CGRN 249

Contract of sale for the priesthood of Asclepius in Miletos

Date :

ca. 15-100 AD

Justification: lettering (Rehm, "good writing from the 1st century AD"). Additionally, the praenomina and nomina of two of the strategoi (lines A2-3), Claudius Tiberius, show that Roman citizenship was attributed to their family by the emperor Tiberius. The beginning of Tiberius' rule (September 14 AD) is thus the terminus post quem for the date of this inscription.

Provenance

Miletos . The blocks were found in 1906 by Theodor Wiegand in the corner pillars of a Roman wall, north of the remains of the Paleo-Christian Basilica of Miletos. Now in the Museum of Miletos (inv. no. 901).

Support

Two slightly pyramidal marble ante-blocks which were not originally contiguous. According to Rehm, their respective dimensions (and the texts) show that one other ante-block of similar height (59.5-60 cm) is missing between the two preserved (hence the designation of these parts of the text as Blocks A, B [lost] and C here). Rehm estimates that perhaps 10 inscribed lines are missing on this block, which is now lost (here called Block B), and suggests some restorations for its first and last lines. However, according to the inscriptions on the two preserved blocks, we may be missing as many as 12-14 lines in the middle of this document.

Block A:

  • Height: 60 cm
  • Width: 86.5-87 cm
  • Depth: unknown

Block B:

  • Height: 59.5 cm
  • Width: 87.6-88.4 cm
  • Depth: unknown

Layout

Letters: unknown height.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Rehm Milet VI.1 204 a-b (p. 299-301). Blocks A and B in Rehm are here renamed Blocks A and C, taking into account the presumed missing Block B.

Other editions: Wiegand 1906: 258-260.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSAM 52; SEG 44, 943.

Further bibliography: Wiegand 1905: 547; Robert 1937: 98-108; Herrmann 1971; Robert - Robert 1983: 171-176; Marcellesi 2005; Herda 2006: 229-234; Lesgourgues 2019.

Text

Block A
ἀγαθῆι τύχηι· οἱ στρατηγοὶ τῆς πωλε-
{ε}ως
Τι(βέριος) Κλαύδιος Διονυσόδωρος, Λεύκι-
ος Ἰούνιος Ῥοῦφος Τι(βέριος) Κλαύδιος Ἀπολλώ-
νιος, Θεόμνηστος Θεομνήστου, Εἰσίων
5Ἐπιγόνου, Εὔτυχος Ἐπεράστου πω-
λοῦντες
ἱερωσύνην Ἀσκληπιοῦ πρὸ πόλε-
ως
καὶ τῶν ἐντεμενίων αὐτοῦ θεῶν πάν-
των
, χωρὶς εἴ τι προπέπραται ὑπὸ τοῦ δή-
μου
, νόμον τίθενται τῇ πράσι τόνδε, ἐφ’ ᾧ
10πριάμενος ἱέρεω ἀπογράψει παραχρῆμα
πρὸς τοὺς ταμίας καὶ βασιλῖς, ὁ δὲ ἀπογρα-
φὶς
ἱερήσεται εἰς ἔτη πεντήκοντα, αὐτὸς
οἱ διάδοχοι αὐτοῦ, τελεσθὶς Διὶ Τελεσ[ι]-
ουργῶι
, φορῶν ἐσθῆτα, οἵαν ἂν αὐτὸς βού[λη]-
Block B (missing)
[ται ..?..]
(about 12 missing lines)
[..?.. καὶ ἡ ὑ]-
Block C
δροφόρος καὶ ὁ παραφύλαξ, ἕκαστος αὐτῶν
οἶν ἄρσενα· θυέτωσα⟨ν⟩ δὲ καὶ οἱ παιδονόμοι
ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑγίας τῶν παίδων ἐν τῆι αὐτῆι ἡ-
μέραι
οἶν καὶ διδ⟨ό⟩τωσαν τῶι ἱερεῖ σπλάγχνα,
5νεφρόν, σκολιόν, ἱερὰν μοῖραν, γλῶσ⟨σ⟩αν, σκέλος
δεξιὸν εἰς κοτυληδόνα τετμημένον καὶ
τὴν δορὰν καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἱερά· θυέτωσαν δὲ ὁ-
μοίως
καὶ οἱ ἀγ⟨ω⟩νοθέται καὶ ὁ στεφανηφόρος,
ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ αἱ τὰ λοχῖα ἐκπορευόμεναι
10καὶ ζωννύμεναι· ἐὰν δέ τις μὴ θύσηι θύσας
μὴ δῷ τὰ ἱερὰ, ἀποτίσει τῶ ἱερεῖ δρα-
χμὰς
δεκαδύω. vacat

