμφ]αμ μ[ὲν πρὶν ἴμεν τὸ κοιτατή]ριον, ζ[...c.5..]
[δεῖ] ἐς Ἄρτ[αμιν κατενθὲν]· ατα δὲ οὐχ ὑπώ[ροφ]-
85[ος]
τῶι ἀνδρὶ τένται οὐδὲ μιασεῖ, μέστα κα
[ἐς] Ἄρταμιν ἔνθηι· ἃ δκα ταῦτα μὴ ποιήσα[ι]-
[σ]α
μιᾶι ἕκασσα, καθάραισα τὸ ρταμίτιον ἐπ[ι]-
[θ]υσεῖ
ζαμίαν βοτὸν τέλευν, καὶ τόκα δὴ ετ-
[ι]
τὸ κοιτατήριον· αἰ δέ κα μὴ ἑκοῖσα μιᾶι, κα-
90[θ]αρεῖ
τὸ ἱαρόν. vacat
[ν]ύμφαν δὲ τὸ Νυμφῆιον ἐς Ἄρταμιν κατ[εν]-
[θ]ὲν
δεῖ, ὁπόκα κα δήληται Ἀρταμιτίοις, [ὥς κα]
[τ]άχιστα δὲ λῶϊον· ἃ δέ κα μὴ κατένθηι, [ποθ]-
[υ]σεῖ
τᾶι Ἀρτάμιτι, ἅ κ δήλητ]αι· τοῖς [δ᾽ Ἀρταμιτί]-
95[οι]ς
μὴ κατεληλευ[θυῖα, καθαρεῖ τὸ Ἀρταμίτι]-
[ο]ν
καὶ ἐπιθυσεῖ ζ[αμίαν βοτὸν τέλευν].
[γυνὰ κύοισα πρὶν τεκὲν κάτε]ιτι τὸ Νυμφι[ον]
ἐς Ἄρταμι ..4..] τι ἄρκωι δωσεῖ πόδας καὶ
τὰν κεφαλὰν καὶ τὸ δέρμα· αἰ δέ κα μὴ κατ[έν]-
100θηι
πρὶν τεκέν, κάτειτι σὺμ βοτῶι τελέωι· ἁ δ[ὲ]
κατίασσα
ἁγνευσεῖ ἑβδέμαν καὶ ὀγδόαν
καὶ ἠνάταν, καὶ ἁ μὴ καταληλευθυῖα ἁγν-
ευσεῖ
ταύτας τὰς ἁμέρας· αἰ δέ κα μιᾶι, καθα-
ραμένα
αὐτὰ καθαρεῖ τὸ ἱαρὸν καὶ ἐπιθυσ[εῖ]
105ζαμίαν βοτὸν τέλευν. vacat
αἴ κα γυνὰ ἐγβάληι, αἰ μέγ κα διάδηλον ἦι, μ[ι]-
αίνονται
ὥσπερ ἀπὸ θανόντος, αἰ δέ κα μὴ
διάδηλον ἦι, μιαίνεται αὕταοἰκία καθάπε[ρ]
ἀπὸ λεχός. vacat
110ἱκεσίων· vacat
ἱκέσιος ἐπακτός· αἴ κα ἐπιπεμφθῆι ἐπὶ τὰν
οἰκίαν, αἰ μέγ κα ἰσᾶι ἀφ᾽ ὅτινος οἱ ἐπῆνθε, ὀ-
νυμαξεῖ
αὐτὸν προειπὼν τρὶς ἁμέρας· αἰ δ[έ]
κα τεθνάκηι ἔγγαιοςἄλλη πη ἀπολώλη[ι],
115αἰ μέγ κα ἰσᾶι τὸ ὄνυμα, ὀνυμαστὶ προερεῖ, αἰ
δέ κα μὴ ἰσᾶι, " ἄνθρωπε αἴτε ἀνὴρ αἴτε γυνὰ
ἐσσί", κολοσὸς ποιήσαντα ἔρσενα καὶ θήλεια[ν]
καλίνοςγαΐνος, ὑποδεξάμενον παρτιθ[έ]-
μεν
τὸ μέρος πάντων· ἐπεὶ δέ κα ποιῆσες τὰ
120νομιζόμενα, φέροντα ἐς ὕλαν ἀεργὸν ἐρε-
[ῖ]σαι
τὰς κολοσὸς καὶ τὰ μέρη. vacat
ἱκέσιος ἅτερος, τετελεσμένοςἀτελής, ἱσ-
σάμενος
ἐπὶ τῶι δαμοσίωι ἱαρῶι· αἰ μέγ κα προ[φέ]-
ρηται
, ὁπόσσω κα προφέρηται, οὕτως τελίσκ[ε]-
125σθαι
· αἰ δέ κα μὴ προφέρηται, γᾶς καρπὸν θ[ύ]-
εν
καὶ σπονδὰν καθ᾽ ἔτος ἀεί· αἰ δέ κα παρῆι, [κ]
νέω δὶς τόσσα· αἰ δέ κα διαλίπηι τέκνον ἐπι[λα]-
θόμενον
καὶ οἱ προφέρηται, ὅ τι κα οἱ μαντε[υ]-
ομένωι
ἀναιρεθῆι, τοῦτο ἀποτεισεῖ τῶι θεῶι κ[αὶ]
130θυσεῖ, αἰ μέγ κα ἰσᾶι ἐπὶ τὸμ πατρῶιον· αἰ δὲ μή, [χρή]-
σασθαι
. vacat
ἱκέσιος τρίτος, αὐτοφόνος· ἀφικετεύεν ἐς [..c.4..]
πολίαν καὶ τριφυλίαν· ὡς δέ κα καταγγήλε ἱκέ]-
σθαι
, ἵσσαντα ἐπὶ τῶι ὠδῶι ἐπὶ νάκει λευκῶ νί]-
135ζεν
καὶ χρῖσαι καὶ ἐξίμεν ἐς τὰν δαμοσ[αν]
ὁδὸν καὶ σιγὲν πάντας, κα ἔξοι ἔωντι [τὸ]-
[ς] ποδεκομένος· τὸν προαγγελτ[ρα ..4..]
[..]ν παρίμεν τὸν ἀφικετευ[ό]μεν[ον ..]-
[...]ων καὶ τὸς ἑπομένος [..?..]
140[...]υσε θύη καὶ ἄλλ τὰ νομιζόμενα (?) ..?..]
[..4.. δ] μ [..?..]
[..?..]

Translation

Face A

Apollo prophesied: forever making use of purifications and abstentions and [tithes (?)], they are to settle Libya.

§ 1: [If] disease [or famine] (5) or death come against the land or the city, sacrifice in front of the gates [opposite] the Apotropaion, to Apollo Apotropaios, a tawny winter-old he-goat.

§ 2: Wood grown in the sanctuary: if you pay (lit. "plant") the price to the god, you may use the wood for sacred and secular (10) and impure (purposes).

§ 3: From a woman, a man having lain for the night (with her) shall sacrifice [whatever] he wants. Having lain (with her) during the day, having washed [...] he is to go where he wants except into [... (15) ...]

§ 4: [The woman] in childbirth will pollute the roof (i.e. the house): [she will pollute] one [who is under the roof, but] not the one outside the roof, unless he goes in. Any human being who is inside (the house) will himself be polluted for three days, but will not pollute another (person), wherever (20) that human being may go.

§ 5: With regard to the Akamantia, (these are) religiously sanctioned for anyone both pure and profane. Except from (the tomb of) the man Battos the Archagetes and (from the sanctuary of) the Tritopatres and from Onymastos the Delphian. From another place, where a man has died, it is not religious sanctioned for the pure. (25) But with regard to the shrines, (these are) religiously sanctioned for anyone.

§ 6: If one sacrifices on the altar a sacrificial animal which it is not customary to sacrifice, he is to remove the residue of grease from the altar and wash it off and remove the remaining refuse from the sanctuary and remove the ash from the altar, and the fire to the pure (place ?). (30) And only then after having washed himself off, having purified the sanctuary and sacrificed as a penalty an adult animal, precisely then let him sacrifice as one liable to the law up to the children of brothers.

§ 7: If an adult human being is liable to the tithe, having purified his own person with blood, he will purify the sanctuary and having been sold on the agora (35) for as much as he is worth, before the tithe (?) he will make a preliminary sacrifice as a penalty of an adult animal (from money) not deriving from the tithe, and then he will sacrifice the tithe and bring it back to a pure (place ?). If not, he will require the same things. Each person sacrificing will bring his own vessel.

§ 8: (40) If one who is not yet a man has somehow unwillingly become polluted , it suffices to purify himself and a penalty is not necessary. But if he has become polluted on purpose, he will purify the sanctuary and as a penalty will make a preliminary sacrifice of an adult animal.

§ 9: If possessions are tithed, having estimated the possessions, he will purify the sanctuary and the possessions separately, and only then (45) as a penalty will he make a preliminary sacrifice of an adult animal not deriving from the tithe, and only after will he sacrifice the tithe and bring it back to a pure (place?). But if not, he will require the same things. And from the possessions, which are tithed, he will not deposit a single funerary offering nor offer libations (for the dead), until he has paid the tithe to the god. (50) But if he brings libations or places funerary offerings, having purified the sanctuary of Apollo, as a penalty he will sacrifice according to his error an adult animal.

§ 10: If a human being (liable to) the tithe dies, when they have brought down (to the ground) this person, on the first day, (55) he will place whatever he wants on the tomb, but on the second (day) not a single thing, before he has fulfilled the tithe for the god and he will not sacrifice nor go to the tomb. And they will estimate him for as much as he is worth, being common property with the god. After having purified the sanctuary of Apollo and the possessions separately, having [himself] made a preliminary sacrifice (60) as a penalty of an adult animal not deriving from the tithe, in front of the altar, he will sacrifice the tithe in front of the altar and bring it back to a pure (place?). But if not, he will require the same things.

§ 11: [If] he dies while being (liable to) the tithe and he leaves behind children, some [of whom] live, while others have died, after having estimated the [departed children] (65) for as much as they are worth, having purified [the sanctuary of Apollo] and the possessions separately, he will make a preliminary sacrifice as a penalty [which is that of the] adult man in front of the altar. And only then he will sacrifice [the tithe] in front of the altar. The living child, having purified his own person [with blood] and the sanctuary separately, having been sold on the agora, (70) will sacrifice the penalty of the adult man, namely an adult animal. And only then [will he sacrifice] the tithe and bring it back to a pure (place?). But if [not], he will require the same things.

§ 12: [...] when one begins to sacrifice according to custom [...] the remainder he will sacrifice when he wants [...] purification is sufficient [...] someone [...] it is not necessary to purify. But if he wants [...] in front of the altar, he will bring [... (5 lines missing)]

Face B

§ 13: [A bride, before she enters the bridal chamber ... it is necessary (for her) to go down] to Artemis. This woman will not live under the same roof (85) as her husband nor will pollute (herself), until she goes to Artemis. She who having not done these things, willingly pollutes (herself), after having purified the sanctuary of Artemis, will sacrifice in addition as a penalty an adult animal, and only then will she go to the bridal chamber. If she involuntarily pollutes (herself), she will (only) (90) purify the sanctuary.

§ 14: A bride must go down to the Nympheion to Artemis, whenever she wishes during the Artemisia, but better [as] quickly as possible. If she does not go down, she will sacrifice to Artemis as a penalty whatever [she wishes]. (95) She who has not gone down [during the Artemisia will purify the sanctuary of Artemis] and sacrifice in addition [as a penalty an adult animal].

§ 15: [A pregnant woman, before she gives birth, will go down] to the Nympheion to Artemis [...] to the Bear she will give the feet and the head and the skin. But if she does not go (100) down before giving birth, she will go down with an adult animal. She who goes down will keep pure for the seventh and the eight and the ninth day, and the woman who has not gone down will keep pure for these same days. But if she pollutes herself, having purified herself, she will purify the sanctuary and sacrifice in addition (105) as a penalty an adult animal.

§ 16: If a woman rejects (her child, i.e. miscarries), if (the child) is recognisable, they are polluted just as from a death. But if he is not recognisable, the house itself is reckoned polluted just as from childbirth.

§ 17: (110) Suppliants. Invasive suppliant: if he has been sent to the house, if he (the householder) knows from whom (the suppliant) has been sent to him, he will call him by name, speaking forth for three days. If he is dead in his own country or destroyed somewhere else, (115) if he knows the name, he will call (him) forth by name. But if he does not know (the name), (let him call out) "O person, whether you are a man or a woman", having made figurines, (one) male and (another) female, whether of wood or earth, and having hosted them, let him set aside (for them) the portion from everything. When you have performed the (120) customary rites, carrying them to a fallow wood, plant the figurines and the portions (in the ground).

§ 18: Other suppliant, either having performed (the necessary rites, e.g. of supplication) or being incomplete in that regard, siting in the public sanctuary. If he has been commanded (by the god or his prophet?), however much he has been commanded, thus he will perform. (125) If he has not been commanded, sacrifice the fruit of the earth and a libation each year in perpetuity. If he omits it, (start) anew, twice as much. If a negligent child lets pass an interval (of a year) and if it has been commanded to him, whatever the god decides when he consults the oracle, this the child will pay to the god and (130) sacrifice on the ancestral (altar) if he knows it. If he does not, consult the oracle (again).

§ 19: A third suppliant, murderer of his blood: lead him away from supplication to [...]polia and the three tribes (?). After he has announced [that he supplicates], sitting on the threshold on a white fleece, (135) wash him and anoint him and make him exit into the public road and everyone who hosts him is to keep silent while they are outside. The proclaimer [...] pass in front the one leaving supplication [...] and those who escort (him) [...] (140) he will [...] incense (?) and the other [customary things ...] not [...]

Traduction

Face A

Apollon a rendu l'oracle : Résider en Libye en observant pour toujours les pratiques de pureté ordinaire, de pureté rituelle, de [consécration de la dîme].

§ 1 : Si surviennent pestilence, [famine,] (5) mort, sacrifier en avant des portes, en vue d'Apotropaios (ou de l'Apotropaion), à Apollon Apotropaios, un chevreau roux de l'hiver précédent.

§ 2 : Bois qui a poussé dans le sanctuaire : si l'on en offre la valeur au dieu, on se servira du bois pour des usages sacrés, profanes, (10) voire générateurs de souillure.

§ 3 : Quittant une femme avec laquelle il a couché pendant la nuit, un homme pourra sacrifier partout où il voudra; mais s'il a couché avec elle pendant le jour, après s'être lavé [...] il ira partout où il voudra sauf dans [... (15) ...]

§ 4 : La femme en couches souillera le toit : [elle souillera qui est sous le toit, mais] ne souillera pas qui est en-dehors, s'il n'y pénètre pas. Et tout être humain qui sera à l'intérieur sera personnellement entaché de souillure pendant trois jours, mais ne la transmettra pas à autrui, où (20) qu'il se rende.

§ 5 : Il y a accès religieusement permis aux Akamantia pour chacun, pur ou profane; hormis le contact avec un humain Battos descendant de l'archégète, avec les Tritopateres et avec Onymastos de Delphes; le contact avec tout autre lieu où repose un homme n'est pas religieusement permis pour le pur; (25) mais les lieux sacrés sont religieusement accessibles pour chacun.

§ 6 : Si l'on sacrifie sur un autel un animal qu'il n'est pas de règle de sacrifier, enlever de l'autel les résidus de graisse, rincer, retirer du sanctuaire ce qui reste de souillure, enlever la cendre de l'autel, retirer le feu en vue de la pureté. (30) Et alors seulement, après ablution, ayant purifié le sanctuaire et sacrifié à titre de compensation un animal adulte, qu'alors seulement on sacrifie, en considérant qu’on est tenu par la loi jusqu'aux enfants des frères.

§ 7 : Si un homme majeur est redevable de la dîme, s'étant purifié lui-même avec du sang, il purifiera le sanctuaire, et, après mise en vente sur l'agora (35) au maximum de sa valeur, il procèdera, avant la dîme, à titre de compensation, au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, sans le prendre sur la dîme; et alors seulement, il procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme et l'emportera en vue de la pureté; sinon, il aura les même obligations. Par ailleurs, chaque sacrifiant apportera [son récipient ?].

§ 8 : (40) Un mineur, à condition qu'il ne se soit pas souillé volontairement, aura seulement à se purifier et point n'est besoin de compensation; mais s'il se souille volontairement, il purifiera le sanctuaire et procèdera au sacrifice préliminaire, à titre de compensation, d'un animal adulte.

§ 9 : Si des biens sont redevables de la dîme, après estimation des biens, on purifiera le sanctuaire et les biens séparément, et alors seulement (45) on procèdera, à titre de compensation, au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, sans le prendre sur la dîme, et alors seulement on procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme et on l'emportera en vue de la pureté. Sinon, on aura les mêmes obligations. Et de ces biens, tant qu'ils seront redevables de la dîme, on ne soustraira pas encore, ne serait-ce qu'une offrande funéraire ou des libations avant de s'être acquitté de la dîme envers le dieu. (50) Et si l'on fait des libations ou des offrandes funéraires, après avoir purifié le sanctuaire d'Apollon, on procèdera au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, à titre de compensation conforme à la faute.

§ 10 : Si un homme, alors qu'il est redevable de la dîme, vient à mourir, une fois cet homme enterré, le premier jour, (55) on déposera sur la tombe l'offrande qu'on voudra, mais on n'en déposera pas d'autre avant de s'être acquitté de la dîme envers le dieu, pas plus qu'on ne fera de sacrifice ni ne se rendra sur la tombe. Et (la collectivité) estimera le défunt au maximum de sa valeur quand il était en indivis avec le dieu. Après avoir purifié le sanctuaire d'Apollo et les biens séparément, quand on aura procédé [soi-même], (60) à titre de compensation, au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, sans le prendre sur la dîme, devant l'autel, on procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme devant l'autel et on l'emportera en vue de la pureté; sinon, on aura les mêmes obligations.

§ 11 : S'il meurt alors qu'il est redevable de la dîme et s'il laisse des enfants dont certains sont vivants, d'autres décédés, après estimation des enfants [disparus] (65) au maximum de leur valeur, quand on aura purifié le [sanctuaire d'Apollo] et les biens séparément, on procèdera, au titre de la compensation prévue pour l'homme majeur, au sacrifice préliminaire devant l'autel; et alors seulement on procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme devant l'autel. Quant au survivant, ayant purifié sa propre personne [avec du sang] ainsi que le sanctuaire séparément, après mise en vente sur l'agora, (70) il procèdera, au titre de la compensation prévue pour l'homme majeur, au sacrifice d'un animal adulte; et alors seulement il procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme et il l'emportera en vue de la pureté; sinon, il aura les mêmes obligations.

