News from the Collection of Greek Ritual Norms

Those familiar with the CGRN will notice some changes, effective from the end of summer 2022.

A substantial update of the website has been carried out, with 25 new inscriptions (nos. 226-250), substantially updated versions of several existing files (nos. 1, 25, 43, 137, 213, 225), other necessary but more limited revisions, and adjustments to the formal presentation.

As their authorship makes clear, several of the new files are the work of an expanded CGRN team. Beyond the original trio of Carbon, Peels(-Matthey) and Pirenne-Delforge, the team currently includes Julien Dechevez, Manfred Lesgourgues, Luca Lorenzon, Elie Piette, Zoé Pitz, and Rebecca Van Hove.

Another important change is the addition of a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) to the site itself ( and to each of the files. The referencing now corresponds to international standards and offers a unique identifier for each inscription.

Those who are unfamiliar with the CGRN will continue to find below all the information they need to understand the objectives of the project and how to cite it.

As ever, we remain very interested and grateful to hear your general feedback or comments on individual files (quoting the relevant CGRN number). Please write to us at

Guiding Principles

The project issues from the reassessment of a category of inscriptions which have come to fore in the study of ancient Greek religion. These are the texts known as leges sacrae or “sacred laws”, collected by F. Sokolowski in the 1950s and 60s (LSAM, LSS, LSCG), and more recently by E. Lupu in 2005 (NGSL).

The validity and the utility of this epigraphical category has recently been questioned (cf. especially Parker 2004 and see also Harris 2015). Articles published as part of the preliminary investigations of the CGRN project have broadened this discussion. Please consult: “Beyond Greek ‘Sacred Laws’”, “Codifying ‘Sacred Laws’”, and “Two Notes on the Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN)” to be read with Parker 2018b. In the present collection, instead of remaining under the lens of “sacred laws”, we have chosen to focus on the normative character of inscriptions relating to ancient Greek rituals. We have focussed in particular on the two large subjects of sacrifice and purification, though texts concerning other normative aspects of Greek religion and rituals are occasionally included.

The result of this reappraisal is an original Digital Humanities resource, initially funded (2012-2016) by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique – FNRS (Belgium), which now (2017-) continues under the aegis of the Collège de France (Paris) and the University of Liège. The Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN) is a website which conforms to the general guidelines of TEI Epidoc XML and its content is peer-reviewed. Its primary goal is to gather epigraphical material for the study of Greek rituals and to make these sources widely available, in a clear and accessible form, with translations in English and in French (for some conventions, see here).

In addition, the Collection aims to innovate by providing detailed, research-oriented tools for scholars wishing to investigate the two principal subjects of sacrifice and purification, notably the extensive lists of “Themes” identifiable under the “Browse” and “Search” functionalities of the website. To orient yourself and to consult the conceptual “Themes” analysed in the CGRN, please click here. You are cordially invited to browse, search, or simply to start exploring, for example, the sacrificial rituals in the calendar of Thorikos, CGRN 32, or the purifications listed in the regulation from Kos, CGRN 85 (for a concordance, see here).

Selection of Texts and Updates

Choices must necessarily be made and the CGRN is very much a ‘choix’ rather than a corpus. It helpfully highlights significant, intriguing, or representative texts, but neither pretends to be exhaustive nor to present complete epigraphical editions. Instead, the best available modern editions have usually been followed or referenced. Similarly, the bibliography is intended to be a list of essential reading, rather than comprehensive. That being said, the CGRN website is a work-in-progress. As an evolving and dynamic publication, updates or omitted material are regularly published. When a file has been substantially corrected and modified, an archived version remains available for consultation.

How to Cite

  • A brief citation of the CGRN, for instance in a footnote, should take the form:
    CGRN #, lines x-x [e.g.: CGRN 37, lines 8-9].
  • Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant DOI, can be:
    CGRN #, lines x-x (DOI:
    [e.g.: CGRN 37, lines 8-9 (DOI:]
  • Reference to a file as a critical study of the inscription can be:
    Author(s) of the file, “Title of the file”, in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on [DATE]. URL:; DOI:
    [e.g.: Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, “CGRN 37: Fragment of a contract of sale for a priesthood on Chios”, in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on [DATE]. URL:; DOI:]
  • The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
    Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on [DATE]. URL:; DOI:

When consulting an individual inscription, all these types of references are provided through the “Export citation” function. Please note that, since this is an evolving collection, any proper reference to the CGRN should always include a mention of the date of consultation.


The CGRN is indebted to the valuable efforts of the following advisers or contributors: Stefano Caneva, Björn-Olaf Dozo, Aurian Delli Pizzi, Evelien de Graaf, Stephen D. Lambert, Sophie Minon, Sylvain Lebreton, Alaya Palamidis, Robert Parker, and Stéphanie Paul. Many thanks are also extended to authors who kindly accepted the use and reproduction of their translations of the inscriptions.