Translation

Block A

With good fortune. The generals of the city, Tiberius Claudius Dionysodoros, Lucius Junius Rufus, Tiberius Claudius Apollonios, Theomnestos son of Theomnestos, Eision (5) son of Epigonos, Eutuchos son of Eperastes, selling the priesthood of Asclepius Pro Poleos and of all the other gods in his sanctuary, excepting what has been sold before by the people, institute this law for the sale. According to this law, (10) the purchaser will immediately register a priest in the presence of the treasurers and basileis. After being consecrated to Zeus Telesiourgos, the man registered will be priest for fifty years, he or his successors, and will wear the garb which he wants

Block B

[...]

(about 12 missing lines)

[… and the hy]-

Block C

drophoros and the paraphylax: each of them [sacrifices] a wether. Let the paidonomoi sacrifice a sheep for the health of the children on the same (5) day, and let them give to the priest the viscera, a kidney, the small intestine, a sacred portion, the tongue, the right leg cut into the hip-socket, the skin and the rest of the sacred offerings. Let the agonothetai and the stephanephoros sacrifice (10) in the same way, and likewise the women who come out of childbirth and wear a belt. If anyone does not sacrifice or after sacrificing does not give the sacred offerings, let him pay the priest 12 drachmae.

Traduction

Bloc A

À la bonne fortune. Les stratèges de la cité, Tibérius Claudius Dionysodoros, Lucius Junius Rufus, Tibérius Claudius Apollonios, Theomnestos fils de Theomnestos, Eision (5) fils d’Epigonos, Eutuchos fils d’Eperastès, vendant la prêtrise d’Asclépios Pro Poleos et de tous les autres dieux de son sanctuaire, à l’exception de ce qui a été vendu auparavant par le peuple, instaurent cette loi pour la vente. D’après cette loi, (10) l’acquéreur fera immédiatement l’enregistrement d’un prêtre devant les trésoriers et les basileis. Après avoir été consacré à Zeus Telesiourgos, l’homme inscrit sera prêtre pour cinquante ans, lui ou ses successeurs, et s’habillera comme il lui plai-

Block B

[ra ...]

(quelque 12 lignes manquantes)

[… et l'hy-]

Bloc C

drophore et le paraphylax : chacun d’eux [sacrifie] un mouton mâle. Que les paidonomes sacrifient au nom de la santé des enfants le même (5) jour un mouton et qu’ils donnent au prêtre les viscères, un rein, le petit intestin, une portion sacrée, la langue, la patte droite coupée à l'articulation de la hanche, la peau et le reste des offrandes sacrées. Que les agonothètes et le stéphanéphore sacrifient de même, (10) et de même aussi celles qui sortent des couches et portent une ceinture. Si quelqu’un ne sacrifie pas ou, après avoir sacrifié, ne donne pas les parts sacrées, qu’il paie au prêtre 12 drachmes.

Commentary

Much like this text concerning the priesthood of Asclepius and the gods sharing his precinct, other sales of priesthoods at Miletos were inscribed on the anta-blocks of the relevant temple (cf. CGRN 138 and CGRN 248). Block A lists the names of the strategoi enacting the law concerning the sale and specifies the required conditions and procedures for the purchase of the priesthood (compare again CGRN 248). After a missing passage, Block C details which sacrifices different categories of people were to offer in the cult of Asclepius, how shares from the sacrifice were to be apportioned to the priest (here, distinctly called τὰ ἱερά and not γέρη or γέρα), and the penalties for non-compliance with these rules. Numerous parallels between this inscription and the contract of sale for the priesthood of Rome (CGNR 248) have led Rehm to suggest that the latter served as a model for the formulation of this law or that they both reflect local norms.