§ 12 : [...] quand on aura commencé à sacrifier selon la coutume [et que ...], on sacrifiera le reste quand on voudra [...] une purification suffit là où l'on [...] il n'est pas besoin de purifier; mais si l'on veut [...] devant l'autel, on l'emportera là où [... (5 lignes manquantes) ...]

Face B

§ 13 : [Une épousée, avant d'entrer dans la chambre nuptiale ... doit descendre] chez Artémis; cette femme n'habitera pas sous le même toit (85) que son mari et ne se souillera pas jusqu'à ce qu'elle soit allée chez Artémis; celle qui, n'ayant pas fait cela, contactera une souillure volontairement, purifiera le sanctuaire d'Artémis et sacrifiera en outre, à titre de compensation, un animal adulte; et alors seulement elle ira dans la chambre nuptiale; mais si ce n'est pas volontairement qu'elle contracte la souillure, (90) elle (ne) purifiera (que) le sanctuaire.

§ 14 : L'épousée doit descendre au Nymphaion chez Artémis au moment qu'elle voudra lors des fêtes d'Artémis, et le plus tôt sera le mieux; celle qui n'y sera pas descendue sacrifiera à Artémis ce que [elle voudra (?)]; (95) si elle n'y est pas allée [pendant les fêtes d'Artémis, elle purifiera le sanctuaire d'Artémis] et sacrifiera en outre, à titre de compensation, un animal adulte.

§ 15 : [Une femme enceinte, avant d'accoucher, descendra] au Nymphaion chez Artémis [...] elle donnera à l'Ourse les pieds, la tête et la peau; mais si elle n'y est pas descendue (100) avant d'accoucher, elle y descendra avec un animal adulte; celle qui y sera descendue restera pure le septième, le huitième et le neuvième jour, et celle qui n'y sera pas descendue restera pure ces jours-là; si elle se souille, s'étant purifiée elle-même, elle purifiera le sanctuaire et sacrifiera en outre, (105) à titre de compensation, un animal adulte.

§ 16 : Si une femme fait une fausse couche, si l'enfant est reconnaissable, les gens sont souillés comme par un décès, mais s'il n'est pas reconnaissable, cette maison est souillée comme par un accouchement.

§ 17 : (110) Des suppliants. Suppliant dirigé contre la maison. S'il a été envoyé dans telle maison, si le maître de maison sait de la part de qui il lui est venu, il l'appellera par son nom en sommation pendant trois jours; s'il est mort dans son pays ou a disparu ailleurs, (115) s'il sait son nom, il le sommera par son nom, et s'il ne le sait pas, il dira : "Individu, que tu sois homme ou femme", et après avoir fabriqué des figurines masculines et féminines de bois ou de terre, les recevoir à table et leur servir leur part de tout; quand on aura accompli (120) les rites usuels, les porter dans un bois en friche et planter (dans le sol) les figurines et les parts.

§ 18 : Deuxième suppliant, s'étant acquitté (des rites) ou non, installé dans le sanctuaire public. S'il dispose d'un commandement (oraculaire ?), qu'il s'acquitte (des rites) dans la mesure de ce qui lui a été commandé. (125) S'il n'a pas reçu d'instruction, sacrifier le fruit de la terre et faire une libation chaque année à perpétuité. Et s'il le néglige, recommencer deux fois autant. Et si un enfant négligent laisse passer un laps de temps (d'un an) et qu'un commandement est donné, il s'acquittera envers le dieu de ce qui lui sera répondu par l'oracle après consultation et (130) il offrira un sacrifice sur (l'autel) ancestral, s'il le connaît; sinon, consulter le dieu (une nouvelle fois).

§ 19 : Troisième suppliant, meurtrier dans sa propre famille. Le sortir de son état de suppliant en le menant à [...]polia et aux trois tribus (?); et, quand il aura annoncé qu'il est suppliant, le faire asseoir sur le seuil sur une toison blanche, (135) le laver, l'oindre, sortir sur la voie publique; et que gardent le silence tous ceux qui l'accueillent, tant qu'ils sont dehors; que le proclamateur [...] passe devant celui qui est en train de quitter son état de suppliant [...] et que ceux qui l'escortent [...] (140) il [...]ra de l’encens (?) les autres [choses coutumières ...] ne [...] pas [...]

(traduction adaptée de C. Dobias-Lalou 2000)

Commentary

In the present Collection, it would be difficult to find such a well-known and lengthy document that also remains so difficult to interpret: as Rhodes and Osborne well note (p. 500), it "gives us a glimpse of the daily concerns and anxieties" of ancient Greeks but also "reminds us of how much of the religious practice of Greek cities we have limited understanding". The dossier from Cyrene indeed provides us with one of the best, most detailed, but also most varied and enigmatic regulations concerning purity from the ancient world. Most strikingly, the whole document, continuing over two faces, the latter (B) missing perhaps a substantial concluding portion, is headed by or presented as deriving from an oracle of Apollo (line 1). First, we must admit that we know very little about the context of the inscribing of the rules or about the authenticity of the appeal to oracular authority, questions which continue to be debated in scholarship. Parker (p. 333) cautiously prefers a position of skepticism about "whether the Cyreneans had only recently sought Apollo's approval for their cathartic traditions, or whether line A1 alludes to the more distant past"; for the reference being to Delphic Apollo, see again Parker, with further refs. By tradition, Cyrene had been founded by colonists from Thera as a result of a Delphic oracle, cf. Hdt. 4.150-159. It is generally admitted that the rules on the stele cannot strictly speaking form a part of a Delphic oracle, since the dialect is clearly Cyrenaic; one possibility is that only lines 2-3 form a quotation of the oracle; an alternative (Wilamowitz) is that the people of Cyrene may have sent their rules to Delphi for approval (see also Rhodes - Osborne, citing Hdt. 1.65 for the Lycurgan laws of Sparta). At any rate, the appeal to the authority of Delphic Apollo, whatever its precise relation to historical fact, will have conferred a form of divine authority on the whole document (for the importance of oracular authority and the inclusion of an oracle in the constitution of a dossier of ritual norms, cp. notably here CGRN 24, Athens, and CGRN 40, Apollonia). Recently, Dobias-Lalou thought that the regulations represent a recasting of an earlier document (p. 297): "la loi que nous lisons est manifestement une copie ou un remaniement assez superficiel d'un document nettement plus ancien". Unfortunately, other than this intriguing heading, nothing is know about the actual context for the promulgation of these rules and their inscribing.

What is clear, notably given the findspot, is that the rules were displayed in the sanctuary of Apollo at Cyrene (cf. Chamoux, p. 301-311, for a useful summary on the sanctuary and cult). Only a little more can be gleaned from the text itself. Though we may think that the rules derive from the city of Cyrene, this is in fact nowhere made explicit, and the regulations only appeal to religious authority (the oracle, again line 1) and twice to custom or tradition (νόμος, lines 26 and 73; almost certainly not a "law", given the absence of a definite article). The scope of the rules, though quite encompassing, must thus not be overemphasised (contrast Rhodes - Osborne, for instance, speaking often of "the Greek city" or "community"). Certainly, the rules occasionally were concerned with practices which had a demonstrable impact on the whole community (e.g. § 1 or 19). Yet many aspects of the document are demonstrably concerned specifically with the sanctuary of Apollo (the Apollonion), the cult of this god (e.g. as Apollo Apotropaios in § 1; frequently mentioned on face A as ὁ θεός, but also in the rules for suppliants, line 129) and the immediately adjacent sanctuary of Artemis (beginning of face B). The rules were presumably displayed prominently, for the use and consultation of sacred officials (these are seldom mentioned, however; cf. line 98), but also, quite clearly, for both men and women worshippers. The sphere of application of the rules was therefore wide yet also circumscribed to this particular cult and sanctuary. For general rules of purity for a city and its priests, contrast the purity rules at Kos, which were expounded by exegetes, also on the basis of "the sacred and traditional customs" of the city, CGRN 148, lines 5-6; for more specific rules of purity rules displayed at the entrance of sanctuaries, cf. here e.g. CGRN 90 (Ialysos) or CGRN 121 (Priene).

Though the document is of the highest interest for the study of Greek ritual practice, and sacrifice and purification in particular, it must be confessed that it often resists interpretation. Several passages, though relatively intelligible, are presented in allusive or enigmatic language, which has often resulted in many, fairly widely differing scholarly interpretations (the bibliography is vast, and we have not aimed to do justice to all of it here, using rather selectively some of the more recent and cautious scholarly works: Parker; Rhodes - Osborne; the edition and articles of Dobias-Lalou and Robertson). A survey of the organisation and content of the document thus remains in order. After the heading introducing the oracle of Apollo and the subject matter of the rules at hand (purifications and abstentions—and something else—, see lines 2-3), we find a relatively wide range of carefully defined paragraphs in the document (indicated by paragraphoi, cf. ‘Layout’), forming a dossier of miscellaneous sections and rules, some of which form coherent wholes, others not. As Parker notes (p. 334), this "is somewhat disorganized, and not comprehensive"; indeed, the rules occasionally make reference to other customary norms of purity (e.g. for death, cf. esp. § 16), which are not overtly specified in the regulation itself. A first paragraph discusses rules for general calamities afflicting the city or its territory, but involving the cult of Apollo Apotropaios; § 2 concerns wood growing in the sanctuary of Apollo. We then move on to a section concerned with the purity of men after sex (§ 3) and another about the pollution of the household after a woman has given birth to a child (§ 4). An enigmatic section (§ 5) is then included, apparently concerning the visiting of shrines and tombs for the heroic dead at Cyrene, while another portion of the document (§ 6) discusses the purification necessary after an illicit sacrifice. Next, come five paragraphs (§ 7-11) concerning the rather enigmatic subject of "tithes" (surprisingly aptly, but also puzzlingly, three of the paragraphs have 10 lines, the first two also add up to a total of 10 lines). Though this process of "tithing" must probably somehow be connected with transgressions involving purity, the ritual is now considerably shrouded in obscurity and the source of the impurity implied remains beyond our reach. On face B, we begin with rules concerning female ritual practice and the Artemision in the sanctuary, which eloquently illustrate the connection of Artemis with rites of maturation for women (by contrast, the connection with Apollo and "tithing", above, is obscure). These passages are much more comprehensible, dealing specifically with rituals for new brides (§ 13 and 14), pregnant women and new mothers (§ 15), followed by further smaller section on miscarriage (§ 16). This is followed by another special heading, "of suppliants", in line 110, followed by three paragraphs on this subject. Here too, the rules are to some degree enigmatic: § 17 in particular describes rules for dealing with a "suppliant" sent to or against a household, where the reference might be to a visitant that is the result of a magical practice rather than a human suppliant; the type of suppliant envisaged § 18 remains almost completely mysterious, referring to an “accomplishment” difficult to define. Before the lacuna and perhaps other missing parts of the dossier, we finally read more intelligible fragments of a procedure for dealing with a suppliant who is a murderer (§ 19).

A small preliminary comment may also be made about one of the typical sacrificial procedures envisaged in some sections of the document. This is occasionally presented as a "fine" (ζημία), not as a purification in and of itself but rather a remedy for an offense; for sacrifices of this sort, notably necessitated by transgressions against the purity of the sanctuary and accompanied by purifications proper, see here CGRN 5, Olympia, line 2, with the verb θωάζω ‘penalize, fine’; cp. also perhaps CGRN 10, Gortyn, line 2). This always consists of a βοτόν τέλευν: this is translated by Dobias-Lalou as a "perfect animal", since the emphasis of the cathartic regulation may well be thought to have been placed on the purity or the integral characteristics of the animal; but as elsewhere in our Collection, the emphasis may instead be on the offering of an animal of sufficient size and quality as a form of atonement, namely an adult beast. For τέλειος referring to adult animals, see here CGRN 210 (Eleutherna), line A17, with discussion; for a "perfect" purification , compare also CGRN 5 (Olympia), lines 2-3 (κοθάρσι τελείαι)

Lines 1-3 (heading): For the complex presentation of the whole document as an oracle of Apollo concerning the settlement of the people of Cyrene in Lybia, see above; here, we concentrate especially on the rituals which are introduced in lines 2-3. On the whole, we may say that purity seems the fundamental concern of the regulations expounded on the stele. Despite the best efforts of some scholars (such as recently Dobias-Lalou, who translated καθαρμός and ἁγνεία as "pratiques de pureté ordinaire" and "(de) pureté rituelle" respectively), we should view καθαρμοί and ἁγνείαι as two pendants of the same coin: the first refers to procedures of purification, specifically rituals such as sacrifices which may be offered as purificatory measures (see § 1) and other related rituals (see notably line 76 for another instance of the word); the second to abstentions from sources of pollution, a form of behaviour resulting in a state of purity (see especially § 15; cp. here : CGRN 148, line 5, which is the introduction to the rules for purity from Kos: this ritual norm employ the same pair of terms, along with possibly a third now lost in the lacuna). The problem is that the phrase presented here was not a simple coin, since it clearly had a third pendant, which is now completely restored. Dobias-Lalou, following Defradas, prefers to think that this third element was a reference to the tithing (δεκατεύω), which forms the core subject of pars. 7-11, and perhaps others); we have hesitatingly followed her text here. Another suitable possibility is that the phrase introduced the subject of § 17-19, namely supplication and suppliants, [ἱκετ]ήιαις (see Robertson, following Herz). On the whole, however, we may suspect that both of these restorations are not wholly satisfying, since they point only to a limited number of sections in the regulation. It remains possible and perhaps more likely that the third element was a more general one, pointing to "cult", such as Oliverio's suggestion [θεραπ]ήιαις; cp. for instance, Dion. Hal. 2.63.2: ἁγνείας τε καὶ θρησκείας καὶ καθαρμοὺς καὶ τὰς ἄλλας θεραπείας (or cp. Diosc. 4.42.3, for an option which would not accord with the traces: τέμνεται δὲ καὶ πρὸς καθαρμοὺς καὶ ἱερουργίας καὶ ἁγνείας.

Lines 4-7 (§ 1): To seek to remedy from pestilence, famine (probably), or "death" (i.e. probably any other generally fatal calamity) afflicting the city or its territory, a simple sacrifice to Apollo Apotropaios is prescribed: this is to take place outside of the limits of the city, in front of the gates (as Dobias-Lalou suggests, the reference may have been to "the gate of Apollonia", below the sanctuary; either the sanctuary of Apollo Apotropaios himself was in this area or ἀποτρόπαιος here designates an apotropaic figure which was affixed to the gates—the word as a substantive in this sense would be new, though not unexpected). Rhodes and Osborne appropriately note the sacrifice of a goat prescribed by Delphi to avert a plague at Kleonai (Paus. 10.2.5) and the connection between the plague at Athens and the purification of Delos (D.S. 12.58.6-7). On the purificatory figure of Apollo Apotropaios, see also here CGRN 193 (Hyllarima), lines Ab7-9 (paired with Zeus Katharsios); for sacrifices to the god made at the boundaries of the community, cp. esp. CGRN 52 (Erchia), col. A, lines 24-37 + col. Γ, lines 32-38 + col. E, lines 32-47 (7-8 Gamelion). The sacrifice is to consist of a tawny winter-old he-goat: for this animal sacrificed to Apollo, cf. CGRN 141 (Lindos); for the colour, cf. the alternatives proposed at CGRN 32 (Thorikos), lines 33-35, as well as CGRN 110 (Kamiros) and CGRN 117 (Lindos). For further discussion of this passage, see Parker, p. 334-335.

Lines 8-10 (§ 2): This paragraph concerns the use of wood growing in the sanctuary of Apollo. If the correct price for this is paid to the god (literally "planted", using the verb ἐρείδω—perhaps a botanical analogy or suggesting that further plants or dedications were to be fixed in the ground? see below, at lines 120-121), then any use for the wood is allowed. Three categories of purpose for the wood are envisaged: sacred (presumably meaning sacrifices), "secular" (heating, etc.), and impure uses; the latter category presumably refers, inter alia to the many preliminary sacrifices or those of atonement which are detailed in the stele and which one must perform before again becoming pure (no doubt also for funerals). For rules concerning the use of wood growing in sanctuaries, cp. here CGRN 78 (Piraeus), lines 18-22.

Lines 11-15 (§ 3): This section concerns purity of men after sex, which is presented in greater detail than in other purity regulations in the present Collection. The impurity resulting from intercourse dissipates on the following day, if this took place during the night; the man is then allowed to sacrifice at his leisure in the sanctuary of Apollo. If the intercourse took place during the day, then washing and perhaps other requirements now missing were specified; the man in this case appears to be excluded from a specific area of the sanctuary (line 13). For similar entry requirements concerning sex in the present collection, cf. CGRN 71 (Metropolis), lines 3-6, with further discussion.

Lines 16-20 (§ 4): Again, this section of the regulation provides an unusually detailed discussion, in this case of pollution as a result of childbirth (a theme which will to a different extent be reprised in pars. 15-16). The rule seeks to clarify that not only members of the household but all those physically present "under the roof" or those entering the house are to become polluted. These individuals are to be impure for three days, perhaps including the woman giving birth herself (though this is not clear, see § 16, below), but their impurity is not contagious: wherever they may go, contact with another person does not make that other person impure. For Greek views on contagion and impurity, see Parker, p. 218-220. For another cases in which pollution is explicitly ‘confined’ to a particular circle, cp. CGRN 35 (Iulis), lines 25-29.

