CGRN 149

Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Kamiros (concerning sacrifices to the Damateres)

Date :

ca. 50 BC - 50 AD

Justification: lettering (Blinkenberg).

Provenance

Kamiros . Found near Agios Phokas, north of Siana. Now in the National Museum of Denmark (Copenhagen).

Support

Small stele of Lartian marble, with a simple moulding at the top. Somewhat broken at the botton. The front and top sides have been well-worked; the back was left rough, presumably for resting against a wall.

  • Height: 30 cm
  • Width: 12.7 (with the moulding, 15) cm
  • Depth: 9.3 cm

Layout

Letters: 8-9 mm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Blinkenberg Lindos II 671, with ph. There are no problems with the readings.

Other edition: Segre - Pugliese Carratelli Tit.Cam. 156a.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 95.

Further bibliography: Segre 1951; Badoud 2015: 11-35; Iversen 2017: 192-197; Carbon forthc.

Text


Ζμινθίου
τετράδι
ἱσταμένου,
Δαμάτερσιν
5ὄϊν
κυεῦσαν.

Translation

On the 4th of Sminthios, to the Damateres (Demeters), (sacrifice) a pregnant ewe.

Traduction

Le 4 Sminthios, aux Damateres (Déméters), (sacrifier) une brebis pleine.

Commentary

The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here CGRN 62 and CGRN 63, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. CGRN 110 for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. CGRN 115 for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc. Though the inscription appears later than most of these Hellenistic excerpts (notably because of its lettering), it nonetheless preserves a style and layout typical of the earlier excerpts from the sacrificial calendar; it may therefore have been reinscribed in the late Hellenistic or early Roman period.

The excerpt is rather brief in this case (for other very brief excerpts, cp. CGRN 112, Kamiros, and both CGRN 115 and CGRN 116, Lindos). Since the small stele was found in the territory of Kamiros rather than in that city (at this time, a deme of Rhodes), it may have originally belonged to a local sanctuary of the goddesses in the countryside. In this light, it is also noteworthy that the inscription does not mention any officials responsible for the sacrifice, which contrasts with all of the other excerpts found at Kamiros. A pair of excerpts at Lindos, CGRN 115 and CGRN 116, do not mention any cult personnel either and also come from the countryside. Possibly the worshippers in these rural settings were expected to perform the sacrifice themselves.

The cult was concerned with the worship of multiple "Demeters", most probably the goddess Demeter and her daughter Kore; the pair are more commonly called "twin goddesses" in the dual, as at Eleusis: cf. CGRN 8, line 5. A strong parallel at Kamiros is presented by another pair of excerpts from the sacrificial calendar at Lindos, which attested to a sacrifice for "Demeter" or the "Damateres", depending on the restoration on the Acropolis there, cf. CGRN 179, line 2. An inscription explicitly mentioning the Damateres near this spot is Lindos II 183, ca. 200-170 BC, marking the cult-site of the goddess and of Zeus Damatrios for the patra of the Haliadai. Both these Lindian sacrifices seem to have taken place on early dates (the 7th and the 12th), probably also, as here at Kamiros, in the month Sminthios (the eighth month on Rhodes, ca. March/April, which marked the transition between the winter and early spring; cf. the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here; for a different view, see Iversen). The goddess or goddesses honoured at Lindos were also the recipients of a pregnant animal—definitely a pregnant sow, and possibly a pregnant sheep, too. For the sacrifice of a pregnant ewe to Demeter, see here CGRN 32 (Thorikos), lines 36-39 (for the Chloia, probably a ewe). For this offering, also relatively commonly found for others goddesses, see CGRN 56 (Marathonian Tetrapolis), col. I, lines 20-37 (unknown goddess in Pyanopsion), and col. II, lines 11-16 (Daira in Gamelion), CGRN 84 (Salaminioi), line 93 (Athena Skiras in Maimakterion) and CGRN 85 (Kos), line 24 (Athena Polias). Overall, these offerings for the Damateres at Kamiros and the probably analogous goddess(es) at Lindos must have marked the beginning of the Spring and, as with other rituals for Demeter, will probably have had a connection with agricultural propitiation, in this case at a critical juncture in the year: the onset of the growth of new cereal plants. Cp. also the cult of the Materes at Eleutherna: see CGRN 210, fr. B, lines 3-4.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN149), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels
  • Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 149, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels et Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, "CGRN 149: Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Kamiros (concerning sacrifices to the Damateres)", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on November 27, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/149/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN149.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on November 27, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

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	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
				<author>Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge</author></titleStmt>
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					<head>Bibliography</head>
					