Block A

Lines 1-9: The first nine lines of the inscription list the six strategoi who were responsible for the law (νόμος) governing the sale of the priesthood. As Rehm points out, it is surprising that there is no reference in this document to the people or the council, except to limit the scope of the decision to priesthoods which the demos has not yet sold (lines A8-9). Yet according to Rehm, the strategoi act implicitly as representatives of the demos. In two other decrees from Ionia (CGRN 177, Priene, and CGRN 212, Pergamon), and in the priestly contract of the cult of Asclepius in Pergamon (CGRN 206, lines 3-4), it is indeed after a proposal by the strategoi that the people and the council legislate. Mentions of the strategoi at Miletos are rare, except for references in the “prophet inscriptions” of Didyma where the prophets honored recall having exercised this charge once or twice (cf. I.Didyma 253, 255, 258, 281, 388, 389). The only one of the six strategoi known to us from another ancient document is Lucius Junius Rufus, who held the office of γραμματεὺς τοῦ θεοῦ in the sanctuary of Didyma (I.Didyma 139; on this office, see Lesgourgues). The cult of Ἀσκληπιὸς πρὸ πόλεως is not known from other sources in Miletos. This qualification is unlikely to have the strict geographical meaning of "in front of the city" or "at the gates of the city" (Wiegand 1906: 260), but rather points towards a tutelary deity who "protects the city" (Robert - Robert). This interpretation is supported by the qualification of Athena at Miletos as τῆς πρ[ὸ πόλε]ως Πολιάδο[ς Ἀ]|θηνᾶς in an inscription of the 2nd or 3rd century AD (cf. Herrmann = Milet VI.3 1142; cf. also I.Didyma 182). These two deities are perhaps to be identified with the Milesian Asclepius and Athena who elsewhere qualified as Soter (CIG 2864 and I.Didyma 121) and Soteira (Milet II.3 401 and Wiegand 1905: 547) respectively. As in the sale of the priesthood of Asclepius at Pergamon (CGRN 206, lines 8-9), the office covers not only service to Asclepius himself, but also to all the deities who share the god's sanctuary (compare also the ἐντεμένιοι θεοί in the cult of Apollo at Miletos, CGRN 100, lines 3-4). It is thus a sort of "micro-pantheon" that the priest must serve. The clarification in lines 8-9 excludes from the contract "what had been sold before by the people": the neuter indefinite pronoun might refer to certain male or female priesthoods for the ἐντεμένιοι θεοί which had been sold previously. A similar though more explicit clause at CGRN 193 (Hyllarima), lines 13-15, excludes any previously sold priesthoods from a large-scale sale in the community.

Lines 10-11 : As in CGRN 248 (Miletos), line 4, the sale of the priesthood is accompanied by a registration of the priest. We note that the buyer (ὁ πριάμενος) is not necessarily the priest himself since ἱέρεω is here an accusative form, dependent on the active verb ἀπογράψει. Moreover, the one who will take charge of the priesthood is referred to with the noun ὁ ἀπογραφίς. The registration takes place in the presence of two distinct groups of officials, the basileis and the treasurers. The basileis (cf. Herda, p. 229-234; CGRN 6, line 3; CGRN 100, line 5; CGRN 201, lines 22-23; CGRN 248, line 5) are undoubtedly relevant: the βασίλειον acted as the central archives in Miletos (Herda, p. 233-234). The tamiai or treasurers appear here in their capacity as administrators of the public and sacred finances. Note that these two titles were seen as particularly noteworthy, as evidenced by the mention of the office of basileus in the prophet and hydrophoros inscriptions (e.g. I.Didyma 84 and 339) and by the series of tamiai inscriptions (I.Didyma 389-391).

Lines 12-13 : The duration of fifty years for which the priesthood is awarded is remarkable: it is neither a short duration like the three years and eight months found in the diagraphe for the priesthood of the goddess Rome (CGRN 248, lines 7-8), nor a lifetime office, as was often the case elsewhere (cf. CGRN 37, Chios, line 5; CGRN 221, Kos, line 16). The fact that the priesthood may be inherited precludes the idea that the fifty-year period corresponds to a lifetime position and instead shows that it is indeed a strict temporal delimitation of the office. On the initiation or consecration of priests and priestesses taking office, see CGRN 85 (Kos), Face A, lines 1-6; CGRN 175 (Priene), line 36; CGRN 220 (Kos), lines 47-50; CGRN 248 (Miletos), lines 12-13. On Zeus Telesiourgos, see also CGRN 248 with Commentary.