Lines 21-25 (§ 5): The interpretation of this section has been particularly fraught and much discussed. On the whole, it now seems generally agreed that it concerns right of entry and attendance at different shrines which were also (heroic) tombs and at the rites which took place at these sites. Key for interpreting this context is the phrase in line 24, which suggests that any other place where a human being has died (cf. LSJ s.v. κάμνω II.5) is not ὁσία for "the pure man" (see Parker, p. 336-339); the latter, as a category of individual, must have designated priests and/or other members of the cult personnel in the sanctuary and perhaps in the community at large. As we read, all of the Akamantia are allowed (ὁσία + gen. of respect, cp. ἱερῶν πατρῴων ὅσιος in A. Th. 1015) for anyone. The question remains of how to interpret the following phrase: does it create an exception concerning the Akamantia or does it qualify the later clause in line 24 concerning the pollution caused by any other human tomb? Syntactically, we might expect a clause beginning with πλήν to create an exception following a general statement, such as we find here for the Akamantia: ὅσια παντὶ ... πλὰν ἀπ᾽...; cp. LSJ s.v. πλήν (A-B) with a multitude of examples. Alternatively, but more unusually (πλήν is normally preceded by ἄλλος when the two are joined, see again LSJ s.v.), πλὰν ἀπ᾽... here would introduce the general statement found in line 24 (ἀπ᾽ ἄλλω), thereby prefacing it with an exception; this is the option preferred by Parker, Dobias-Lalou and still more widely, such as by Rhodes - Osborne. In any case, the exceptions are the following: (the tomb of) Battos the Archagetes or founding hero of Cyrene, (the sanctuary of) the Tritopatres, and that of Onymastos from Delphi. In the first interpretation, all Akamantia are licit of access for anyone, with the exception of these three shrines. While it would be remarkable for the tomb of Battos to be a source of pollution in the midst of the agora of Cyrene, this is perhaps most attractive for the Tritopatres who were occasionally viewed as impure: see CGRN 13 (Selinous). It is also now clear that Battos, as Archagetes, formed a part of the category of the Akamantia. Revisiting this passage, Dobias-Lalou and Dubois (2007, p. 145-150), examine a further inscription from Cyrene which contains a list of Akamantiades, i.e. days for the worship of the Akamantes; among these days are theoric sacrifices to the Archagetes (Battos, implicitly, rather than Apollo); the term Akamantia may thus have referred to ritual celebrations for these heroes, though it can also continue to be interpreted as sanctuaries and cult-sites in the present regulation. In the second, more widely accepted view, the tombs of Battos and Onymastos, as well as the shrine of the Tritopatres (to an extent probably also considered as “tombs”), are considered licit for the pure; these three shrines, which could also be viewed as human burials, would then not have been reckoned as a source of pollution. For strict rules concerning the pollution incurred by cult personnel visiting heroic shrines, cf. CGRN 85, line 12, and CGRN 148 (both from Kos), line 23, where eating at heroic shrines and physical access to these places is completely forbidden; no such exceptions are stipulated on Kos. On the Akamantes, a wider category of ancestral heroes or winds, see Parker and cf. here CGRN 56 (Marathonian Tetrapolis), col. II, line 32 (paired with the Tritopatres in the calendrical entry). On ὅσιος and regulations of entry, see now Peels. Battos was the founding hero of Cyrene and buried in the agora (P. Pyth. 5.93; again, Hdt. 4.150-159; see also Parker); on the Tritopatres, "great-grandfathers", see also e.g. CGRN 32 (Erchia), lines D42-47 (21 Mounichion); Onymastos from Delphi is not well known, but may have been a seer involved in the colony and buried as a hero at Cyrene.

Lines 26-32 (§ 6): This paragraph forms one of the most eloquent pieces of evidence for the expected procedure resulting from a sacrifice that was not made according to the norm (for pollution due to sacrilege, see Parker, p. 144ff.). It is not clear in this case how the animal was found lacking (perhaps in quality, gender or age or because its species was not allowed in the Apollonion) or who would determine this (perhaps the priest), but the situation caused an impurity both for the shrine and the sacrificer. The rules for remedying the situation are particularly explicit: a thorough cleansing of the altar and removal of the sacrificial fire (itself apparently uncontaminated: see Parker, p. 227, but note also p. 23 and 35 for new fire needed in some cases of impurity) to a pure location. The phrase ἐς καθαρόν is taken by Parker to refer to a "pure place", presumably an area inside or outside the sanctuary that remained uncontaminated; since the fire apparently remains pure and the referent of the adjective is missing (also below, in lines 38, 62, and 71; though there Parker admits that the force of the phrase "is obscure", p. 340), this seems to us perhaps a preferable solution to Dobias-Lalou's interpretation of ἐς as a purpose clause, "for purity", with καθαρός used in an abstract sense, which seems unlikely when consistently found following a verb of movement, ἀποφέρω (cf. LSJ s.v. εἰς V.2). For the purification of the whole sanctuary that was also required, cp. here CGRN 38 (Chios), lines A10-12, CGRN 65 (Tegea), and CGRN 127 (Dyme). The final clause of this section remains controversial and difficult to interpret. Since a paragraphos has intervened before line 32, some suppose (most recently Rhodes - Osborne, and Robertson), that this forms a special section or a very short heading of the regulation, perhaps for the following sections about tithes; Dobias-Lalou probably rightly argues that the paragraphos is erroneous and that the word straddling lines 31 and 32 is the new compound word νομ-οκώχιμος. That being said, it remains unclear what a sacrifice performed "as one bound by the law as far nephews" would exactly entail.

Lines 33-72 (pars. 7-11): These five paragraphs are all concerned with individuals who were "subjected to tithes", literally called δέκατος themselves. These are usually taken to be men, but paragraphs 7 and 10 only discuss adult "human beings" (given the use of ἄνθρωπος). § 8 refers to an immature individual; § 9 is concerned with property to be tithed; § 10 with a "tithed" person who has died and finally § 11 with the obligations of the children, both dead and alive, of such an individual. Parker (p. 339-344) collects an abundant body of material for tithes dedicated to Apollo, but justly confesses that "It does not seem that the institution [of tithing in] our inscription corresponds exactly with any of the familiar forms" (p. 341); Rhodes and Osborne further note (p. 503) that these clauses "seem to assume a great deal of prior knowledge on the part of the reader, knowledge which we simply do not have". Parker discusses this passage extensively and we cautiously follow him in supposing that "tithing" here refers to a form of punishment, which is consequent on pollution, though "the character of the pollution [incurred by these individuals] ... remain[s] unclear" (p. 343; see also Rhodes - Osborne, with further discussion). The "tithing" will presumably have in most cases been an estimation of the tenth of the worth of the individual, which must be sacrificed or consecrated to the god in a tangible form, such as an animal sacrifice or another offering. Indeed, it is often stated that the "tithe" itself is not to be used to pay (οὐκ ἀπὸ τᾶς δεκάτας, cf. lines 37, 60-61) for the preliminary sacrifice viewed as a penalty (ζαμία), but the resulting "sacrifice" of the tithe and its "bringing to the pure" should probably be viewed as another ritual of sacrifice or offering in and of itself. In the case of the immature person (ἄνηβος, § 8)—who does not own any substantial property and is not explicitly "tithed"—the penalty caused by an involuntary pollution is very mild, merely purification of oneself; voluntary pollution, however, resulted in the standard procedure of purifying the sanctuary and a sacrifice as a penalty. In the case of a living person (or even of dead individuals, lines 57-58, or their deceased or living heirs, lines 64-65 and 69 respectively), the procedure was a surprisingly unique one: the person was literally to be sold "for as much as he is worth", i.e. a probably fictitious sale was to take place in which the value of the individual and his goods was to be estimated (cp. the estimate made of tangible property, lines 43-44). In almost all cases, the process of "tithing" seems to have had some connection with the funerary sphere: tithed possessions were not to be used to pay for offerings or libations for the dead before the debt had been acquitted to the god (cf. lines 47-50; on rules for such offerings, cp. here CGRN 35, Iulis); similarly, elaborate rules were devised for a deceased person who owed a tithe (§ 10 and 11; offerings on the tomb were only permitted on the first day after the death, lines 55-56, after which the tithing on the deceased as well as his heirs had to proceed according to the rules). While these rules may be seen to have had a practical purpose, namely ensuring that no significant money was detracted from what was owed to the god, they made also have had a religious connotation, connecting the tithing as a form of punishment for impurity with the need for proper honours paid to the dead. For purification by blood first introduced in line 34 (usually of a small animal, such as a piglet), cp. here CGRN 157 (Priene), line 36 (a chicken); and cf. Parker, p. 371-373. The small clause at line 39 remains of somewhat doubtful interpretation and appears a bit out of place, requiring the provision of a vessel or receptacle by each person performing a sacrifice. For the penalty sacrifice as προβώμιος, a term first introduced in line 61, cf. LSJ s.v. This could designate either a sacrifice performed "in front of the altar" (so Dobias-Lalou), namely as a preliminary to the offering of the tithe (but at lines 67-68, the tithe too is προβώμιος), or more specifically to a type of sacrifice called σφαγή, where the animal had its throat slit on the ground in front of the altar (see notably E. Ion 376 cited by LSJ).

Lines 73-79 (§ 12): The interpretation of this more fragmentary paragraph is difficult and, especially given the obscure character of some of the norms in the rest of the document, must remain open.

Lines 83-105 (pars. 13-15): With the beginning of face B, we first find four paragraphs which concern women, perhaps at least the first three concerned with the cult of Artemis and female initiations (though this is not really explicitly mentioned; see however Chamoux, p. 318-319, followed by Dobias-Lalou) or other rituals for this goddess and/or for the Nymphs (see Suda s.v. προτέλεια for premarital sacrifice to the Nymphs). The first paragraph specifies that a new bride is "go down to Artemis" (perhaps to the Nymphaion to visit the Bear, as in lines 91 and 97; since the area near the sanctuary of Artemis contained a distinctive structure with subterranean chambers, it seems appropriate to identify this as the Nymphaion and the site of the ritual; for an explanation, see Chamoux, p. 315-319). She is to do so before visiting the bridal chamber of her new husband and "becoming polluted" (i.e. having sex). Punishments are specified for voluntary or involuntary transgressions of this rule: these match the other penalties found in the document. Dobias-Lalou's reading implies that the bed-chamber is the marital room in the household, while the earlier reading of the text viewed the κοιτατήριον (in line 89, not restored in line 83), as a "sleeping-room" forming part of the sanctuary of Artemis, which the new bride must visit as a first step, for the "prenuptial sleep" or προνύμφιος ὕπνος (see Parker, p. 345, citing Call. fr. 75.2). On Dobias-Lalou's reading, rather than marking a different stage in the "initiation" or ritual for the bride, § 14 seems to add further details to the procedure of "going to Artemis, in the Nymphaion", specifically to its timing: this was to take place during the festival of Artemis or, better, as soon as possible for the new bride. In any case, we may infer that the new bride presumably had to stay in the sanctuary for one night (probably in the Nymphaion) and undergo certain rituals there, though it must be remembered that this is not overtly specified. Similarly, a pregnant woman (§ 15) was also to visit the Nymphaion before giving birth and apparently offer a sacrifice there (now missing, but see line 100), since she is to give the feet and head and skin of the animal to the Bear (the skin could be flayed together with the head and feet, so this may in fact have formed a single portion, cf. CGRN 169, Kallatis, lines 5-6, with commentary). This oblique reference to the Bear forms a direct parallel with the cult of Artemis at Brauron in Attica; there, is is known that young girls served as Bear before reaching the age of marriage (cf. LSJ s.v. ἄρκτος II); several unpublished inscriptions from Brauron may add to these testimonies, but for now cf. the sources collected and discussed by Parker, p. 345-346. Most important among these, perhaps, is the explicit definition of the Suda that the Athenians decreed (or legislated) that no maiden was to cohabit with her husband before she had served as a bear for the goddess (ἄρκτος ἡ Βραυρωνίοις. ἐψηφίσαντο οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι μὴ πρότερον συνοικίζεσθαι ἀνδρὶ παρθένον εἰ μὴ ἀρκτεύσειε τῇ θεῷ). No similar requirement is preserved in the regulation from Cyrene, but the mention of the Bear in this passage suggests that the rites of Artemis at Cyrene also involved this ritual step for maidens; certainly, as we read, both new brides and new mothers were required to visit the sanctuary and undergo certain rituals. The new mother, more specifically, was required to "go down" and to make abstentions (from sex?) for the seventh, eighth and ninth days, before or after what (the birth?) remains completely unclear (see again Parker, p. 346, for discussion). On the role of Artemis in connection with marriage and birth, see Brulé.

Lines 106-109 (§ 16): This short section again concerns women, but appears specifically appended to the case of the pregnant woman discussed immediately above (§ 15), since it concerns miscarriage (or much less likely, abortion); on purity rules for miscarriage, see here e.g. CGRN 155 (Megalopolis), lines 6-7, and CGRN 224 (Ptolemais)—abstention of ca. 40 days from entry to the sanctuary was a typical requirement. The rules are again unusually specific, specifying a different form of pollution if the foetus can be seen to have had a recognisable form or not (see Rhodes - Osborne, p. 505, for further discussion and some mention of the religious and ethical implications of this passage). In the former case, the event is to be treated as a death (rules for which are not specified in the text, but see here for rules on the death of kin: cf. e.g. CGRN 181, Eresos); in the latter, the miscarriage carries the same impurity as childbirth (discussed in § 4 and resulting in an impurity for 3 days as far as the household is concerned, but perhaps not the woman herself; for the parallelism between the impurity resulting from childbirth and miscarriage, cf. esp. IG XII.4 1 349: ἀπὸ λεχοῦς καὶ ἐγ δια⟨φθ⟩ορᾶς ἁμέρας δέκα, discussed here at CGRN 189 (Lykosoura), lines 2-5.

Lines 110-121 (§ 17): The heading in line 110 seems to introduce a new subject matter, at least for the following three paragraphs: these are "suppliants", though the word ἱκέσιος also etymologically means more vaguely "comer" or "visitor"; the sections perhaps capitalise on this ambiguity or, as with the section on "tithing", refer to implicit information which is now lost to us (see notably Servais and Dobias-Lalou 1997 for useful articles focussed specifically on these sections of the regulation). In this first case, we seem to be dealing with a "suppliant" or "visitor" who is sent to a certain house. Parker (following Radermacher and de Sanctis) holds that it is the recipient of the suppliant (the one to whose house he was sent) who must propitiate at a distance the sender, who may be highly enigmatic: if he is known, then he must be called for three days; he or she may also be dead, or can be entirely unknown. The ritual for propitiating a deceased or unknown sender, namely constructing figurines and holding a meal for them (implied by the serving of portions, μέρη), finds some parallels in theoxenia rituals as well as in several magical practices (cf. Parker, p. 347, with refs.), though the rites are unusually detailed or more specific here; for rituals of theoxenia, where meals were served for gods or heroes, usually represented in the guise of statues or statuettes, see here CGRN 13 (Selinous) and e.g. CGRN 32 (Thorikos), lines 13-24. A more complex problem, however, is the identity of the "suppliant" or "visitor" itself. According to an earlier view, he could be an individual under the power of a foreigner, thence sent to Cyrene to a new master; Parker rightly finds objections to this view (p. 348). Stukey pointed out that the language here is reminiscent of a magical attack, particularly the notion of ἐπαγωγή (noting the recurrent ἐπί-compounds in the passage); this leads to the conclusion that the "suppliant" in this case is an evil spirit "sent against the house" by a spell, a view followed by Parker (p. 348-349). This seems plausible, though it nevertheless remains striking that both of the other suppliants under consideration in the regulation (below) seem clearly to be human agents (so also Parker, Rhodes - Osborne). Dobias-Lalou (2000 and 2007) persists in seeing the visitor here and in the other sections as human rather than a spirit or divine agent.

Lines 122-131 (§ 18): The passage concerning the second suppliant is perhaps equally obscure: the precise interpretation of his status notably centers on the meaning of the term τελέω and its cognates, recurring three times in the passage. If this refers to initiation and lack thereof (so e.g. Servais, Parker), then this perhaps raises more problems than it solves, since the connection between supplication and initiation is not particularly clear or well-understood. In a general sense, this category seems to have been concerned with the obligations to be performed by the suppliant "sitting in the public sanctuary" (presumably in this specific case, the Apollonion as a destination for suppliants). Perhaps until he was accepted by the community or removed from the status of suppliant (or perhaps even afterward), the individual had to acquit himself of an annual sacrifice of grain or "fruits of the earth" and a libation (cf. Rhodes - Osborne, p. 505: "the on-going religious obligations that they thereby incur unless ritually accepted"; for the sacrifice of "fruits of the earth", cp. e.g. here the ὡραῖα prescribed at CGRN 56, Marathonian Tetrapolis, col. II, lines 14-15, and cp. also CGRN 60, Thera, lines 14-15). A fine of double this vague sacrifice was imposed in case of non-compliance; the suppliant's obligations also seem to have passed on to his children (lines 127-128; cf. Dobias-Lalou). More enigmatically, this category of suppliant was regularly concerned by injunctions or proclamations (προφέρηται) along with oracular pronouncements: the content of all of these oral commands remains highly unclear.

Lines 132-141 (§ 19): This forms the most comprehensible section about suppliants. The rules here concern a suppliant who has come as a murderer (αὐτόφονος), presumably from abroad and who is now subjected to a ritual of purification and incorporation into the community of Cyrene. Dobias-Lalou and Dubois (2007: 150-153) explain the term ἀφ-ικετεύω as the removal of the status of "suppliant" and the "reintegration" of the guilty party in the community; this is apparently to take place at some place involving the city as political community (the fragmentary ...πολίαν in line 133) as well as apparently within the political structure of its three constituent Doric tribes (τριφυλίαν, idem); the precise meaning of these terms remains to be clarified, however. After having proclaimed his status as suppliant (lines 133-134), the murderer sits on the threshold (either of a house or of the temple of Apollo?) on a white fleece, after which he is to undergo rituals of purification: washing, anointing, exit in silence on the public road, hosting by members of the community (lines 134-137), etc. Sitting on a fleece or sacrificial skin was a form of communication with the divine, featuring notably as a component of mystery cults (such as at Eleusis) and sleeping on a fleece was involved in incubation rituals; for the latter, see here CGRN 75, Oropos, lines 29-36). For the murderer "of his own blood" or "by his own hand", cf. Parker, p. 351, for a discussion of the terms; cp. the analogous purifications required of this individual at Selinous if he wishes to be purified of a vengeful spirit (Elaster), CGRN 13, lines B1-7; see Dobias-Lalou – Dubois, 153-158, for a study of this comparison with the text from Selinous, citing notably other sources concerning the purifications required of murderers, e.g. Eupatrides of Athens (FGrH 356 F 1, principally "washing").

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Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 99, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 99, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/99/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2017]).

