Guiding Principles

The project issues from the reassessment of a category of inscriptions which have come to fore in the study of ancient Greek religion. These are the texts known as leges sacrae or “sacred laws”, collected by F.Sokolowski in the 1950s and 60s (LSAM, LSS, LSCG), and more recently by E. Lupu in 2005 (NGSL).

The validity and the utility of this epigraphical category has recently been questioned (cf. especially Parker 2004 and see also Harris 2015). Articles published as part of the preliminary investigations of the CGRN project have broadened this discussion. Please consult: “Beyond Greek ‘Sacred Laws’” and “Codifying ‘Sacred Laws’”. In the present collection, instead of remaining under the lens of “sacred laws”, we have chosen to focus on the normative character of inscriptions relating to ancient Greek rituals, and in particular on the two large subjects of sacrifice and purification.

The result of this reappraisal is an original Digital Humanities resource, funded by the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique – FNRS (Belgium). The Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN) is a website which conforms to the general guidelines of TEI Epidoc XML. Its primary goal is to gather epigraphical material for the study of Greek rituals and to make these sources widely available, in a clear and accessible form, with translations in English and in French (for some conventions, see here).

In addition, the Collection aims to innovate by providing detailed, research-oriented tools for scholars wishing to investigate the two principal subjects of sacrifice and purification, notably the extensive lists of “Themes” identifiable under the “Browse” and “Search” functionalities of the website. To orient yourself and to consult the conceptual “Themes” analysed in the CGRN, please click here. You are cordially invited to browse, search, or simply to start exploring sacrificial rituals in the calendar of Thorikos, CGRN 32, as well as the purifications listed in the regulation from Kos, CGRN 85 (for a concordance, see here).

Selection of Texts and Future Updates

Choices must necessarily be made and the CGRN is very much a ‘choix’ rather than a corpus. It helpfully highlights significant, intriguing, or representative texts, but neither pretends to be exhaustive nor to present complete epigraphical editions. Instead, the best available modern editions have usually been followed or referenced. Similarly, the bibliography is intended to be a list of essential reading, rather than comprehensive. That being said, the CGRN website is a work-in-progress. As an evolving and dynamic publication, updates or omitted material will be regularly published: annually, at the most, and depending on further funding.

How to Cite

A brief citation of the CGRN, for instance in a footnote, should take the form:
CGRN #, lines x-x (e.g.: CGRN 1, lines A1-2).

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
e.g.: CGRN 1, lines A1-2 ( Authors of a given file may also be cited.

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, A Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2016- (, consulted in [YEAR]).

When consulting an individual inscription, all three of these types of references are provided through the “Export citation” function. Please note that, since this is an evolving collection, any proper reference to the CGRN should always include a mention of the year of consultation.


The CGRN is indebted to the valuable efforts of the following contributors: Stefano Caneva, Björn-Olaf Dozo, Aurian Delli Pizzi, Sylvain Lebreton, Alaya Palamidis, Stéphanie Paul, Elie Piette and Zoé Pitz. Many thanks are also extended to authors who kindly accepted the use and reproduction of their translations of the inscriptions.