Lines 14-15 : The reference to the priest’s right to wear clothes of his choice is striking; for a parallel: CGRN 176, Priene, lines 19-20. However, it cannot be excluded that the text subsequently contained a more restrictive clause on the missing Block B. On the regulation of the priest's attire in priesthood sales: cf. CGRN 124 (Pergamon), lines 1-4; CGRN 221 (Kos), lines 22-24.

Block C

Lines 1-13: This part of the regulation defines the sacrifices to be offered to Asclepius by different groups of people, including agents of the Milesian cults. The animal to be sacrificed is always a sheep, which is male in the first two cases preserved. The hydrophoros was a young priestess of Artemis at the sanctuary of Didyma. There are numerous honorary inscriptions in the sanctuary commemorating this annual office (cf. Marcellesi). The paraphylax was a magistrate responsible for maintaining order in the sanctuary of Didyma (see Robert 1937). The agonothetes was in charge of the Didymeia. The stephanephoros was the eponymous magistrate of the city (for further discussion of the office of aisymnetes/stephanephoros/priest of Apollo, see the complexities evoked in CGRN 201). The text also emphasizes the sacrifices to be made by two further groups particularly concerned with issues of health: the paidonomoi, in charge of the children’s physical education, and women who had given birth. The unparalleled use of the verb ζώννυμι here is probably referring to belt-loosening during childbirth and to wearing a belt again after having passed the whole period of impurity caused by childbirth (on this period, see e.g. CGRN 99, Cyrene, line 109; CGRN 144, Ptolemais, lines 11-12). On the portions attributed to the priest at Miletos, see CGRN 39 and especially CGRN 138, lines 15-18 (an almost identical list, with the exception of the skin and the remaining ἱερά). On fines for denying priests their prerogatives from the sacrifice, see e.g. CGRN 37, lines 14-15 (Chios: 10 dr.), CGRN 142, lines 20-23 (Kos: 50 dr.) and CGRN 208, line 20 (Kos: 30 dr. for each portion).

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN249), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Manfred Lesgourgues

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 249, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Manfred Lesgourgues, "CGRN 249: Contract of sale for the priesthood of Asclepius in Miletos", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on May 28, 2024. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/249/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN249.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on May 28, 2024. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

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				<head>Bibliography</head>

				<p>Edition here based on Rehm <bibl type="abbr" n="Milet VI.1">Milet VI.1</bibl> 204 a-b (p. 299-301). Blocks A and B in Rehm are here renamed Blocks A and C, taking into account the presumed missing Block B.</p>
				<p> Other editions:
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Wiegand 1906">Wiegand 1906</bibl>: 258-260.</p>

				<p>Cf. also:  Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSAM">LSAM</bibl> 52; <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 44, 943.</p>

				<p>Further bibliography: 
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Wiegand 1905">Wiegand 1905</bibl>: 547;
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Robert 1937">Robert 1937</bibl>: 98-108;
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Herrmann 1971">Herrmann 1971</bibl>;
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Robert - Robert 1983">Robert - Robert 1983</bibl>: 171-176;					
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Marcellesi 2005">Marcellesi 2005</bibl>;
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Herda 2006">Herda 2006</bibl>: 229-234;
					<bibl type="author_date" n="Lesgourgues 2019">Lesgourgues 2019</bibl>.</p>
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				<ab subtype="block" n="A">Block A