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	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
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						<p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p>	
						<p>All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/">http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/</ref> and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).</p>
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			<supportDesc><support><p>Rectangular marble <rs type="objectType">pillar</rs>, inscribed on three faces. The texts of face A and B (to the left of A) form a continuous series, and constitute the present document (the lines are numbered continuously here as in Dobias-Lalou's edition). Face C, to the right of A, contains a different document: a list of deliveries of grain provided by Cyrene to mainland Greece (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 9, 2).</p> 
			<p><dimensions>
					<height unit="cm">133</height>
				<width unit="cm"> (faces A and C) 39-40</width>
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<p>Letters in lines 1-3: <height unit="mm">15</height>; letters in the remaining lines: <height unit="mm">10</height>.</p> 
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			<p><desc>Justification: lettering (Dobias-Lalou); more specifically, the letters appear to be a bit less careful and early than face C (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 9, 2), which is dated to ca. 330 BC.</desc></p>
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				<div type="bibliography">
					<head>Bibliography</head>
					
<p>Edition here based on <bibl type="author_date" n="Dobias-Lalou 2007">Dobias-Lalou 2000</bibl>: 297-309 (Appendix), with a full apparatus criticus but primarily a textual and dialectological commentary.</p>
<p>Note however the following variant readings and restorations (Carbon, on the basis of the ph. in Oliveiro): in lines 6-7, we restore the epithet of Apollo as Apotropaios following Wilamowitz and others (instead of Dobias-Lalou's unattested form Apotropos, itself following Herz and Oliverio; there is not much room on the stone, but the two <foreign>iotas</foreign> could have been squeezed in); line 37, we correctly print δὴ instead of δὲ; in line 49, we add the verb οἰσεῖ which has dropped out in Dobias-Lalou's transcription; lines 75 and 78-79 contain minor differences; line 140 in Dobias-Lalou's text appears to have been miscopied (from line 139), and so we maintain an earlier reading (again, confirmed on Oliverio's ph.).</p>

<p>Other editions: 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Ferri 1927">Ferri 1927</bibl>, with ph. (<foreign>editio princeps</foreign>); 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Oliverio 1933">Oliverio 1933</bibl>, with ph. pl. I-IV.</p>
					
<p>Cf. also: 
	<bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 9, 72, based on Oliverio's text; 
	Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 115; 
	Rhodes - Osborne <bibl type="abbr" n="GHI">GHI</bibl> 97; 
	<bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 50, 1638, reprising the text and apparatus of Dobias-Lalou; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Robertson 2010">Robertson 2010</bibl>: 259-374, with different restorations based on Oliverio's ph. and a substantially different interpretation.</p>

<p>Further bibliography: 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Stukey 1937">Stukey 1937</bibl>; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Chamoux 1953">Chamoux 1953</bibl>: 286-287 and 301-320; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Servais 1960">Servais 1960</bibl>; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 1983">Parker 1983</bibl>: 332-351 (Appendix 2); 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Brulé 1987">Brulé 1987</bibl>: 225-261; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Dobias-Lalou 1997">Dobias-Lalou 1997</bibl>; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Dobias-Lalou - Dubois 2007">Dobias-Lalou - Dubois 2007</bibl>; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Peels 2016">Peels 2016</bibl>.</p>
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	    			<div type="edition">
	    				<head>Text</head>
	    				<ab subtype="face" n="A">Face A
	   	    				
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="Ἀπόλλων"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀ</supplied>πόλλων</w></name> <name type="invocation"><w lemma="χράω">ἔχρη<supplied reason="lost">σε</supplied></w></name>·
	    					    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><w lemma="εἰς"><supplied reason="lost">ἐς</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἀεί"><supplied reason="lost">ἀ</supplied><unclear>ε</unclear>ὶ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρμός">καθαρμοῖς</w></name> καὶ <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἁγνεία">ἁγνηίαις</w></name> κ<unclear>α</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied> <w lemma="δεκάτη"><supplied reason="lost">δε</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κατ</supplied>ήιαις</w> <w lemma="χράω">χρειμένος</w> τὰν <placeName type="Libya"><w lemma="Λεβύα">Λεβύαν</w></placeName> <w lemma="οἰκέω">οἰ<unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">έν</supplied></w>·
	    					  					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><w lemma="εἰ"><supplied reason="lost">αἴ</supplied></w> <unclear>κ</unclear>α <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὰγ <name type="locality"><w lemma="γῆ">γᾶν</w></name> ἢ <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὰμ <name type="locality"><w lemma="πόλις">πόλιν</w></name> <w lemma="ἔπειμι">ἐπείηι</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="νόσος"/>νόσο<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></name> <w lemma="λιμός"><supplied reason="lost">ἢ</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">λι</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">μὸ</supplied><unclear>ς</unclear></w> ἢ <name type="death"><w lemma="θάνατος">θάνατος</w></name>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύεν</w></name> <w lemma="ἔμπροσθεν">ἔμπροσθε</w> τᾶμ <name type="locality"><w lemma="πύλη">πυλᾶν</w></name> <w lemma="ἐναντίος"><supplied reason="lost">ἐναντ</supplied>
	    					    					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ίον</supplied></w> τῶ <name type="structure"><name type="epithet"><w lemma="ἀποτρόπαιος">Ἀποτροπαίω</w></name></name>, τῶι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="Ἀπόλλων">Ἀπόλλωνι</w></name> τῶι <name type="epithet" key="Apotropaios"><w lemma="ἀποτρόπαιος">Ἀποτ<unclear>ρ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">οπ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">αίωι</supplied></w></name> <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><w lemma="χίμαρος"><unclear>χ</unclear>ίμαρον</w></name></name> <name type="colour1"><w lemma="έρυθρός">ἐρυθρόν</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/><name type="vegetal"><w lemma="κᾶλον"><supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>ᾶλον</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρῶι</w></name> <w lemma="φύω">πεφυκός</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> τῶι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name> τὰν <w lemma="τιμή">τιμὰ<unclear>ν</unclear></w>
	    					    					    					
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/><w lemma="ἐρείδω"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied><unclear>ρ</unclear>εῖσες</w>, τῶι <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="κᾶλον">κάλωι</w></name> <w lemma="χράω">χρησῆι</w> καὶ <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὰ</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <w lemma="βέβηλος">βάβ<supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">λα</supplied></w> καὶ <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαρός">μιαρά</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11"/><w lemma="ἀπό"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπ</supplied>ὸ</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυναικὸς</w></name> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἀνὴρ</w></name> τὰν <w lemma="νύξ">νύκτα</w> <name type="sex"><w lemma="κοιμάω">κοιμαθὲς</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name> ὅ <w lemma="τις"><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <w lemma="κα"><supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied></w> <w lemma="βούλομαι"><unclear>δήλ</unclear>ηται</w>· τὰν δὲ <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἁμέραν</w> <name type="sex"><w lemma="κοιμάω">κοιμαθὲς</w></name> <name type="purification"><w lemma="λούω">λωσάμε<unclear>ν</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied></w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="εἶμι"><supplied reason="lost">ε</supplied><unclear>ἶ</unclear>τι</w>, <w lemma="ὅπυι">ὅπυι</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="βούλομαι">δή<unclear>λ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ητα</supplied><unclear>ι</unclear></w>, <w lemma="πλήν">πλὰν</w> ἢ <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="3"/>
	    					    					
<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>ΤΑ</unclear>Ν</orig>· τὰν δὲ <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="line"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/><supplied reason="lost">ἁ</supplied> <name type="childbirth"><w lemma="λέχος"><supplied reason="lost">λ</supplied>εχὼι</w></name> <name type="structure"><w lemma="ὄροφος">ὄροφομ</w></name> <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω">μιανεῖ</w></name>· <unclear>τὸμ</unclear> <unclear>μ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ὲν</supplied> <name type="person"><w lemma="ὑπώροφος"><supplied reason="lost">ὑπώροφον</supplied></w></name> <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω"><supplied reason="lost">μιανεῖ</supplied></w></name><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τὸν</supplied> 
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_17" n="17"/><supplied reason="lost">δ᾽</supplied> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἐξόροφος"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>ξόφορον</w></name> <w lemma="οὐ">οὐ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω">μιανεῖ</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="ὑπέρχομαι">ὑπένθηι</w>· ὁ δ᾽ <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος"><unclear>ἄ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">νθρ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ω</supplied>πος</w></name>, ὅ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἔνδοι">ἔνδοι</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w>, <w lemma="αὐτός">α<supplied reason="omitted">ὐ</supplied>τὸς</w> μὲν <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαρός">μιαρὸς</w></name> <w lemma="τέλομαι">τέντα<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα"><supplied reason="lost">ἁμ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">έρα</supplied>ς</w> <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρῖς</w>, <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλον</w> δὲ <w lemma="οὐ">οὐ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω">μιανεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="οὐδέ">οὐδὲ</w> <w lemma="ὅπυι">ὅπυι</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἔρχομαι">ἔν<unclear>θ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ηι</supplied></w> <w lemma="οὗτος"><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20" break="no"/>ὗτος</w> ὁ <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἄνθρωπος</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21"/><name type="festival"><name type="deity" key="Akamantes"><w lemma="ἀκάμας"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀ</supplied>καμαντίων</w></name></name> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ὁσία">ὁσία</w></name> <w lemma="πᾶς">παντὶ</w> καὶ <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἁγνός">ἁγνῶι</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="βέβηλος">βαβάλ<unclear>ω</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w>·
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22"/><w lemma="πλήν">πλὰν</w> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπ᾽</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἀνθρώπω</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Battos"><w lemma="βάττος">Βάττω</w></name> <surplus>τω</surplus> τῶ <name type="epithet" key="Archagetes"><w lemma="ἀρχηγέτης">Ἀρχαγέτα</w></name> καὶ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_23" n="23"/><name type="deity" key="Tritopateres"><w lemma="Τριτοπατρῆς">Τριτοπατέρων</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> Ὀνυμάστω τῶ <name type="ethnic" key="Delphi"><w lemma="Δελφοί">Δελφῶ<surplus>ι</surplus></w></name>,
	    									
<lb xml:id="line_24" n="24"/><w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπ᾽</w> <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλω</w>, <w lemma="ὅπη">ὅπη</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἄνθρωπος</w></name> <w lemma="κάμνω">ἔκαμε</w>, <w lemma="οὐ">οὐκ</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ὁσία">ὁσία</w></name> <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἁγνός">ἁγνῶ<supplied reason="omitted">ι</supplied></w></name>·
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_25" n="25"/>τῶν δὲ <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρῶν</w></name> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ὁσία">ὁσία</w></name> <w lemma="πᾶς">παντί</w>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_26" n="26"/><w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βωμῶι</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύσηι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="ἱερεῖον">ἱαρῆιον</w></name>, ὅ <w lemma="τις">τι</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμος</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύεν</w></name>, τ<supplied reason="lost">ὸ</supplied>
	    					    		    					
<lb xml:id="line_27" n="27"/><name type="portion"><w lemma="πίασμα">ποτιπίαμμα</w></name> <w lemma="ἀφαιρέω">ἀφελὲν</w> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τῶ <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βωμῶ</w></name> καὶ <name type="liquid"><w lemma="ἀποπλύνω">ἀποπλῦν
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_28" n="28" break="no"/>αι</w></name> καὶ τὸ <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλο</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="λῦμα"><unclear>λῦμ</unclear>α</w></name> <w lemma="ἀναιρέω">ἀνελὲν</w> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐκ</w> τῶ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρῶ</w></name>, καὶ τὰν <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἴκνυς">ἵκ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_29" n="29" break="no"/>νυν</w></name> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τῶ <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βωμῶ</w></name> καὶ τὸ <w lemma="πῦρ">πῦρ</w> <w lemma="ἀναιρέω">ἀφελὲν</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός">καθαρόν</w></name>·
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_30" n="30"/>καὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τόκα</w> <w lemma="δή">δὴ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἀπονίζω">ἀπονιψάμενος</w></name>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρας</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὸν</w></name> κα<unclear>ὶ</unclear>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_31" n="31"/><name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύσας</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name>, <w lemma="τόκα">τόκα</w> <w lemma="δή">δὴ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυέτω</w></name> <w lemma="ὡς">ὡς</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="νομοκώχιμος">νομ 
	    					
	<lb xml:id="line_32" n="32" break="no"/><unclear>ο</unclear>κώχιμος</w></name> <w lemma="μέστα">μέστα</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀδελφός">ἀδελφεῶν</w></name> <name type="person"><w lemma="τέκνον">τέκνα</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    						    				
<lb xml:id="line_33" n="33"/><w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δέκατος</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἄνθρωπος</w></name> <w lemma="ἡβητής">ἡβατάς</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρας</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός"><unclear>α</unclear>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_34" n="34" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὐ</supplied>τὸς</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὸν</w> <name type="liquid"><w lemma="αἷμα">αἵματι</w></name>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθαρεῖ</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὸν</w></name> <w lemma="πωλέω">πωλη
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_35" n="35" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θὲ</supplied>ς </w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τᾶι <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀγορά">ἀγορᾶι</w></name> <w lemma="ὁπόσος">ὁπόσσω</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="πλεῖστος">πλείστω</w> <w lemma="ἄξιος">ἄξιος</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w>,
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_36" n="36"/><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προθύω">προθυσεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="πρό">πρὸ</w> τᾶς <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκάτας</w></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_37" n="37" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ευ</supplied>ν</w></name></name> <w lemma="οὐ">οὐκ</w> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τᾶς <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκά<unclear>τας</unclear></w></name>, <unclear>κ</unclear>αὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τόκα</w> <w lemma="δή">δὴ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name> τὰν
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_38" n="38"/><name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος"><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>εκάταν</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="ἀποφέρω">ἀποισεῖ</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός">κ<unclear>αθ</unclear>αρόν</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> <unclear>δ</unclear>ὲ <w lemma="μή">μή</w>, τῶν <w lemma="αὐτός">α<supplied reason="lost">ὐ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_39" n="39" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ῶν</w> <w lemma="δέω">δησῆται</w>· <name type="object"><w lemma="σκοίκιον"><supplied reason="lost">σκ</supplied>οίκ<unclear>ιον</unclear></w></name> <unclear>δ</unclear>ὲ <w lemma="φέρω">οἰσεῖ</w> <w lemma="πᾶς">πᾶς</w> ὁ <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύων</w></name>·
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_40" n="40"/><name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνηβος"><supplied reason="lost">ἄ</supplied><unclear>ν</unclear>ηβος</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> <w lemma="μή">μή</w> <w lemma="τις">τί</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἑκών"><unclear>ἑκὼμ</unclear></w> <w lemma="μιαίνω"><unclear>μ</unclear>ιᾶι</w>, <w lemma="ἀποχράω">ἀποχρεῖ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρα<unclear>σ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">θ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_41" n="41" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>ι</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὸν</w> καὶ <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίας</w></name> <w lemma="οὐ">οὐ</w> <w lemma="δέω">δεῖ</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἑκών">ἑκὼμ</w> <w lemma="μιαίνω">μιᾶι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">κ<supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_42" n="42" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θα</supplied>ρεῖ</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὸν</w></name> καὶ <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προθύω">προθυσεῖ</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλε<unclear>υ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name></name>.
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_43" n="43"/><w lemma="εἰ"><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>ἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="χρῆμα">χρήματα</w> <w lemma="δέκατος">δέκατα</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w>, <w lemma="ἐκτιμάω">ἐκτιμάσας</w> τὰ <w lemma="χρῆμα">χρήματ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_44" n="44" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω"><unclear>κ</unclear>αθαρεῖ</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὸν</w></name> καὶ <unclear>τὰ</unclear> <w lemma="χρῆμα">χρήματα</w> <w lemma="δίχα">δίχα</w>, καὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τόκα</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_45" n="45"/><w lemma="δή"><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ὴ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προθύω">προθυσεῖ</w></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name>, <w lemma="οὐ">οὐ</w> τᾶς <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκάτ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_46" n="46" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ας</supplied></w></name>, καὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τό<unclear>κα</unclear></w> <w lemma="δή">δὴ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name> τὰν <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκάταν</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="ἀποφέρω">ἀποισεῖ</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_47" n="47"/><name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός"><supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied>θαρόν</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δὲ <w lemma="μή">μή</w>, τῶν <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτῶν</w> <w lemma="δέω">δησεῖ</w>· τῶν δὲ <w lemma="χρῆμα">χρημά
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_48" n="48" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τω</supplied>ν</w>, ἇς <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="δέκατος">δέκατα</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w>, <name type="death"><name type="object"><w lemma="ἐντόφιον">ἐντόφιον</w></name></name> <w lemma="οὐ">οὐκ</w> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἐντίθημι">ἐνθησεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="οὐδέπω">οὐδ<supplied reason="lost">έ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_49" n="49" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">πω</supplied></w> <w lemma="οὐδέ"><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ὐδὲ</w> <w lemma="εἷς">ἕν</w>, <w lemma="οὐδέ">οὐδὲ</w> <name type="liquid"><w lemma="χύτλον">χύτλα</w></name> <w lemma="φέρω">οἰσεῖ</w> <w lemma="πρίν">πρί<supplied reason="lost">γ</supplied>  <unclear>κα</unclear></w> τῶι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἀποδεκατεύω">ἀπο<supplied reason="lost">δε</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_50" n="50" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κατε</supplied>ύσει</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="liquid"><w lemma="χύτλον">χύτλα</w></name> <w lemma="φέρω">ἐνίκει</w> ἢ <name type="death"><name type="object"><w lemma="ἐντόφιον">ἐντόφια</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἐντίθημι">ἐνθῆι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">κ<unclear>α</unclear>
	    					    					