				<p>Edition here based on Blinkenberg <bibl type="abbr" n="Lindos II">Lindos II</bibl> 671, with ph. There are no problems with the readings.</p>
					
				<p>Other edition: 
					Segre - Pugliese Carratelli <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 156a.</p>
			
					<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 95.</p>
					
					<p>Further bibliography: 
						<bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>; 
						<bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud 2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>: 11-35; 
						<bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: 192-197; 
						<bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl></p>
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	    				<head>Text</head>
	    				<ab>	
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Σμινθεύς">Ζμινθίου</w></name>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><w lemma="τετράς">τετράδι</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><w lemma="ἵστημι">ἱσταμένου</w>,
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><name type="deity" key="Damateres"><name type="deity" key="Demeter"><name type="deity" key="Kore"><w lemma="Δημήτηρ">Δαμάτερσιν</w></name></name></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϊν</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><name type="quality"><name type="gender"><w lemma="κύω">κυεῦσαν</w></name></name>.
	    						    						
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					<p>On the 4th of Sminthios, to the Damateres (Demeters), (sacrifice) a pregnant ewe. 
					</p>
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					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>Le 4 Sminthios, aux Damateres (Déméters), (sacrifier) une brebis pleine.
					</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p>The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_63">CGRN 63</ref>, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref> for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc. Though the inscription appears later than most of these Hellenistic excerpts (notably because of its lettering), it nonetheless preserves a style and layout typical of the earlier excerpts from the sacrificial calendar; it may therefore have been reinscribed in the late Hellenistic or early Roman period.</p>
						
<p>The excerpt is rather brief in this case (for other very brief excerpts, cp. <ref target="CGRN_112">CGRN 112</ref>, Kamiros, and both <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_116">CGRN 116</ref>, Lindos). Since the small stele was found in the territory of Kamiros rather than in that city (at this time, a deme of Rhodes), it may have originally belonged to a local sanctuary of the goddesses in the countryside. In this light, it is also noteworthy that the inscription does not mention any officials responsible for the sacrifice, which contrasts with all of the other excerpts found at Kamiros. A pair of excerpts at Lindos, <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_116">CGRN 116</ref>, do not mention any cult personnel either and also come from the countryside. Possibly the worshippers in these rural settings were expected to perform the sacrifice themselves.</p>

<p>The cult was concerned with the worship of multiple "Demeters", most probably the goddess Demeter and her daughter Kore; the pair are more commonly called "twin goddesses" in the dual, as at Eleusis: cf. <ref target="CGRN_8">CGRN 8</ref>, line 5. A strong parallel at Kamiros is presented by another pair of excerpts from the sacrificial calendar at Lindos, which attested to a sacrifice for "Demeter" or the "Damateres", depending on the restoration on the Acropolis there, cf. <ref target="CGRN_179">CGRN 179</ref>, line 2. An inscription explicitly mentioning the Damateres near this spot is <bibl type="abbr" n="Lindos II">Lindos II</bibl> 183, ca. 200-170 BC, marking the cult-site of the goddess and of Zeus Damatrios for the <foreign>patra</foreign> of the Haliadai. Both these Lindian sacrifices seem to have taken place on early dates (the 7th and the 12th), probably also, as here at Kamiros, in the month Sminthios (the eighth month on Rhodes, ca. March/April, which marked the transition between the winter and early spring; cf. the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here; for a different view, see Iversen). The goddess or goddesses honoured at Lindos were also the recipients of a pregnant animal—definitely a pregnant sow, and possibly a pregnant sheep, too. For the sacrifice of a pregnant ewe to Demeter, see here <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), lines 36-39 (for the Chloia, probably a ewe). For this offering, also relatively commonly found for others goddesses, see <ref target="CGRN_56">CGRN 56</ref> (Marathonian Tetrapolis), col. I, lines 20-37 (unknown goddess in Pyanopsion), and col. II, lines 11-16 (Daira in Gamelion), <ref target="CGRN_84">CGRN 84</ref> (Salaminioi), line 93 (Athena Skiras in Maimakterion) and <ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 85</ref> (Kos), line 24 (Athena Polias). Overall, these offerings for the Damateres at Kamiros and the probably analogous goddess(es) at Lindos must have marked the beginning of the Spring and, as with other rituals for Demeter, will probably have had a connection with agricultural propitiation, in this case at a critical juncture in the year: the onset of the growth of new cereal plants. Cp. also the cult of the Materes at Eleutherna: see <ref target="CGRN_210">CGRN 210</ref>, fr. B, lines 3-4.</p>
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