<lb xml:id="line_Α1" n="Α1"/><name type="epithet" key="Agathe"><w lemma="ἀγαθός">ἀγαθῆι</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Tyche"><w lemma="τύχη">τύχηι</w></name>· οἱ <name type="title"><w lemma="στρατηγός">στρατηγοὶ</w></name> τῆς <w lemma="πόλις">π<choice><corr>ό</corr><sic>ω</sic></choice>λε
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α2" n="Α2" break="no"/><surplus>ε</surplus>ως</w> <expan><abbr>Τι</abbr><ex>βέριος</ex></expan> Κλαύδιος Διονυσόδωρος, Λεύκι
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α3" n="Α3" break="no"/>ος Ἰούνιος Ῥοῦφος <expan><abbr>Τι</abbr><ex>βέριος</ex></expan> Κλαύδιος Ἀπολλώ
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α4" n="Α4" break="no"/>νιος, Θεόμνηστος Θεομνήστου, Εἰσίων
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α5" n="Α5"/>Ἐπιγόνου, Εὔτυχος Ἐπεράστου <w lemma="πωλέω">πω
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α6" n="Α6" break="no"/>λοῦντες</w> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερωσύνη">ἱερωσύνην</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Asclepius"><w lemma="Ἀσκληπιός">Ἀσκληπιοῦ</w></name> <w lemma="πρό">πρὸ</w> <w lemma="πόλις">πόλε
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α7" n="Α7" break="no"/>ως</w> καὶ <w>τῶν</w> <w lemma="ἐντεμένιος">ἐντεμενίων</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτοῦ</w> <name type="deity" key="generic"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶν</w></name> <w lemma="πᾶς">πάν
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α8" n="Α8" break="no"/>των</w>, <w lemma="χωρίς">χωρὶς</w> <w lemma="εἰ">εἴ</w> <w lemma="τις">τι</w> <w lemma="προπιπράσκω">προπέπραται</w> <w lemma="ὑπό">ὑπὸ</w> τοῦ <w lemma="δῆμος">δή
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α9" n="Α9" break="no"/>μου</w>, <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμον</w></name> <w lemma="τίθημι">τίθενται</w> τῇ <w lemma="πρᾶσις">πράσι</w> <w lemma="ὅδε">τόνδε</w>, <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐφ</w>’ ᾧ
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α10" n="Α10"/>ὁ <w lemma="πρίαμαι">πριάμενος</w> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἱέρεω</w></name>  <w lemma="ἀπογράφω">ἀπογράψει</w> <w lemma="παραχρῆμα">παραχρῆμα</w>
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α11" n="Α11"/><w lemma="πρός">πρὸς</w> <w>τοὺς</w> <name type="title"><w lemma="ταμίας">ταμίας</w></name> <w>καὶ</w> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="βασιλεύς">βασιλῖς</w></name>, ὁ δὲ <w lemma="ἀπογράφω">ἀπογρα

<lb xml:id="line_Α12" n="Α12" break="no"/>φὶς</w> <w lemma="ἱεράω">ἱερήσεται</w> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ἔτη</w> <w lemma="πεντήκοντα">πεντήκοντα</w>, <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὸς</w>
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α13" n="Α13"/><w lemma="ἤ">ἢ</w> οἱ <w lemma="διάδοχος">διάδοχοι</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτοῦ</w>, <w lemma="τελέω">τελεσθὶς</w> <name type="deity" key="Zeus"><w lemma="Ζεῦς">Διὶ</w></name> <name type="epithet" key="Telesiourgos"><w lemma="Τελεσιουργός">Τελεσ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
					
<lb xml:id="line_Α14" n="Α14" break="no"/>ουργῶι</w></name>, <w lemma="φορέω">φορῶν</w> <name type="clothing"><w lemma="ἐσθής">ἐσθῆτα</w></name>, <w lemma="οἷος">οἵαν</w> <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὸς</w> <w lemma="βουλόμαι">βού<supplied reason="lost">λη</supplied></w>-
	
				</ab>
				
				<ab subtype="block" n="B">Block B (missing)
					
					
<lb xml:id="line_B1" n="B1"/><supplied reason="lost">ται</supplied>  <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb/> (about 12 missing lines)
					
<lb xml:id="line_Β12" n="Β12"/><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/><supplied reason="lost"> καὶ ἡ</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">ὑ</supplied>-
					
				</ab>
			
				<ab subtype="block" n="C">Block C

					
<lb xml:id="line_C1" n="C1"/><name type="personnel"><w lemma="ὑδροφόρος">δροφόρος</w></name> καὶ ὁ <name type="title"><w lemma="παραφύλαξ">παραφύλαξ</w></name>, <w lemma="ἕκαστος">ἕκαστος</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτῶν</w>
					
<lb xml:id="line_C2" n="C2"/><name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">οἶν</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ἄρσενα</w></name>· <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύειν">θυέτωσα<supplied reason="omitted">ν</supplied></w></name> δὲ καὶ οἱ <name type="title"><w lemma="παιδονόμος">παιδονόμοι</w></name>
					
<lb xml:id="line_C3" n="C3"/><w lemma="ὑπέρ">ὑπὲρ</w> τῆς <w lemma="ὑγίεια">ὑγίας</w> τῶν <w lemma="παῖς">παίδων</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <w>τῆι</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτῆι</w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἡ
					