<lb xml:id="line_51" n="51" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θά</supplied><unclear>ρα</unclear>ς</w></name> τὸ <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><name type="structure"><w lemma="Ἀπολλώνιος">Ἀπολλώνιον</w></name></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προθύω">πρ<unclear>οθ</unclear>υσεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="κατά">κατὰ</w> τὰν
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_52" n="52"/><name type="authority"><w lemma="ἁμαρτία"><supplied reason="lost">ἁμα</supplied>ρτίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_53" n="53"/><w lemma="εἰ"><supplied reason="lost">αἴ</supplied></w> <w lemma="κα"><supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied><unclear>α</unclear></w> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δέκατος</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἐὼν</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἄνθρωπος</w></name> <name type="death"><w lemma="ἀποθνήσκω">ἀποθάνηι</w></name>, <w lemma="κατακομίζω">κατακομ<unclear>ί</unclear>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_54" n="54" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ξα</supplied><unclear>ν</unclear>τες</w> τὸν <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἄνθρωπον</w></name> τᾶι μὲν <w lemma="πρότερος">πράτισται</w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἁμέραι</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_55" n="55"/><name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἐπιτίθημι"><supplied reason="lost">ἐπι</supplied><unclear>θ</unclear>ησεῖ</w></name> ὅ <w lemma="τις">τι</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="βούλομαι">δήληται</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὸ <name type="structure"><name type="death"><w lemma="σῆμα">σᾶμα</w></name></name>, <w lemma="δεύτερος">δεύτερον</w> δ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_56" n="56" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὲ</supplied> <w lemma="οὐδέ"><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ὐδὲ</w> <w lemma="εἷς">ἕν</w>, <w lemma="πρίν">πρίγ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἀποδεκατεύω">ἀποδεκατεύσει</w></name> τῶι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name>, καὶ <w lemma="οὐδέ">ο<supplied reason="lost">ὐ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_57" n="57" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">δὲ</supplied></w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θυ</supplied>σεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="οὐδέ">οὐδ᾽</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὸ <name type="structure"><name type="death"><w lemma="σῆμα">σᾶμα</w></name></name> <w lemma="εἶμι">εἶτι</w>· <w lemma="ἐκτιμάω">ἐκτιμασέντι</w> δὲ <w lemma="ὁπόσος">ὁ<unclear>π</unclear><supplied reason="lost">όσ</supplied>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_58" n="58" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">σω</supplied></w> <w lemma="πλεῖστος"><supplied reason="lost">πλ</supplied><unclear>ε</unclear>ίστω</w> <w lemma="ἄξιος">ἄξιος</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦς</w>, <w lemma="κοινός">κοινὸς</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἐὼν</w> τῶι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name>· <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρα<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name>	
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_59" n="59"/><supplied reason="lost">δὲ</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τὸ</supplied> <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><name type="structure"><w lemma="Ἀπολλώνιος">Ἀπολλώνιον</w></name></name> καὶ τὰ <w lemma="χρῆμα">χρήματα</w> <w lemma="δίχα">δίχα</w>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προθύω">προθύ<supplied reason="lost">σα</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_60" n="60" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ς </supplied></w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός"><supplied reason="lost">αὐτὸ</supplied>ς</w> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name> <w lemma="οὐ">οὐκ</w> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τᾶς <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκά
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_61" n="61" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τας</supplied></w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><name type="structure"><w lemma="προβώμιος"><supplied reason="lost">προ</supplied>βώμιον</w></name></name>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name> τὰν <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκάταν</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><name type="structure"><w lemma="προβώμιος">προβώμιον</w></name></name> <supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_62" n="62" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied> <w lemma="ἀποφέρω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπο</supplied><unclear>ι</unclear>σεῖ</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός">καθαρόν</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δὲ <w lemma="μή">μή</w>, τῶν <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτῶν</w> <w lemma="δέω">δησεῖ</w>.
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_63" n="63"/><w lemma="εἰ"><supplied reason="lost">αἴ</supplied></w> <w lemma="κα"><supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied></w> <name type="death"><w lemma="ἀποθνήσκω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπ</supplied>οθάνηι</w></name> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δέκατος</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἐὼν</w> καὶ τὰ <name type="person"><w lemma="τέκνον">τέκνα</w></name> <w lemma="καταλείπω">καταλ<supplied reason="lost">ίπ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_64" n="64" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ηι</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">ὧν</supplied> <w lemma="κα"><supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ὰ μὲν <w lemma="ζῶ">ζῶι</w>, τὰ δὲ <name type="death"><w lemma="ἀποθνήσκω">ἀποθανῆι</w></name>, <w lemma="ἐκτιμάω">ἐκτιμάσας</w> τὰ <w lemma="ἀπαλλάσσω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_65" n="65" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">παλλαγ</supplied>μένα </w> <w lemma="ὁπόσος">ὁπόσσω</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="πλεῖστος">πλείστω</w> <w lemma="ἄξιος">ἄξια</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρα<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_66" n="66" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὸ</supplied> <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><name type="structure"><w lemma="Ἀπολλώνιος"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀπολλώ</supplied>νιον</w></name></name> καὶ τὰ <w lemma="χρῆμα">χρήματα</w> <w lemma="δίχα">δίχα</w>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προθύω">προθυσεῖ</w></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζα<unclear>μ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ία</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_67" n="67" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τὰν</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τῶ</supplied> <w lemma="ἡβητής"><supplied reason="lost">ἡ</supplied>βατᾶ</w> <name type="structure"><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προβώμιος">προβώμιον</w></name></name>, καὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τόκα</w> <w lemma="δή">δὴ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name> τὰν <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δε
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_68" n="68" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κάταν</supplied></w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><name type="structure"><w lemma="προβώμιος"><supplied reason="lost">προ</supplied>βώμιον</w></name></name>· τὸν δὲ <w lemma="ζωός">ζοὸν</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρας</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὸς</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτ<supplied reason="lost">ὸ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_69" n="69" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w> <name type="liquid"><w lemma="αἷμα"><supplied reason="lost">αἵματι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied>ὶ τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὸν</w></name> <w lemma="δίχα">δίχα</w>, <w lemma="πωλέω">πωληθὲς</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τᾶι <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀγορά">ἀγορᾶι</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><unclear>θ</unclear>
	    						    					
	<lb xml:id="line_70" n="70" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">υσεῖ</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τὰν</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ῶ <w lemma="ἡβητής">ἡβατᾶ</w> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name>, καὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τό<unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w> <w lemma="δή"><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_71" n="71" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὴ</supplied></w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θυσεῖ</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τὰ</supplied>ν <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκάταν</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="ἀποφέρω">ἀποισεῖ</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός">καθαρόν</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> <supplied reason="lost">δὲ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_72" n="72"/><w lemma="μή"><supplied reason="lost">μὴ</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τῶν</supplied> <w lemma="αὐτός"><supplied reason="lost">αὐτ</supplied>ῶν</w> <w lemma="δέω">δησεῖ</w>.
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_73" n="73"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="8" precision="low"/>ν <w lemma="ἐπεί">ἐπεί</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἄρχω">ἄρξεται</w></name>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύεν</w></name> <w lemma="κατά">κατὰ</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμον</w></name> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="5" precision="low"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_74" n="74"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="8" precision="low"/><unclear>θ</unclear>ηι, τὸ <w lemma="λοιπός">λοιπὸν</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="ὁπότε">ὁπόκα</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="βούλομαι">δήλ<unclear>η</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ται</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="2" precision="low"/>
	    						   	   	    					
<lb xml:id="line_75" n="75"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="9" precision="low"/>ηι, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρμός"><unclear>κ</unclear>αθαρμὸς</w></name> <w lemma="ἀποχράω">ἀποχρεῖ</w>, ὁ<unclear>π</unclear><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="4" precision="low"/> <w lemma="τις">τις</w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="5" precision="low"/>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_76" n="76"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="8" precision="low"/> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθᾶραι</w></name> <w lemma="οὐ">οὐ</w> <w lemma="δέω">δεῖ</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="βούλομαι">δήληται</w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="5" precision="low"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_77" n="77"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="11" precision="low"/> <name type="structure"><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="προβώμιος">προβώμιον</w></name></name>, <w lemma="φέρω">οἰσεῖ</w> ὁ<unclear>π</unclear><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="12" precision="low"/>
	    						    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_78" n="78"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="6" precision="low"/><orig>Ν<gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="1"/>ΡΩ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="6" precision="low"/><orig>ΧΑ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="1"/><orig>ΛΞΕ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="11" precision="low"/>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_79" n="79"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Ε</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="line"/>
<lb/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="line"/>
<lb/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="line"/>
	    					
	    				</ab>
<ab subtype="face" n="B">Face B
	
	
<lb xml:id="line_83" n="83"/><name type="person"><w lemma="νύμφη"><supplied reason="lost">νύμφ</supplied><unclear>α</unclear>μ</w></name> <unclear>μ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ὲν</supplied> <w lemma="πρίν"><supplied reason="lost">πρὶν</supplied></w> <w lemma="εἶμι"><supplied reason="lost">ἴμεν</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τὸ</supplied> <name type="structure"><w lemma="κοιτατήριον"><supplied reason="lost">κοιτατή</supplied>ριον</w></name>, <orig>ζ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_84" n="84"/><w lemma="δέω"><supplied reason="lost">δεῖ</supplied></w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἄρτεμις">Ἄρ<unclear>τ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">αμιν</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="κατέρχομαι"><supplied reason="lost">κατενθὲν</supplied></w>· <w lemma="αὐτός"><unclear>αὕ</unclear>τα</w> δὲ <w lemma="οὐ">οὐχ</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ὑπώροφος">ὑπώ<supplied reason="lost">ροφ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_85" n="85" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied></w></name> τῶι <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἀνδρὶ</w></name> <w lemma="τέλομαι">τένται</w> <w lemma="οὐδέ">οὐδὲ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω">μιασεῖ</w></name>, <w lemma="μέστα">μέστα</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> 
	
<lb xml:id="line_86" n="86"/><w lemma="εἰς"><supplied reason="lost">ἐς</supplied></w> <name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἄρτεμις">Ἄρταμιν</w></name> <w lemma="ἔρχομαι">ἔνθηι</w>· ἃ <unclear>δ</unclear>έ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="οὗτος">ταῦτα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιήσα<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_87" n="87" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">σ</supplied>α</w> <w lemma="μιαίνω">μιᾶι</w> <w lemma="ἕκατος">ἕκασσα</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάραισα</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἀρτεμίσιον"><unclear>Ἀ</unclear>ρταμίτιον</w></name></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἐπιθύω">ἐπ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_88" n="88" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θ</supplied>υσεῖ</w></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name>, καὶ <w lemma="τόκα">τόκα</w> <w lemma="δή">δὴ</w> <w lemma="εἶμι">ε<unclear>ἶτ</unclear>
	
<lb xml:id="line_89" n="89" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="κοιτατήριον">κοιτατήριον</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="ἑκών">ἑκοῖσα</w> <w lemma="μιαίνω">μιᾶι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">κα
	
<lb xml:id="line_90" n="90" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θ</supplied>αρεῖ</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρόν</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_91" n="91"/><name type="person"><w lemma="νύμφη"><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>ύμφαν</w></name> δὲ τὸ <name type="structure"><name type="deity" key="Nymphs"><w lemma="νυμφεῖος">Νυμφῆιον</w></name></name> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἄρτεμις">Ἄρταμιν</w></name> <w lemma="κατέρχομαι">κατ<supplied reason="lost">εν</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_92" n="92" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θ</supplied>ὲν</w> <w lemma="δέω">δεῖ</w>, <w lemma="ὁπότε">ὁπόκα</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="βούλομαι">δήληται</w> <name type="festival"><name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἀρτεμίσιον">Ἀρταμιτίοις</w></name></name>, <w lemma="ὡς"><supplied reason="lost">ὥς</supplied></w> <w lemma="κα"><supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied></w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_93" n="93"/><w lemma="ταχύς"><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>άχιστα</w> δὲ <w lemma="λωΐων">λῶϊον</w>· ἃ δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="κατέρχομαι">κατένθηι</w>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἀποθύω">ἀ<supplied reason="lost">ποθ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_94" n="94" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">υ</supplied>σεῖ</w></name> τᾶι <name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἄρτεμις">Ἀρτάμιτι</w></name>, ἅ <unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied> <w lemma="βούλομαι"><supplied reason="lost">δήλητ</supplied><unclear>α</unclear>ι</w>· τοῖς <supplied reason="lost">δ᾽</supplied> <name type="festival"><name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἀρτεμίσιον"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀρταμιτί</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_95" n="95" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">οι</supplied>ς</w></name></name> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="κατέρχομαι">κατεληλευ<supplied reason="lost">θυῖα</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω"><supplied reason="lost">καθαρεῖ</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τὸ</supplied> <name type="structure"><name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἀρτεμίσιον"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀρταμίτι</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_96" n="96" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ν</w></name></name> καὶ <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἐπιθύω">ἐπιθυσεῖ</w></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζ<supplied reason="lost">αμίαν</supplied></w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν"><supplied reason="lost">βοτὸν</supplied></w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος"><supplied reason="lost">τέλευν</supplied></w></name></name>.
	
<lb xml:id="line_97" n="97"/><name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή"><supplied reason="lost">γυνὰ</supplied></w></name> <name type="childbirth"><w lemma="κύω"><supplied reason="lost">κύοισα</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="πρίν"><supplied reason="lost">πρὶν</supplied></w> <name type="childbirth"><w lemma="τίκτω"><supplied reason="lost">τεκὲν</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="κάτειμι"><supplied reason="lost">κάτε</supplied>ιτι</w> τὸ <name type="structure"><name type="deity" key="Nymphs"><w lemma="νυμφεῖος">Νυμφ<unclear>ῆ</unclear>ι<supplied reason="lost">ον</supplied></w></name></name>
	
<lb xml:id="line_98" n="98"/><w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἄρτεμις">Ἄρ<unclear>τ</unclear>αμι<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/> <unclear>τᾶ</unclear>ι <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἄρκος">ἄρκωι</w></name> <w lemma="δίδωμι">δωσεῖ</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="πούς">πόδας</w></name> καὶ
	
<lb xml:id="line_99" n="99"/>τὰν <name type="portion"><w lemma="κεφαλή">κεφαλὰν</w></name> καὶ τὸ <name type="portion"><w lemma="δέρμα">δέρμα</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="κατέρχομαι">κατ<supplied reason="lost">έν</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_100" n="100" break="no"/>θηι</w> <w lemma="πρίν">πρὶν</w> <name type="childbirth"><w lemma="τίκτω">τεκέν</w></name>, <w lemma="κάτειμι">κάτειτι</w> <w lemma="σύν">σὺμ</w> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτῶι</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τελέωι</w></name></name>· ἁ <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δεκατεύω">δ<supplied reason="lost">ὲ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_101" n="101"/><w lemma="κάτειμι">κατίασ<unclear>σ</unclear>α</w></w></name> <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἁγνεύω">ἁγνευσεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="ἕβδομος">ἑβδέμαν</w> καὶ <w lemma="ὄγδοος">ὀγδόαν</w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_102" n="102"/>καὶ <w lemma="ἔνατος">ἠνάταν</w>, καὶ ἁ <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="κατέρχομαι">καταληλευθυῖα</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἁγνεύω">ἁγ<unclear>ν</unclear>
	
<lb xml:id="line_103" n="103" break="no"/>ευσεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="οὗτος">ταύτας</w> τὰς <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἁμέρας</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μιαίνω">μιᾶι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθ<unclear>α</unclear>
	
<lb xml:id="line_104" n="104" break="no"/>ραμένα</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὰ</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθαρεῖ</w></name> τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρὸν</w></name> καὶ <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἐπιθύω">ἐπιθυσ<supplied reason="lost">εῖ</supplied></w></name>
	
<lb xml:id="line_105" n="105"/><name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζαμίαν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="βοτόν">βοτὸν</w></name> <name type="age"><name type="quality"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλευν</w></name></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_106" n="106"/><w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυνὰ</w></name> <w lemma="ἐγβάλλω">ἐγβάληι</w>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> μέγ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="διάδηλος">διάδηλον</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω">μ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_107" n="107" break="no"/>αίνονται</w></name> <w lemma="ὥσπερ">ὥσπερ</w> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> <name type="death"><w lemma="θνῄσκω">θανόντος</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_108" n="108"/><w lemma="διάδηλος">διάδηλον</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w>, <name type="purification"><w lemma="μιαίνω">μιαίνεται</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὕτα</w> ἁ <name type="group"><w lemma="οἰκία">οἰκία</w></name> <w lemma="καθάπερ">καθάπε<supplied reason="lost">ρ</supplied></w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_109" n="109"/><w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> <name type="childbirth"><w lemma="λεχώ">λεχός</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_110" n="110"/><name type="person"><name type="deity" key="Hikesios"><w lemma="ἱκέσιος">ἱκεσίων</w></name></name>· <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_111" n="111"/><name type="person"><name type="deity" key="Hikesios"><w lemma="ἱκέσιος">ἱκέσιος</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἐπακτός">ἐπακτός</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἐπιπέμπω">ἐπιπεμφθῆι</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὰν
	
<lb xml:id="line_112" n="112"/><name type="structure"><w lemma="οἰκία">οἰκίαν</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> μέγ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="εἴδω">ἰσᾶι</w> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀφ᾽</w> <w lemma="ὅστις">ὅτινος</w> οἱ <w lemma="ἐπέρχομαι">ἐπῆνθε</w>, <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="ὀνομάζω">ὀ
	
<lb xml:id="line_113" n="113" break="no"/>νυμαξεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὸν</w> <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="προεῖπον">προειπὼν</w></name> <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρὶς</w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἁμέρας</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δ<supplied reason="lost">έ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_114" n="114"/>κα <name type="death"><w lemma="θνῄσκω">τεθνάκηι</w></name> <w lemma="ἔγγαιος">ἔγγαιος</w> ἢ <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλη</w> <w lemma="πη">πη</w> <name type="death"><w lemma="ἀπόλλυμι">ἀπολώλη<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name>,
	
<lb xml:id="line_115" n="115"/><w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> μέγ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="εἴδω">ἰσᾶι</w> τὸ <w lemma="ὄνομα">ὄνυμα</w>, <w lemma="ὀνομαστί">ὀνυμαστὶ</w> <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="προερέω">προερεῖ</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_116" n="116"/>δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="εἴδω">ἰσᾶι</w>, "<name type="speechAct"><w lemma="ὦ">ὦ</w></name> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἄνθρωπος">ἄνθρωπε</w></name> αἴτε <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἀνὴρ</w></name> αἴτε <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυνὰ</w></name>
	
<lb xml:id="line_117" n="117"/><w lemma="εἰμί">ἐσσί</w>", <name type="object"><w lemma="κολοσσός">κολοσὸς</w></name> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιήσαντα</w> <w lemma="ἄρσην">ἔρσενα</w> καὶ <w lemma="θῆλυς">θήλεια<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_118" n="118"/>ἢ <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="καλίνος">καλίνος</w></name> ἢ <w lemma="γαΐνος">γαΐνος</w>, <w lemma="ὑποδέχομαι">ὑποδεξάμενον</w> <name type="meal"><w lemma="παρατίθημι">παρτι<unclear>θ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">έ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_119" n="119" break="no"/>μεν</w></name> τὸ <name type="portion"><w lemma="μέρος">μέρος</w> <w lemma="πᾶς">πάντων</w></name>· <w lemma="ἐπεί">ἐπεὶ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιῆσες</w> τὰ
	
<lb xml:id="line_120" n="120"/><name type="authority"><w lemma="νομίζω">νομιζόμενα</w></name>, <w lemma="φέρω">φέροντα</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <name type="locality"><name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ὕλη">ὕλαν</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἀεργός">ἀεργὸν</w> <w lemma="ἐρείδω">ἐρε
	
<lb xml:id="line_121" n="121" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ῖ</supplied>σαι</w> τὰς <name type="object"><w lemma="κολοσσός">κολοσὸς</w></name> καὶ τὰ <name type="portion"><w lemma="μέρος">μέρη</w></name>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_122" n="122"/><name type="person"><name type="deity" key="Hikesios"><w lemma="ἱκέσιος">ἱκέσιος</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἕτερος">ἅτερος</w>, <w lemma="τελέω">τετελεσμένος</w> ἢ <w lemma="ἀτελής">ἀτελής</w>, <w lemma="ἵζω">ἱσ
	
<lb xml:id="line_123" n="123" break="no"/>σάμενος</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τῶι <name type="group"><w lemma="δημόσιος">δαμοσίωι</w></name> <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρῶι</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> μέγ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="προφέρω">προ<supplied reason="lost">φέ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_124" n="124" break="no"/>ρηται</w>, <w lemma="ὁπόσος">ὁπόσσω</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="προφέρω">προφέρηται</w>, <w lemma="οὕτως">οὕτως</w> <w lemma="τελίσκω">τελίσκ<supplied reason="lost">ε</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_125" n="125" break="no"/>σθαι</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="προφέρω">προφέρηται</w>, <w lemma="γῆ">γᾶς</w> <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="καρπός">καρπὸν</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θ<supplied reason="lost">ύ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_126" n="126" break="no"/>εν</w></name> καὶ <name type="liquid"><w lemma="σπονδή">σπονδὰν</w></name> <w lemma="κατά">καθ᾽</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ἔτος</w> <w lemma="ἀεί">ἀεί</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="παρίημι">παρῆι</w>, <w lemma="ἐκ"><unclear>ἐ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied></w>
	
<lb xml:id="line_127" n="127"/><name type="structure"><w lemma="νέος">νέω</w></name> <w lemma="δίς">δὶς</w> <w lemma="τόσος">τόσσα</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="διαλείπω">διαλίπηι</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="τέκνον">τέκνον</w></name> <w lemma="ἐπιλήθω">ἐπ<unclear>ι</unclear><supplied reason="lost">λα</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_128" n="128" break="no"/>θόμενον</w> καὶ οἱ <w lemma="προφέρω">προφέρηται</w>, ὅ <w lemma="τις">τι</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> οἱ <name type="invocation"><w lemma="μαντεύω">μαντ<unclear>ε</unclear><supplied reason="lost">υ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_129" n="129" break="no"/>ομένωι</w></name> <name type="invocation"><w lemma="ἀναιρέω">ἀναιρεθῆι</w></name>, <w lemma="οὗτος">τοῦτο</w> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ἀποτίνω">ἀποτεισεῖ</w></name> τῶι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name> <unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">αὶ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_130" n="130"/><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσεῖ</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> μέγ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="εἴδω">ἰσᾶι</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὸμ <name type="authority"><name type="structure"><w lemma="πατρῷος">πατρῶιον</w></name></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δὲ <w lemma="μή">μή</w>, <w lemma="χράω"><supplied reason="lost">χρή</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_131" n="131" break="no"/>σασθαι</w>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_132" n="132"/><name type="person"><name type="deity" key="Hikesios"><w lemma="ἱκέσιος">ἱκέσιος</w></name></name> <w lemma="τρίτος">τρίτος</w>, <w lemma="αὐτοφόνος">αὐτοφόνος</w>· <w lemma="ἀφικετεύω">ἀφικετεύεν</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" quantity="4" precision="low"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_133" n="133"/><w lemma="unclear">πολίαν</w> καὶ <name type="group"><w lemma="τριφυλία">τριφυλίαν</w></name>· <w lemma="ὡς">ὡς</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="καταγγέλλω">καταγγήλ<unclear>ε</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ἱκνέομαι"><supplied reason="lost">ἱκέ</supplied>
	
	<lb xml:id="line_134" n="134" break="no"/>σθαι</w>, <w lemma="ἵζω">ἵσσαντα</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τῶι <name type="locality"><w lemma="οὐδός">ὠδῶι</w></name> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="νάκος">νάκει</w></name> <name type="colour1"><w lemma="λευκός">λευκῶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <name type="liquid"><w lemma="νίζω"><supplied reason="lost">νί</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_135" n="135" break="no"/>ζεν</w></name> καὶ <name type="liquid"><w lemma="χρίω">χρῖσαι</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="ἔξειμι">ἐξίμεν</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> τὰν <name type="group"><w lemma="δημόσιος">δαμοσ<unclear>ί</unclear><supplied reason="lost">αν</supplied></w></name>
	
<lb xml:id="line_136" n="136"/><name type="locality"><w lemma="ὁδός">ὁδὸν</w></name> καὶ <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="σιγάω">σιγὲν</w></name> <w lemma="πᾶς">πάντας</w>, <w lemma="ἦ">ἦ</w> <w lemma="κα">κα</w> <w lemma="ἔξοι">ἔξοι</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἔωντι</w> <supplied reason="lost">τὸ</supplied>
	
<lb xml:id="line_137" n="137" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied> <w lemma="ὑποδέχομαι"><unclear>ὑ</unclear>ποδεκομένος</w>· τὸν <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="προαγγελτήρ">προαγγελτ<unclear>ῆ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ρα</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_138" n="138"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>ν</orig> <w lemma="πάρειμι">παρίμεν</w> τὸν <w lemma="ἀφικετεύω">ἀφικετευ<supplied reason="lost">ό</supplied><unclear>μ</unclear>ε<unclear>ν</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ον</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_139" n="139" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><unclear>ω</unclear>ν καὶ τὸς <w lemma="ἕπομαι">ἑπομένο<unclear>ς</unclear></w> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_140" n="140"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><w lemma="unclear"><unclear>υσε</unclear>ῖ</w> <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="θύον">θύη</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλ<unclear>λ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τὰ</supplied> <name type="authority"><w lemma="νομίζω"><supplied reason="lost">νομιζόμενα</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
		
<lb xml:id="line_141" n="141"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied><unclear>ὲ</unclear> μ<unclear>ὴ</unclear> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb/><gap reason="lost" unit="line" extent="unknown"/>
	    				    					    		
	    				</ab>
	    			</div>
	    			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
<p>Face A</p>					
<p>Apollo prophesied: forever making use of purifications and abstentions and [tithes (?)], they are to settle Libya.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 1: [If] disease [or famine] (5) or death come against the land or the city, sacrifice in front of the gates [opposite] the Apotropaion, to Apollo Apotropaios, a tawny winter-old he-goat.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 2: Wood grown in the sanctuary: if you pay (lit. "plant") the price to the god, you may use the wood for sacred and secular (10) and impure (purposes).</p>
	    				
<p>§ 3: From a woman, a man having lain for the night (with her) shall sacrifice [whatever] he wants. Having lain (with her) during the day, having washed [...] he is to go where he wants except into [... (15) ...]</p>
	    				
<p>§ 4: [The woman] in childbirth will pollute the roof (i.e. the house): [she will pollute] one [who is under the roof, but] not the one outside the roof, unless he goes in. Any human being who is inside (the house) will himself be polluted for three days, but will not pollute another (person), wherever (20) that human being may go.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 5: With regard to the Akamantia, (these are) religiously sanctioned for anyone both pure and profane. Except from (the tomb of) the man Battos the Archagetes and (from the sanctuary of) the Tritopatres and from Onymastos the Delphian. From another place, where a man has died, it is not religious sanctioned for the pure. (25) But with regard to the shrines, (these are) religiously sanctioned for anyone.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 6: If one sacrifices on the altar a sacrificial animal which it is not customary to sacrifice, he is to remove the residue of grease from the altar and wash it off and remove the remaining refuse from the sanctuary and remove the ash from the altar, and the fire to the pure (place ?). (30) And only then after having washed himself off, having purified the sanctuary and sacrificed as a penalty an adult animal, precisely then let him sacrifice as one liable to the law up to the children of brothers.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 7: If an adult human being is liable to the tithe, having purified his own person with blood, he will purify the sanctuary and having been sold on the agora (35) for as much as he is worth, before the tithe (?) he will make a preliminary sacrifice as a penalty of an adult animal (from money) not deriving from the tithe, and then he will sacrifice the tithe and bring it back to a pure (place ?). If not, he will require the same things. Each person sacrificing will bring his own vessel.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 8: (40) If one who is not yet a man has somehow unwillingly become polluted , it suffices to purify himself and  a penalty is not necessary. But if he has become polluted on purpose, he will purify the sanctuary and as a penalty will make a preliminary sacrifice of an adult animal. </p>
	    				
<p>§ 9: If possessions are tithed, having estimated the possessions, he will purify the sanctuary and the possessions separately, and only then (45) as a penalty will he make a preliminary sacrifice of an adult animal not deriving from the tithe, and only after will he sacrifice the tithe and bring it back to a pure (place?). But if not, he will require the same things. And from the possessions, which are tithed, he will not deposit a single funerary offering nor offer libations (for the dead), until he has paid the tithe to the god. (50) But if he brings libations or places funerary offerings, having purified the sanctuary of Apollo, as a penalty he will sacrifice according to his error an adult animal.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 10: If a human being (liable to) the tithe dies, when they have brought down (to the ground) this person, on the first day, (55) he will place whatever he wants on the tomb, but on the second (day) not a single thing, before he has fulfilled the tithe for the god and he will not sacrifice nor go to the tomb. And they will estimate him for as much as he is worth, being common property with the god. After having purified the sanctuary of Apollo and the possessions separately, having [himself] made a preliminary sacrifice (60) as a penalty of an adult animal not deriving from the tithe, in front of the altar, he will sacrifice the tithe in front of the altar and bring it back to a pure (place?). But if not, he will require the same things.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 11: [If] he dies while being (liable to) the tithe and he leaves behind children, some [of whom] live, while others have died, after having estimated the [departed children] (65) for as much as they are worth, having purified [the sanctuary of Apollo] and the possessions separately, he will make a preliminary sacrifice as a penalty [which is that of the] adult man in front of the altar. And only then he will sacrifice [the tithe] in front of the altar. The living child, having purified his own person [with blood] and the sanctuary separately, having been sold on the agora, (70) will sacrifice the penalty of the adult man, namely an adult animal. And only then [will he sacrifice] the tithe and bring it back to a pure (place?). But if [not], he will require the same things.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 12: [...] when one begins to sacrifice according to custom [...] the remainder he will sacrifice when he wants [...] purification is sufficient [...] someone [...] it is not necessary to purify. But if he wants [...] in front of the altar, he will bring [... (5 lines missing)]</p>
	    				
<p>Face B</p>
	    				
<p>§ 13: [A bride, before she enters the bridal chamber ... it is necessary (for her) to go down] to Artemis. This woman will not live under the same roof (85) as her husband nor will pollute (herself), until she goes to Artemis. She who having not done these things, willingly pollutes (herself), after having purified the sanctuary of Artemis, will sacrifice in addition as a penalty an adult animal, and only then will she go to the bridal chamber. If she involuntarily pollutes (herself), she will (only) (90) purify the sanctuary.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 14: A bride must go down to the Nympheion to Artemis, whenever she wishes during the Artemisia, but better [as] quickly as possible. If she does not go down, she will sacrifice to Artemis as a penalty whatever [she wishes]. (95) She who has not gone down [during the Artemisia will purify the sanctuary of Artemis] and sacrifice in addition [as a penalty an adult animal].</p>
	    				
<p>§ 15: [A pregnant woman, before she gives birth, will go down] to the Nympheion to Artemis [...] to the Bear she will give the feet and the head and the skin. But if she does not go (100) down before giving birth, she will go down with an adult animal. She who goes down will keep pure for the seventh and the eight and the ninth day, and the woman who has not gone down will keep pure for these same days. But if she pollutes herself, having purified herself, she will purify the sanctuary and sacrifice in addition (105) as a penalty an adult animal.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 16: If a woman rejects (her child, i.e. miscarries), if (the child) is recognisable, they are polluted just as from a death. But if he is not recognisable, the house itself is reckoned polluted just as from childbirth.</p>
	    				
<p>§ 17: (110) Suppliants. Invasive suppliant: if he has been sent to the house, if he (the householder) knows from whom (the suppliant) has been sent to him, he will call him by name, speaking forth for three days. If he is dead in his own country or destroyed somewhere else, (115) if he knows the name, he will call (him) forth by name. But if he does not know (the name), (let him call out) "O person, whether you are a man or a woman", having made figurines, (one) male and (another) female, whether of wood or earth, and having hosted them, let him set aside (for them) the portion from everything. When you have performed the (120) customary rites, carrying them to a fallow wood, plant the figurines and the portions (in the ground).</p>
	    				
<p>§ 18: Other suppliant, either having performed (the necessary rites, e.g. of supplication) or being incomplete in that regard, siting in the public sanctuary. If he has been commanded (by the god or his prophet?), however much he has been commanded, thus he will perform. (125) If he has not been commanded, sacrifice the fruit of the earth and a libation each year in perpetuity. If he omits it, (start) anew, twice as much. If a negligent child lets pass an interval (of a year) and if it has been commanded to him, whatever the god decides when he consults the oracle, this the child will pay to the god and (130) sacrifice on the ancestral (altar) if he knows it. If he does not, consult the oracle (again).</p>
	    				
<p>§ 19: A third suppliant, murderer of his blood: lead him away from supplication to [...]<foreign>polia</foreign> and the three tribes (?). After he has announced [that he supplicates], sitting on the threshold on a white fleece, (135) wash him and anoint him and make him exit into the public road and everyone who hosts him is to keep silent while they are outside. The proclaimer [...] pass in front the one leaving supplication [...] and those who escort (him) [...] (140) he will [...] incense (?) and the other [customary things ...] not [...]</p>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
<p>Face A</p>
					
<p>Apollon a rendu l'oracle : Résider en Libye en observant pour toujours les pratiques de pureté ordinaire, de pureté rituelle, de [consécration de la dîme].</p>
					
<p>§ 1 : Si surviennent pestilence, [famine,] (5) mort, sacrifier en avant des portes, en vue d'Apotropaios (ou de l'Apotropaion), à Apollon Apotropaios, un chevreau roux de l'hiver précédent.</p>
					
<p>§ 2 : Bois qui a poussé dans le sanctuaire : si l'on en offre la valeur au dieu, on se servira du bois pour des usages sacrés, profanes, (10) voire générateurs de souillure.</p>
					
<p>§ 3 : Quittant une femme avec laquelle il a couché pendant la nuit, un homme pourra sacrifier partout où il voudra; mais s'il a couché avec elle pendant le jour, après s'être lavé [...] il ira partout où il voudra sauf dans [... (15) ...]</p>
					
<p>§ 4 : La femme en couches souillera le toit : [elle souillera qui est sous le toit, mais] ne souillera pas qui est en-dehors, s'il n'y pénètre pas. Et tout être humain qui sera à l'intérieur sera personnellement entaché de souillure pendant trois jours, mais ne la transmettra pas à autrui, où (20) qu'il se rende.</p>
					
<p>§ 5 : Il y a accès religieusement permis aux Akamantia pour chacun, pur ou profane; hormis le contact avec un humain Battos descendant de l'archégète, avec les Tritopateres et avec Onymastos de Delphes; le contact avec tout autre lieu où repose un homme n'est pas religieusement permis pour le pur; (25) mais les lieux sacrés sont religieusement accessibles pour chacun.</p>
					
<p>§ 6 : Si l'on sacrifie sur un autel un animal qu'il n'est pas de règle de sacrifier, enlever de l'autel les résidus de graisse, rincer, retirer du sanctuaire ce qui reste de souillure, enlever la cendre de l'autel, retirer le feu en vue de la pureté. (30) Et alors seulement, après ablution, ayant purifié le sanctuaire et sacrifié à titre de compensation un animal adulte, qu'alors seulement on sacrifie, en considérant qu’on est tenu par la loi jusqu'aux enfants des frères.</p>
					
<p>§ 7 : Si un homme majeur est redevable de la dîme, s'étant purifié lui-même avec du sang, il purifiera le sanctuaire, et, après mise en vente sur l'agora (35) au maximum de sa valeur, il procèdera, avant la dîme, à titre de compensation, au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, sans le prendre sur la dîme; et alors seulement, il procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme et l'emportera en vue de la pureté; sinon, il aura les même obligations. Par ailleurs, chaque sacrifiant apportera [son récipient ?].</p>
					
<p>§ 8 : (40) Un mineur, à condition qu'il ne se soit pas souillé volontairement, aura seulement à se purifier et point n'est besoin de compensation; mais s'il se souille volontairement, il purifiera le sanctuaire et procèdera au sacrifice préliminaire, à titre de compensation, d'un animal adulte.</p>
					
<p>§ 9 : Si des biens sont redevables de la dîme, après estimation des biens, on purifiera le sanctuaire et les biens séparément, et alors seulement (45) on procèdera, à titre de compensation, au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, sans le prendre sur la dîme, et alors seulement on procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme et on l'emportera en vue de la pureté. Sinon, on aura les mêmes obligations. Et de ces biens, tant qu'ils seront redevables de la dîme, on ne soustraira pas encore, ne serait-ce qu'une offrande funéraire ou des libations avant de s'être acquitté de la dîme envers le dieu. (50) Et si l'on fait des libations ou des offrandes funéraires, après avoir purifié le sanctuaire d'Apollon, on procèdera au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, à titre de compensation conforme à la faute.</p>
					
<p>§ 10 : Si un homme, alors qu'il est redevable de la dîme, vient à mourir, une fois cet homme enterré, le premier jour, (55) on déposera sur la tombe l'offrande qu'on voudra, mais on n'en déposera pas d'autre avant de s'être acquitté de la dîme envers le dieu, pas plus qu'on ne fera de sacrifice ni ne se rendra sur la tombe. Et (la collectivité) estimera le défunt au maximum de sa valeur quand il était en indivis avec le dieu. Après avoir purifié le sanctuaire d'Apollo et les biens séparément, quand on aura procédé [soi-même], (60) à titre de compensation, au sacrifice préliminaire d'un animal adulte, sans le prendre sur la dîme, devant l'autel, on procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme devant l'autel et on l'emportera en vue de la pureté; sinon, on aura les mêmes obligations.</p>
					
<p>§ 11 : S'il meurt alors qu'il est redevable de la dîme et s'il laisse des enfants dont certains sont vivants, d'autres décédés, après estimation des enfants [disparus] (65) au maximum de leur valeur, quand on aura purifié le [sanctuaire d'Apollo] et les biens séparément, on procèdera, au titre de la compensation prévue pour l'homme majeur, au sacrifice préliminaire devant l'autel; et alors seulement on procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme devant l'autel. Quant au survivant, ayant purifié sa propre personne [avec du sang] ainsi que le sanctuaire séparément, après mise en vente sur l'agora, (70) il procèdera, au titre de la compensation prévue pour l'homme majeur, au sacrifice d'un animal adulte; et alors seulement il procèdera au sacrifice de la dîme et il l'emportera en vue de la pureté; sinon, il aura les mêmes obligations.</p>
					
<p>§ 12 : [...] quand on aura commencé à sacrifier selon la coutume [et que ...], on sacrifiera le reste quand on voudra [...] une purification suffit là où l'on [...] il n'est pas besoin de purifier; mais si l'on veut [...] devant l'autel, on l'emportera là où [... (5 lignes manquantes) ...]</p>
					
<p>Face B</p>
					
<p>§ 13 : [Une épousée, avant d'entrer dans la chambre nuptiale ... doit descendre] chez Artémis; cette femme n'habitera pas sous le même toit (85) que son mari et ne se souillera pas jusqu'à ce qu'elle soit allée chez Artémis; celle qui, n'ayant pas fait cela, contactera une souillure volontairement, purifiera le sanctuaire d'Artémis et sacrifiera en outre, à titre de compensation, un animal adulte; et alors seulement elle ira dans la chambre nuptiale; mais si ce n'est pas volontairement qu'elle contracte la souillure, (90) elle (ne) purifiera (que) le sanctuaire.</p>
					