<lb xml:id="line_C4" n="C4" break="no"/>μέραι</w> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">οἶν</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="δίδωμι">διδ<supplied reason="omitted">ό</supplied>τωσαν</w> τῶι <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἱερεῖ</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="σπλάγχνον">σπλάγχνα</w></name>,
					
<lb xml:id="line_C5" n="C5"/><name type="portion"><w lemma="νεφρός">νεφρόν</w></name>, <name type="portion"><w lemma="σκολιός">σκολιόν</w></name>, <w lemma="ἱερός">ἱερὰν</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="μοῖρα">μοῖραν</w></name>, <name type="portion"><w lemma="γλῶσσα">γλῶσ<supplied reason="omitted">σ</supplied>αν</w></name>, <name type="portion"><w lemma="σκέλος">σκέλος</w></name>
					
<lb xml:id="line_C6" n="C6"/><name type="quality"><w lemma="δεξιός">δεξιὸν</w></name> <name type="quality"><w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <w lemma="κοτυληδών">κοτυληδόνα</w> <w lemma="τέμνω">τετμημένον</w></name> καὶ
					
<lb xml:id="line_C7" n="C7"/>τὴν <name type="portion"><w lemma="δορά">δορὰν</w></name> καὶ τὰ <name type="quality"><w lemma="λοιπός">λοιπὰ</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱερά</w></name>· <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύειν">θυέτωσαν</w></name> δὲ <w lemma="ὁμοίως">ὁ
					
<lb xml:id="line_C8" n="C8" break="no"/>μοίως</w> καὶ οἱ <name type="title"><w lemma="ἀγωνοθέτης">ἀγ<supplied reason="omitted">ω</supplied>νοθέται</w></name> καὶ ὁ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="στεφανηφόρος">στεφανηφόρος</w></name>,
					
<lb xml:id="line_C9" n="C9"/><w lemma="ὁμοίως">ὁμοίως</w> δὲ καὶ αἱ τὰ <name type="childbirth"><w lemma="λοχεία">λοχῖα</w></name> <w lemma="ἐκπορεύω">ἐκπορευόμεναι</w>
					
<lb xml:id="line_C10" n="C10"/>καὶ <name type="clothing"><w lemma="ζώννυμι">ζωννύμεναι</w></name>· <w lemma="ἄν">ἐὰν</w> δέ <w lemma="τις">τις</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύειν">θύσηι</w></name> <w lemma="ἤ">ἢ</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύειν">θύσας</w></name>
					
<lb xml:id="line_C11" n="C11"/><w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="δίδωμι">δῷ</w></name> τὰ <name type="portion"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱερὰ</w></name>, <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ἀποτίνω">ἀποτίσει</w> </name><w>τῶ</w> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἱερεῖ</w></name> <w lemma="δραχμή">δρα
					
<lb xml:id="line_C12" n="C12" break="no"/>χμὰς</w> <w lemma="δεκαδύω">δεκαδύω</w>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
				</ab>
			</div>
		
			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
				<head>Translation</head>

				<p>Block A</p>
				
<p>With good fortune. The generals of the city, Tiberius Claudius Dionysodoros, Lucius Junius Rufus, Tiberius Claudius Apollonios, Theomnestos son of Theomnestos, Eision (5) son of Epigonos, Eutuchos son of Eperastes, selling the priesthood of Asclepius Pro Poleos and of all the other gods in his sanctuary, excepting what has been sold before by the people, institute this law for the sale. According to this law, (10) the purchaser will immediately register a priest in the presence of the treasurers and <foreign>basileis</foreign>. After being consecrated to Zeus Telesiourgos, the man registered will be priest for fifty years, he or his successors, and will wear the garb which he wants</p>
				