<p>§ 14 : L'épousée doit descendre au Nymphaion chez Artémis au moment qu'elle voudra lors des fêtes d'Artémis, et le plus tôt sera le mieux; celle qui n'y sera pas descendue sacrifiera à Artémis ce que [elle voudra (?)]; (95) si elle n'y est pas allée [pendant les fêtes d'Artémis, elle purifiera le sanctuaire d'Artémis] et sacrifiera en outre, à titre de compensation, un animal adulte.</p>
					
<p>§ 15 : [Une femme enceinte, avant d'accoucher, descendra] au Nymphaion chez Artémis [...] elle donnera à l'Ourse les pieds, la tête et la peau; mais si elle n'y est pas descendue (100) avant d'accoucher, elle y descendra avec un animal adulte; celle qui y sera descendue restera pure le septième, le huitième et le neuvième jour, et celle qui n'y sera pas descendue restera pure ces jours-là; si elle se souille, s'étant purifiée elle-même, elle purifiera le sanctuaire et sacrifiera en outre, (105) à titre de compensation, un animal adulte.</p>
					
<p>§ 16 : Si une femme fait une fausse couche, si l'enfant est reconnaissable, les gens sont souillés comme par un décès, mais s'il n'est pas reconnaissable, cette maison est souillée comme par un accouchement.</p>
					
<p>§ 17 : (110) Des suppliants. Suppliant dirigé contre la maison. S'il a été envoyé dans telle maison, si le maître de maison sait de la part de qui il lui est venu, il l'appellera par son nom en sommation pendant trois jours; s'il est mort dans son pays ou a disparu ailleurs, (115) s'il sait son nom, il le sommera par son nom, et s'il ne le sait pas, il dira : "Individu, que tu sois homme ou femme", et après avoir fabriqué des figurines masculines et féminines de bois ou de terre, les recevoir à table et leur servir leur part de tout; quand on aura accompli (120) les rites usuels, les porter dans un bois en friche et planter (dans le sol) les figurines et les parts.</p>
					
<p>§ 18 : Deuxième suppliant, s'étant acquitté (des rites) ou non, installé dans le sanctuaire public. S'il dispose d'un commandement (oraculaire ?), qu'il s'acquitte (des rites) dans la mesure de ce qui lui a été commandé. (125) S'il n'a pas reçu d'instruction, sacrifier le fruit de la terre et faire une libation chaque année à perpétuité. Et s'il le néglige, recommencer deux fois autant. Et si un enfant négligent laisse passer un laps de temps (d'un an) et qu'un commandement est donné, il s'acquittera envers le dieu de ce qui lui sera répondu par l'oracle après consultation et (130) il offrira un sacrifice sur (l'autel) ancestral, s'il le connaît; sinon, consulter le dieu (une nouvelle fois).</p>
					
<p>§ 19 : Troisième suppliant, meurtrier dans sa propre famille. Le sortir de son état de suppliant en le menant à [...]<foreign>polia</foreign> et aux trois tribus (?); et, quand il aura annoncé qu'il est suppliant, le faire asseoir sur le seuil sur une toison blanche, (135) le laver, l'oindre, sortir sur la voie publique; et que gardent le silence tous ceux qui l'accueillent, tant qu'ils sont dehors; que le proclamateur [...] passe devant celui qui est en train de quitter son état de suppliant [...] et que ceux qui l'escortent [...] (140) il [...]ra de l’encens (?) les autres [choses coutumières ...] ne [...] pas [...]</p>
					
<p>(traduction adaptée de C. <bibl type="author_date" n="Dobias-Lalou 2000">Dobias-Lalou 2000</bibl>)</p>
					
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p>In the present Collection, it would be difficult to find such a well-known and lengthy document that also remains so difficult to interpret: as Rhodes and Osborne well note (p. 500), it "gives us a glimpse of the daily concerns and anxieties" of ancient Greeks but also "reminds us of how much of the religious practice of Greek cities we have limited understanding". The dossier from Cyrene indeed provides us with one of the best, most detailed, but also most varied and enigmatic regulations concerning purity from the ancient world. Most strikingly, the whole document, continuing over two faces, the latter (B) missing perhaps a substantial concluding portion, is headed by or presented as deriving from an oracle of Apollo (line 1). First, we must admit that we know very little about the context of the inscribing of the rules or about the authenticity of the appeal to oracular authority, questions which continue to be debated in scholarship. Parker (p. 333) cautiously prefers a position of skepticism about "whether the Cyreneans had only recently sought Apollo's approval for their cathartic traditions, or whether line A1 alludes to the more distant past"; for the reference being to Delphic Apollo, see again Parker, with further refs. By tradition, Cyrene had been founded by colonists from Thera as a result of a Delphic oracle, cf. Hdt. 4.150-159. It is generally admitted that the rules on the stele cannot strictly speaking form a part of a Delphic oracle, since the dialect is clearly Cyrenaic; one possibility is that only lines 2-3 form a quotation of the oracle; an alternative (Wilamowitz) is that the people of Cyrene may have sent their rules to Delphi for approval (see also Rhodes - Osborne, citing Hdt. 1.65 for the Lycurgan laws of Sparta). At any rate, the appeal to the authority of Delphic Apollo, whatever its precise relation to historical fact, will have conferred a form of divine authority on the whole document (for the importance of oracular authority and the inclusion of an oracle in the constitution of a dossier of ritual norms, cp. notably here <ref target="CGRN_24">CGRN 24</ref>, Athens, and <ref target="CGRN_40">CGRN 40</ref>, Apollonia). Recently, Dobias-Lalou thought that the regulations represent a recasting of an earlier document (p. 297): "la loi que nous lisons est manifestement une copie ou un remaniement assez superficiel d'un document nettement plus ancien". Unfortunately, other than this intriguing heading, nothing is know about the actual context for the promulgation of these rules and their inscribing.</p>
						
<p>What is clear, notably given the findspot, is that the rules were displayed in the sanctuary of Apollo at Cyrene (cf. Chamoux, p. 301-311, for a useful summary on the sanctuary and cult). Only a little more can be gleaned from the text itself. Though we may think that the rules derive from the city of Cyrene, this is in fact nowhere made explicit, and the regulations only appeal to religious authority (the oracle, again line 1) and twice to custom or tradition (νόμος, lines 26 and 73; almost certainly not a "law", given the absence of a definite article). The scope of the rules, though quite encompassing, must thus not be overemphasised (contrast Rhodes - Osborne, for instance, speaking often of "the Greek city" or "community"). Certainly, the rules occasionally were concerned with practices which had a demonstrable impact on the whole community (e.g. § 1 or 19). Yet many aspects of the document are demonstrably concerned specifically with the sanctuary of Apollo (the Apollonion), the cult of this god (e.g. as Apollo Apotropaios in § 1; frequently mentioned on face A as ὁ θεός, but also in the rules for suppliants, line 129) and the immediately adjacent sanctuary of Artemis (beginning of face B). The rules were presumably displayed prominently, for the use and consultation of sacred officials (these are seldom mentioned, however; cf. line 98), but also, quite clearly, for both men and women worshippers. The sphere of application of the rules was therefore wide yet also circumscribed to this particular cult and sanctuary. For general rules of purity for a city and its priests, contrast the purity rules at Kos, which were expounded by exegetes, also on the basis of "the sacred and traditional customs" of the city, <ref target="CGRN_148">CGRN 148</ref>, lines 5-6; for more specific rules of purity rules displayed at the entrance of sanctuaries, cf. here e.g. <ref target="CGRN_90">CGRN 90</ref> (Ialysos) or <ref target="CGRN_121">CGRN 121</ref> (Priene).</p> 
						
<p>Though the document is of the highest interest for the study of Greek ritual practice, and sacrifice and purification in particular, it must be confessed that it often resists interpretation. Several passages, though relatively intelligible, are presented in allusive or enigmatic language, which has often resulted in many, fairly widely differing scholarly interpretations (the bibliography is vast, and we have not aimed to do justice to all of it here, using rather selectively some of the more recent and cautious scholarly works: Parker; Rhodes - Osborne; the edition and articles of Dobias-Lalou and Robertson). A survey of the organisation and content of the document thus remains in order. After the heading introducing the oracle of Apollo and the subject matter of the rules at hand (purifications and abstentions—and something else—, see lines 2-3), we find a relatively wide range of carefully defined paragraphs in the document (indicated by <foreign>paragraphoi</foreign>, cf. ‘Layout’), forming a dossier of miscellaneous sections and rules, some of which form coherent wholes, others not. As Parker notes (p. 334), this "is somewhat disorganized, and not comprehensive"; indeed, the rules occasionally make reference to other customary norms of purity (e.g. for death, cf. esp. § 16), which are not overtly specified in the regulation itself. A first paragraph discusses rules for general calamities afflicting the city or its territory, but involving the cult of Apollo Apotropaios; § 2 concerns wood growing in the sanctuary of Apollo. We then move on to a section concerned with the purity of men after sex (§ 3) and another about the pollution of the household after a woman has given birth to a child (§ 4). An enigmatic section (§ 5) is then included, apparently concerning the visiting of shrines and tombs for the heroic dead at Cyrene, while another portion of the document (§ 6) discusses the purification necessary after an illicit sacrifice. Next, come five paragraphs (§ 7-11) concerning the rather enigmatic subject of "tithes" (surprisingly aptly, but also puzzlingly, three of the paragraphs have 10 lines, the first two also add up to a total of 10 lines). Though this process of "tithing" must probably somehow be connected with transgressions involving purity, the ritual is now considerably shrouded in obscurity and the source of the impurity implied remains beyond our reach. On face B, we begin with rules concerning female ritual practice and the Artemision in the sanctuary, which eloquently illustrate the connection of Artemis with rites of maturation for women (by contrast, the connection with Apollo and "tithing", above, is obscure). These passages are much more comprehensible, dealing specifically with rituals for new brides (§ 13 and 14), pregnant women and new mothers (§ 15), followed by further smaller section on miscarriage (§ 16). This is followed by another special heading, "of suppliants", in line 110, followed by three paragraphs on this subject. Here too, the rules are to some degree enigmatic: § 17 in particular describes rules for dealing with a "suppliant" sent to or against a household, where the reference might be to a visitant that is the result of a magical practice rather than a human suppliant; the type of suppliant envisaged § 18 remains almost completely mysterious, referring to an “accomplishment” difficult to define. Before the lacuna and perhaps other missing parts of the dossier, we finally read more intelligible fragments of a procedure for dealing with a suppliant who is a murderer (§ 19).</p>
						
<p>A small preliminary comment may also be made about one of the typical sacrificial procedures envisaged in some sections of the document. This is occasionally presented as a "fine" (ζημία), not as a purification in and of itself but rather a remedy for an offense; for sacrifices of this sort, notably necessitated by transgressions against the purity of the sanctuary and accompanied by purifications proper, see here <ref target="CGRN_5">CGRN 5</ref>, Olympia, line 2, with the verb θωάζω ‘penalize, fine’; cp. also perhaps <ref target="CGRN_10">CGRN 10</ref>, Gortyn, line 2). This always consists of a βοτόν τέλευν: this is translated by Dobias-Lalou as a "perfect animal", since the emphasis of the cathartic regulation may well be thought to have been placed on the purity or the integral characteristics of the animal; but as elsewhere in our Collection, the emphasis may instead be on the offering of an animal of sufficient size and quality as a form of atonement, namely an adult beast. For τέλειος referring to adult animals, see here <ref target="CGRN_210">CGRN 210</ref> (Eleutherna), line A17, with discussion; for a "perfect" purification , compare also <ref target="CGRN_5">CGRN 5</ref> (Olympia), lines 2-3 (κοθάρσι τελείαι)</p>
						
<p>Lines 1-3 (heading): For the complex presentation of the whole document as an oracle of Apollo concerning the settlement of the people of Cyrene in Lybia, see above; here, we concentrate especially on the rituals which are introduced in lines 2-3. On the whole, we may say that purity seems the fundamental concern of the regulations expounded on the stele. Despite the best efforts of some scholars (such as recently Dobias-Lalou, who translated καθαρμός and ἁγνεία as "pratiques de pureté ordinaire" and "(de) pureté rituelle" respectively), we should view καθαρμοί and ἁγνείαι as two pendants of the same coin: the first refers to procedures of purification, specifically rituals such as sacrifices which may be offered as purificatory measures (see § 1) and other related rituals (see notably line 76 for another instance of the word); the second to abstentions from sources of pollution, a form of behaviour resulting in a state of purity (see especially § 15; cp. here : <ref target="CGRN_148">CGRN 148</ref>, line 5, which is the introduction to the rules for purity from Kos: this ritual norm employ the same pair of terms, along with possibly a third now lost in the lacuna). The problem is that the phrase presented here was not a simple coin, since it clearly had a third pendant, which is now completely restored. Dobias-Lalou, following Defradas, prefers to think that this third element was a reference to the tithing (δεκατεύω), which forms the core subject of pars. 7-11, and perhaps others); we have hesitatingly followed her text here. Another suitable possibility is that the phrase introduced the subject of § 17-19, namely supplication and suppliants, [ἱκετ]ήιαις (see Robertson, following Herz). On the whole, however, we may suspect that both of these restorations are not wholly satisfying, since they point only to a limited number of sections in the regulation. It remains possible and perhaps more likely that the third element was a more general one, pointing to "cult", such as Oliverio's suggestion [θεραπ]ήιαις; cp. for instance, Dion. Hal. 2.63.2: ἁγνείας τε καὶ θρησκείας καὶ καθαρμοὺς καὶ τὰς ἄλλας θεραπείας (or cp. Diosc. 4.42.3, for an option which would not accord with the traces: τέμνεται δὲ καὶ πρὸς καθαρμοὺς καὶ ἱερουργίας καὶ ἁγνείας.</p>
						
<p>Lines 4-7 (§ 1): To seek to remedy from pestilence, famine (probably), or "death" (i.e. probably any other generally fatal calamity) afflicting the city or its territory, a simple sacrifice to Apollo Apotropaios is prescribed: this is to take place outside of the limits of the city, in front of the gates (as Dobias-Lalou suggests, the reference may have been to "the gate of Apollonia", below the sanctuary; either the sanctuary of Apollo Apotropaios himself was in this area or ἀποτρόπαιος here designates an apotropaic figure which was affixed to the gates—the word as a substantive in this sense would be new, though not unexpected). Rhodes and Osborne appropriately note the sacrifice of a goat prescribed by Delphi to avert a plague at Kleonai (Paus. 10.2.5) and the connection between the plague at Athens and the purification of Delos (D.S. 12.58.6-7). On the purificatory figure of Apollo Apotropaios, see also here <ref target="CGRN_193">CGRN 193</ref> (Hyllarima), lines Ab7-9 (paired with Zeus Katharsios); for sacrifices to the god made at the boundaries of the community, cp. esp. <ref target="CGRN_52">CGRN 52</ref> (Erchia), col. A, lines 24-37 +  col. Γ, lines 32-38 + col. E, lines 32-47 (7-8 Gamelion). The sacrifice is to consist of a tawny winter-old he-goat: for this animal sacrificed to Apollo, cf. <ref target="CGRN_141">CGRN 141</ref> (Lindos); for the colour, cf. the alternatives proposed at <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), lines 33-35, as well as <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref> (Kamiros) and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_117">CGRN 117</ref> (Lindos). For further discussion of this passage, see Parker, p. 334-335.</p>
						
<p>Lines 8-10 (§ 2): This paragraph concerns the use of wood growing in the sanctuary of Apollo. If the correct price for this is paid to the god (literally "planted", using the verb ἐρείδω—perhaps a botanical analogy or suggesting that further plants or dedications were to be fixed in the ground? see below, at lines 120-121), then any use for the wood is allowed. Three categories of purpose for the wood are envisaged: sacred (presumably meaning sacrifices), "secular" (heating, etc.), and impure uses; the latter category presumably refers, <foreign>inter alia</foreign> to the many preliminary sacrifices or those of atonement which are detailed in the stele and which one must perform before again becoming pure (no doubt also for funerals). For rules concerning the use of wood growing in sanctuaries, cp. here <ref target="CGRN_78">CGRN 78</ref> (Piraeus), lines 18-22.</p>
						
<p>Lines 11-15 (§ 3): This section concerns purity of men after sex, which is presented in greater detail than in other purity regulations in the present Collection. The impurity resulting from intercourse dissipates on the following day, if this took place during the night; the man is then allowed to sacrifice at his leisure in the sanctuary of Apollo. If the intercourse took place during the day, then washing and perhaps other requirements now missing were specified; the man in this case appears to be excluded from a specific area of the sanctuary (line 13). For similar entry requirements concerning sex in the present collection, cf. <ref target="CGRN_71/">CGRN 71</ref> (Metropolis), lines 3-6, with further discussion.</p>
						
<p>Lines 16-20 (§ 4): Again, this section of the regulation provides an unusually detailed discussion, in this case of pollution as a result of childbirth (a theme which will to a different extent be reprised in pars. 15-16). The rule seeks to clarify that not only members of the household but all those physically present "under the roof" or those entering the house are to become polluted. These individuals are to be impure for three days, perhaps including the woman giving birth herself (though this is not clear, see § 16, below), but their impurity is not contagious: wherever they may go, contact with another person does not make that other person impure. For Greek views on contagion and impurity, see Parker, p. 218-220. For another cases in which pollution is explicitly ‘confined’ to a particular circle, cp. <ref target="CGRN_35/">CGRN 35</ref> (Iulis), lines 25-29.</p>
						
<p>Lines 21-25 (§ 5): The interpretation of this section has been particularly fraught and much discussed. On the whole, it now seems generally agreed that it concerns right of entry and attendance at different shrines which were also (heroic) tombs and at the rites which took place at these sites. Key for interpreting this context is the phrase in line 24, which suggests that any other place where a human being has died (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. κάμνω II.5) is not ὁσία for "the pure man" (see Parker, p. 336-339); the latter, as a category of individual, must have designated priests and/or other members of the cult personnel in the sanctuary and perhaps in the community at large. As we read, all of the Akamantia are allowed (ὁσία + gen. of respect, cp. ἱερῶν πατρῴων ὅσιος in A. <title>Th.</title> 1015) for anyone. The question remains of how to interpret the following phrase: does it create an exception concerning the Akamantia or does it qualify the later clause in line 24 concerning the pollution caused by any other human tomb? Syntactically, we might expect a clause beginning with πλήν to create an exception following a general statement, such as we find here for the Akamantia: ὅσια παντὶ ... πλὰν ἀπ᾽...; cp. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. πλήν (A-B) with a multitude of examples. Alternatively, but more unusually (πλήν is normally preceded by ἄλλος when the two are joined, see again <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v.), πλὰν ἀπ᾽... here would introduce the general statement found in line 24 (ἀπ᾽ ἄλλω), thereby prefacing it with an exception; this is the option preferred by Parker, Dobias-Lalou and still more widely, such as by Rhodes - Osborne. In any case, the exceptions are the following: (the tomb of) Battos the Archagetes or founding hero of Cyrene, (the sanctuary of) the Tritopatres, and that of Onymastos from Delphi. In the first interpretation, all Akamantia are licit of access for anyone, with the exception of these three shrines. While it would be remarkable for the tomb of Battos to be a source of pollution in the midst of the agora of Cyrene, this is perhaps most attractive for the Tritopatres who were occasionally viewed as impure: see <ref target="CGRN_13/">CGRN 13</ref> (Selinous). It is also now clear that Battos, as Archagetes, formed a part of the category of the Akamantia. Revisiting this passage, Dobias-Lalou and Dubois (2007, p. 145-150), examine a further inscription from Cyrene which contains a list of Akamantiades, i.e. days for the worship of the Akamantes; among these days are theoric sacrifices to the Archagetes (Battos, implicitly, rather than Apollo); the term Akamantia may thus have referred to ritual celebrations for these heroes, though it can also continue to be interpreted as sanctuaries and cult-sites in the present regulation. In the second, more widely accepted view, the tombs of Battos and Onymastos, as well as the shrine of the Tritopatres (to an extent probably also considered as “tombs”), are considered licit for the pure; these three shrines, which could also be viewed as human burials, would then not have been reckoned as a source of pollution. For strict rules concerning the pollution incurred by cult personnel visiting heroic shrines, cf. <ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 85</ref>, line 12, and <ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 148</ref> (both from Kos), line 23, where eating at heroic shrines and physical access to these places is completely forbidden; no such exceptions are stipulated on Kos. On the Akamantes, a wider category of ancestral heroes or winds, see Parker and cf. here <ref target="CGRN_56">CGRN 56</ref> (Marathonian Tetrapolis), col. II, line 32 (paired with the Tritopatres in the calendrical entry). On ὅσιος and regulations of entry, see now Peels. Battos was the founding hero of Cyrene and buried in the agora (P. <title>Pyth.</title> 5.93; again, Hdt. 4.150-159; see also Parker); on the Tritopatres, "great-grandfathers", see also e.g. <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref> (Erchia), lines D42-47 (21 Mounichion); Onymastos from Delphi is not well known, but may have been a seer involved in the colony and buried as a hero at Cyrene.</p>
						
<p>Lines 26-32 (§ 6): This paragraph forms one of the most eloquent pieces of evidence for the expected procedure resulting from a sacrifice that was not made according to the norm (for pollution due to sacrilege, see Parker, p. 144ff.). It is not clear in this case how the animal was found lacking (perhaps in quality, gender or age or because its species was not allowed in the Apollonion) or who would determine this (perhaps the priest), but the situation caused an impurity both for the shrine and the sacrificer. The rules for remedying the situation are particularly explicit: a thorough cleansing of the altar and removal of the sacrificial fire (itself apparently uncontaminated: see Parker, p. 227, but note also p. 23 and 35 for new fire needed in some cases of impurity) to a pure location. The phrase ἐς καθαρόν is taken by Parker to refer to a "pure place", presumably an area inside or outside the sanctuary that remained uncontaminated; since the fire apparently remains pure and the referent of the adjective is missing (also below, in lines 38, 62, and 71; though there Parker admits that the force of the phrase "is obscure", p. 340), this seems to us perhaps a preferable solution to Dobias-Lalou's interpretation of ἐς as a purpose clause, "for purity", with καθαρός used in an abstract sense, which seems unlikely when consistently found following a verb of movement, ἀποφέρω (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. εἰς V.2). For the purification of the whole sanctuary that was also required, cp. here <ref target="CGRN_38">CGRN 38</ref> (Chios), lines A10-12, <ref target="CGRN_65">CGRN 65</ref> (Tegea), and <ref target="CGRN_127">CGRN 127</ref> (Dyme). The final clause of this section remains controversial and difficult to interpret. Since a <foreign>paragraphos</foreign> has intervened before line 32, some suppose (most recently Rhodes - Osborne, and Robertson), that this forms a special section or a very short heading of the regulation, perhaps for the following sections about tithes; Dobias-Lalou probably rightly argues that the <foreign>paragraphos</foreign> is erroneous and that the word straddling lines 31 and 32 is the new compound word νομ-οκώχιμος. That being said, it remains unclear what a sacrifice performed "as one bound by the law as far nephews" would exactly entail.</p>
						
<p>Lines 33-72 (pars. 7-11): These five paragraphs are all concerned with individuals who were "subjected to tithes", literally called δέκατος themselves. These are usually taken to be men, but paragraphs 7 and 10 only discuss adult "human beings" (given the use of ἄνθρωπος). § 8 refers to an immature individual; § 9 is concerned with property to be tithed; § 10 with a "tithed" person who has died and finally § 11 with the obligations of the children, both dead and alive, of such an individual. Parker (p. 339-344) collects an abundant body of material for tithes dedicated to Apollo, but justly confesses that "It does not seem that the institution [of tithing in] our inscription corresponds exactly with any of the familiar forms" (p. 341); Rhodes and Osborne further note (p. 503) that these clauses "seem to assume a great deal of prior knowledge on the part of the reader, knowledge which we simply do not have". Parker discusses this passage extensively and we cautiously follow him in supposing that "tithing" here refers to a form of punishment, which is consequent on pollution, though "the character of the pollution [incurred by these individuals] ... remain[s] unclear" (p. 343; see also Rhodes - Osborne, with further discussion). The "tithing" will presumably have in most cases been an estimation of the tenth of the worth of the individual, which must be sacrificed or consecrated to the god in a tangible form, such as an animal sacrifice or another offering. Indeed, it is often stated that the "tithe" itself is not to be used to pay (οὐκ ἀπὸ τᾶς δεκάτας, cf. lines 37, 60-61) for the preliminary sacrifice viewed as a penalty (ζαμία), but the resulting "sacrifice" of the tithe and its "bringing to the pure" should probably be viewed as another ritual of sacrifice or offering in and of itself. In the case of the immature person (ἄνηβος, § 8)—who does not own any substantial property and is not explicitly "tithed"—the penalty caused by an involuntary pollution is very mild, merely purification of oneself; voluntary pollution, however, resulted in the standard procedure of purifying the sanctuary and a sacrifice as a penalty. In the case of a living person (or even of dead individuals, lines 57-58, or their deceased or living heirs, lines 64-65 and 69 respectively), the procedure was a surprisingly unique one: the person was literally to be sold "for as much as he is worth", i.e. a probably fictitious sale was to take place in which the value of the individual and his goods was to be estimated (cp. the estimate made of tangible property, lines 43-44). In almost all cases, the process of "tithing" seems to have had some connection with the funerary sphere: tithed possessions were not to be used to pay for offerings or libations for the dead before the debt had been acquitted to the god (cf. lines 47-50; on rules for such offerings, cp. here <ref target="CGRN_35">CGRN 35</ref>, Iulis); similarly, elaborate rules were devised for a deceased person who owed a tithe (§ 10 and 11; offerings on the tomb were only permitted on the first day after the death, lines 55-56, after which the tithing on the deceased as well as his heirs had to proceed according to the rules). While these rules may be seen to have had a practical purpose, namely ensuring that no significant money was detracted from what was owed to the god, they made also have had a religious connotation, connecting the tithing as a form of punishment for impurity with the need for proper honours paid to the dead. For purification by blood first introduced in line 34 (usually of a small animal, such as a piglet), cp. here <ref target="CGRN_157">CGRN 157</ref> (Priene), line 36 (a chicken); and cf. Parker, p. 371-373. The small clause at line 39 remains of somewhat doubtful interpretation and appears a bit out of place, requiring the provision of a vessel or receptacle by each person performing a sacrifice. For the penalty sacrifice as προβώμιος, a term first introduced in line 61, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. This could designate either a sacrifice performed "in front of the altar" (so Dobias-Lalou), namely as a preliminary to the offering of the tithe (but at lines 67-68, the tithe too is προβώμιος), or more specifically to a type of sacrifice called σφαγή, where the animal had its throat slit on the ground in front of the altar (see notably E. <title>Ion</title> 376 cited by <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl>).</p>
						
<p>Lines 73-79 (§ 12): The interpretation of this more fragmentary paragraph is difficult and, especially given the obscure character of some of the norms in the rest of the document, must remain open.</p>
						
<p>Lines 83-105 (pars. 13-15): With the beginning of face B, we first find four paragraphs which concern women, perhaps at least the first three concerned with the cult of Artemis and female initiations (though this is not really explicitly mentioned; see however Chamoux, p. 318-319, followed by Dobias-Lalou) or other rituals for this goddess and/or for the Nymphs (see <title>Suda</title> s.v. προτέλεια for premarital sacrifice to the Nymphs). The first paragraph specifies that a new bride is "go down to Artemis" (perhaps to the Nymphaion to visit the Bear, as in lines 91 and 97; since the area near the sanctuary of Artemis contained a distinctive structure with subterranean chambers, it seems appropriate to identify this as the Nymphaion and the site of the ritual; for an explanation, see Chamoux, p. 315-319). She is to do so before visiting the bridal chamber of her new husband and "becoming polluted" (i.e. having sex). Punishments are specified for voluntary or involuntary transgressions of this rule: these match the other penalties found in the document. Dobias-Lalou's reading implies that the bed-chamber is the marital room in the household, while the earlier reading of the text viewed the κοιτατήριον (in line 89, not restored in line 83), as a "sleeping-room" forming part of the sanctuary of Artemis, which the new bride must visit as a first step, for the "prenuptial sleep" or προνύμφιος ὕπνος (see Parker, p. 345, citing Call. fr. 75.2). On Dobias-Lalou's reading, rather than marking a different stage in the "initiation" or ritual for the bride, § 14 seems to add further details to the procedure of "going to Artemis, in the Nymphaion", specifically to its timing: this was to take place during the festival of Artemis or, better, as soon as possible for the new bride. In any case, we may infer that the new bride presumably had to stay in the sanctuary for one night (probably in the Nymphaion) and undergo certain rituals there, though it must be remembered that this is not overtly specified. Similarly, a pregnant woman (§ 15) was also to visit the Nymphaion before giving birth and apparently offer a sacrifice there (now missing, but see line 100), since she is to give the feet and head and skin of the animal to the Bear (the skin could be flayed together with the head and feet, so this may in fact have formed a single portion, cf. <ref target="CGRN_169">CGRN 169</ref>, Kallatis, lines 5-6, with commentary). This oblique reference to the Bear forms a direct parallel with the cult of Artemis at Brauron in Attica; there, is is known that young girls served as Bear before reaching the age of marriage (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. ἄρκτος II); several unpublished inscriptions from Brauron may add to these testimonies, but for now cf. the sources collected and discussed by Parker, p. 345-346. Most important among these, perhaps, is the explicit definition of the <title>Suda</title> that the Athenians decreed (or legislated) that no maiden was to cohabit with her husband before she had served as a bear for the goddess (ἄρκτος ἡ Βραυρωνίοις. ἐψηφίσαντο οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι μὴ πρότερον συνοικίζεσθαι ἀνδρὶ παρθένον εἰ μὴ ἀρκτεύσειε τῇ θεῷ). No similar requirement is preserved in the regulation from Cyrene, but the mention of the Bear in this passage suggests that the rites of Artemis at Cyrene also involved this ritual step for maidens; certainly, as we read, both new brides and new mothers were required to visit the sanctuary and undergo certain rituals. The new mother, more specifically, was required to "go down" and to make abstentions (from sex?) for the seventh, eighth and ninth days, before or after what (the birth?) remains completely unclear (see again Parker, p. 346, for discussion). On the role of Artemis in connection with marriage and birth, see Brulé.</p>
						
<p>Lines 106-109 (§ 16): This short section again concerns women, but appears specifically appended to the case of the pregnant woman discussed immediately above (§ 15), since it concerns miscarriage (or much less likely, abortion); on purity rules for miscarriage, see here e.g. <ref target="CGRN_155">CGRN 155</ref> (Megalopolis), lines 6-7, and <ref target="CGRN_224">CGRN 224</ref> (Ptolemais)—abstention of ca. 40 days from entry to the sanctuary was a typical requirement. The rules are again unusually specific, specifying a different form of pollution if the foetus can be seen to have had a recognisable form or not (see Rhodes - Osborne, p. 505, for further discussion and some mention of the religious and ethical implications of this passage). In the former case, the event is to be treated as a death (rules for which are not specified in the text, but see here for rules on the death of kin: cf. e.g. <ref target="CGRN_181">CGRN 181</ref>, Eresos); in the latter, the miscarriage carries the same impurity as childbirth (discussed in § 4 and resulting in an impurity for 3 days as far as the household is concerned, but perhaps not the woman herself; for the parallelism between the impurity resulting from childbirth and miscarriage, cf. esp. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 1 349: ἀπὸ λεχοῦς καὶ ἐγ δια<supplied reason="omitted">φθ</supplied>ορᾶς ἁμέρας δέκα, discussed here at <ref target="CGRN_189">CGRN 189</ref> (Lykosoura), lines 2-5.</p>
						
<p>Lines 110-121 (§ 17): The heading in line 110 seems to introduce a new subject matter, at least for the following three paragraphs: these are "suppliants", though the word ἱκέσιος also etymologically means more vaguely "comer" or "visitor"; the sections perhaps capitalise on this ambiguity or, as with the section on "tithing", refer to implicit information which is now lost to us (see notably Servais and Dobias-Lalou 1997 for useful articles focussed specifically on these sections of the regulation). In this first case, we seem to be dealing with a "suppliant" or "visitor" who is sent to a certain house. Parker (following Radermacher and de Sanctis) holds that it is the recipient of the suppliant (the one to whose house he was sent) who must propitiate at a distance the sender, who may be highly enigmatic: if he is known, then he must be called for three days; he or she may also be dead, or can be entirely unknown. The ritual for propitiating a deceased or unknown sender, namely constructing figurines and holding a meal for them (implied by the serving of portions, μέρη), finds some parallels in <foreign>theoxenia</foreign> rituals as well as in several magical practices (cf. Parker, p. 347, with refs.), though the rites are unusually detailed or more specific here; for rituals of <foreign>theoxenia</foreign>, where meals were served for gods or heroes, usually represented in the guise of statues or statuettes, see here <ref target="CGRN_13">CGRN 13</ref> (Selinous) and e.g. <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), lines 13-24. A more complex problem, however, is the identity of the "suppliant" or "visitor" itself. According to an earlier view, he could be an individual under the power of a foreigner, thence sent to Cyrene to a new master; Parker rightly finds objections to this view (p. 348). Stukey pointed out that the language here is reminiscent of a magical attack, particularly the notion of ἐπαγωγή (noting the recurrent ἐπί-compounds in the passage); this leads to the conclusion that the "suppliant" in this case is an evil spirit "sent against the house" by a spell, a view followed by Parker (p. 348-349). This seems plausible, though it nevertheless remains striking that both of the other suppliants under consideration in the regulation (below) seem clearly to be human agents (so also Parker, Rhodes - Osborne). Dobias-Lalou (2000 and 2007) persists in seeing the visitor here and in the other sections as human rather than a spirit or divine agent.</p>
						
<p>Lines 122-131 (§ 18): The passage concerning the second suppliant is perhaps equally obscure: the precise interpretation of his status notably centers on the meaning of the term τελέω and its cognates, recurring three times in the passage. If this refers to initiation and lack thereof (so e.g. Servais, Parker), then this perhaps raises more problems than it solves, since the connection between supplication and initiation is not particularly clear or well-understood. In a general sense, this category seems to have been concerned with the obligations to be performed by the suppliant "sitting in the public sanctuary" (presumably in this specific case, the Apollonion as a destination for suppliants). Perhaps until he was accepted by the community or removed from the status of suppliant (or perhaps even afterward), the individual had to acquit himself of an annual sacrifice of grain or "fruits of the earth" and a libation (cf. Rhodes - Osborne, p. 505: "the on-going religious obligations that they thereby incur unless ritually accepted"; for the sacrifice of "fruits of the earth", cp. e.g. here the ὡραῖα prescribed at <ref target="CGRN_56">CGRN 56</ref>, Marathonian Tetrapolis, col. II, lines 14-15, and cp. also <ref target="CGRN_60">CGRN 60</ref>, Thera, lines 14-15). A fine of double this vague sacrifice was imposed in case of non-compliance; the suppliant's obligations also seem to have passed on to his children (lines 127-128; cf. Dobias-Lalou). More enigmatically, this category of suppliant was regularly concerned by injunctions or proclamations (προφέρηται) along with oracular pronouncements: the content of all of these oral commands remains highly unclear.</p>
						
<p>Lines 132-141 (§ 19): This forms the most comprehensible section about suppliants. The rules here concern a suppliant who has come as a murderer (αὐτόφονος), presumably from abroad and who is now subjected to a ritual of purification and incorporation into the community of Cyrene. Dobias-Lalou and Dubois (2007: 150-153) explain the term ἀφ-ικετεύω as the removal of the status of "suppliant" and the "reintegration" of the guilty party in the community; this is apparently to take place at some place involving the city as political community (the fragmentary ...πολίαν in line 133) as well as apparently within the political structure of its three constituent Doric tribes (τριφυλίαν, idem); the precise meaning of these terms remains to be clarified, however. After having proclaimed his status as suppliant (lines 133-134), the murderer sits on the threshold (either of a house or of the temple of Apollo?) on a white fleece, after which he is to undergo rituals of purification: washing, anointing, exit in silence on the public road, hosting by members of the community (lines 134-137), etc. Sitting on a fleece or sacrificial skin was a form of communication with the divine, featuring notably as a component of mystery cults (such as at Eleusis) and sleeping on a fleece was involved in incubation rituals; for the latter, see here <ref target="CGRN_75">CGRN 75</ref>, Oropos, lines 29-36). For the murderer "of his own blood" or "by his own hand", cf. Parker, p. 351, for a discussion of the terms; cp. the analogous purifications required of this individual at Selinous if he wishes to be purified of a vengeful spirit (Elaster), <ref target="CGRN_13">CGRN 13</ref>, lines B1-7; see Dobias-Lalou – Dubois, 153-158, for a study of this comparison with the text from Selinous, citing notably other sources concerning the purifications required of murderers, e.g. Eupatrides of Athens (<bibl type="abbr" n="FGrH">FGrH</bibl> 356 F 1, principally "washing").</p>
							
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