				<p>Block B</p>
<p>[...]</p>

<p>(about 12 missing lines)</p>
				
<p>[… and the <foreign>hy</foreign>]-</p>
				
				<p>Block C</p>
				
<p><foreign>drophoros</foreign> and the <foreign>paraphylax</foreign>: each of them [sacrifices] a wether. Let the <foreign>paidonomoi</foreign> sacrifice a sheep for the health of the children on the same (5) day, and let them give to the priest the viscera, a kidney, the small intestine, a sacred portion, the tongue, the right leg cut into the hip-socket, the skin and the rest of the sacred offerings. Let the <foreign>agonothetai</foreign> and the <foreign>stephanephoros</foreign> sacrifice (10) in the same way, and likewise the women who come out of childbirth and wear a belt. If anyone does not sacrifice or after sacrificing does not give the sacred offerings, let him pay the priest 12 drachmae.</p>
			</div>


			<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
				<head>Traduction </head>
				
				<p>Bloc A</p>
				
<p>À la bonne fortune. Les stratèges de la cité, Tibérius Claudius Dionysodoros, Lucius Junius Rufus, Tibérius Claudius Apollonios, Theomnestos fils de Theomnestos, Eision (5) fils d’Epigonos, Eutuchos fils d’Eperastès, vendant la prêtrise d’Asclépios Pro Poleos et de tous les autres dieux de son sanctuaire, à l’exception de ce qui a été vendu auparavant par le peuple, instaurent cette loi pour la vente. D’après cette loi, (10) l’acquéreur fera immédiatement l’enregistrement d’un prêtre devant les trésoriers et les <foreign>basileis</foreign>. Après avoir été consacré à Zeus Telesiourgos, l’homme inscrit sera prêtre pour cinquante ans, lui ou ses successeurs, et s’habillera comme il lui plai-</p>
				
				<p>Block B</p>
<p>[ra ...]</p>
				
<p>(quelque 12 lignes manquantes)</p>
				
<p>[… et l'<foreign>hy-</foreign>]</p>
				
				<p>Bloc C</p>
<p>drophore et le <foreign>paraphylax</foreign> : chacun d’eux [sacrifie] un mouton mâle. Que les paidonomes sacrifient au nom de la santé des enfants le même (5) jour un mouton et qu’ils donnent au prêtre les viscères, un rein, le petit intestin, une portion sacrée, la langue, la patte droite coupée à l'articulation de la hanche, la peau et le reste des offrandes sacrées. Que les agonothètes et le stéphanéphore sacrifient de même, (10) et de même aussi celles qui sortent des couches et portent une ceinture. Si quelqu’un ne sacrifie pas ou, après avoir sacrifié, ne donne pas les parts sacrées, qu’il paie au prêtre 12 drachmes.</p>
			</div>

			<div type="commentary">
				<head>Commentary</head>

<p>Much like this text concerning the priesthood of Asclepius and the gods sharing his precinct, other sales of priesthoods at Miletos were inscribed on the anta-blocks of the relevant temple (cf. <ref target="CGRN_138">CGRN 138</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_248">CGRN 248</ref>). Block A lists the names of the <foreign>strategoi</foreign> enacting the law concerning the sale and specifies the required conditions and procedures for the purchase of the priesthood (compare again <ref target="CGRN_248">CGRN 248</ref>). After a missing passage, Block C details which sacrifices different categories of people were to offer in the cult of Asclepius, how shares from the sacrifice were to be apportioned to the priest (here, distinctly called τὰ ἱερά and not γέρη or γέρα), and the penalties for non-compliance with these rules. Numerous parallels between this inscription and the contract of sale for the priesthood of Rome (<ref target="CGRN_248">CGNR 248</ref>) have led Rehm to suggest that the
latter served as a model for the formulation of this law or that they both reflect local norms.</p>

<p>Block A</p>
				
<p>Lines 1-9: The first nine lines of the inscription list the six <foreign>strategoi</foreign> who were responsible for the law (νόμος) governing the sale of the priesthood. As Rehm points out, it is surprising that there is no reference in this document to the people or the council, except to limit the scope of the decision to priesthoods which the <foreign>demos</foreign> has not yet sold (lines A8-9). Yet according to Rehm, the <foreign>strategoi</foreign> act implicitly as representatives of the <foreign>demos</foreign>. In two other decrees from Ionia (<ref target="CGRN_177">CGRN 177</ref>, Priene,  and <ref target="CGRN_212">CGRN 212</ref>, Pergamon), and in the priestly contract of the cult of Asclepius in Pergamon (<ref target="CGRN_206">CGRN 206</ref>, lines 3-4), it is indeed after a proposal by the <foreign>strategoi</foreign> that the people and the council legislate. Mentions of the <foreign>strategoi</foreign> at Miletos are rare, except for references in the “prophet inscriptions” of Didyma where the prophets honored recall having exercised this charge once or twice (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Didyma">I.Didyma</bibl> 253, 255, 258, 281, 388, 389). The only one of the six <foreign>strategoi</foreign> known to us from another ancient document is Lucius Junius Rufus, who held the office of γραμματεὺς τοῦ θεοῦ in the sanctuary of Didyma (<ref type="abbr" n="I.Didyma">I.Didyma</ref> 139; on this office, see Lesgourgues). The cult of Ἀσκληπιὸς πρὸ πόλεως is not known from other sources in Miletos. This qualification is unlikely to have the strict geographical meaning of "in front of the city" or "at the gates of the city" (Wiegand 1906: 260), but rather points towards a tutelary deity who "protects the city" (Robert - Robert). This interpretation is supported by the qualification of Athena at Miletos as τῆς πρ[ὸ πόλε]ως Πολιάδο[ς Ἀ]|θηνᾶς in an inscription of the 2nd or 3rd century AD (cf. Herrmann = <bibl type="abbr" n="Milet VI.3">Milet VI.3</bibl> 1142; cf. also <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Didyma">I.Didyma</bibl> 182). These two deities are perhaps to be identified with the Milesian Asclepius and Athena who elsewhere qualified as Soter (<bibl type="abbr" n="CIG">CIG</bibl> 2864 and <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Didyma">I.Didyma</bibl> 121) and Soteira (<ref type="abbr" n="Milet II.3">Milet II.3</ref> 401 and Wiegand 1905: 547) respectively. As in the sale of the priesthood of Asclepius at Pergamon (<ref target="CGRN_206">CGRN 206</ref>, lines 8-9), the office covers not only service to Asclepius himself, but also to all the deities who share the god's sanctuary (compare also the ἐντεμένιοι θεοί in the cult of Apollo at Miletos, <ref target="CGRN_100">CGRN 100</ref>, lines 3-4). It is thus a sort of "micro-pantheon" that the priest must serve. The clarification in lines 8-9 excludes from the contract "what had been sold before by the people": the neuter indefinite pronoun might refer to certain male or female priesthoods for the ἐντεμένιοι θεοί which had been sold previously. A similar though more explicit clause at <ref target="CGRN_193">CGRN 193</ref> (Hyllarima), lines 13-15, excludes any previously sold priesthoods from a large-scale sale in the community.</p>

<p>Lines 10-11 : As in <ref target="CGRN_248">CGRN 248</ref> (Miletos), line 4, the sale of the priesthood is accompanied by a registration of the priest. We note that the buyer (ὁ πριάμενος) is not necessarily the priest himself since ἱέρεω is here an accusative form, dependent on the active verb ἀπογράψει. Moreover, the one who will take charge of the priesthood is referred to with the noun ὁ ἀπογραφίς. The registration takes place in the presence of two distinct groups of officials, the <foreign>basileis</foreign> and the treasurers. The <foreign>basileis</foreign> (cf. Herda, p. 229-234; <ref target="CGRN_6">CGRN 6</ref>, line 3; <ref target="CGRN_10">CGRN 100</ref>, line 5; <ref target="CGRN_201">CGRN 201</ref>, lines 22-23; <ref target="CGRN_248"> CGRN 248</ref>, line 5) are undoubtedly relevant: the βασίλειον acted as the central archives in Miletos (Herda, p. 233-234). The <foreign>tamiai</foreign> or treasurers appear here in their capacity as administrators of the public and sacred finances. Note that these two titles were seen as particularly noteworthy, as evidenced by the mention of the office of <foreign>basileus</foreign> in the prophet and <foreign>hydrophoros</foreign> inscriptions (e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Didyma">I.Didyma</bibl> 84 and 339) and by the series of <foreign>tamiai</foreign> inscriptions (<bibl type="abbr" n="I.Didyma">I.Didyma</bibl> 389-391).</p>

<p>Lines 12-13 : The duration of fifty years for which the priesthood is awarded is remarkable: it is neither a short duration like the three years and eight months found in the <foreign>diagraphe</foreign> for the priesthood of the goddess Rome (<ref target="CGRN_248">CGRN 248</ref>, lines 7-8), nor a lifetime office, as was often the case elsewhere (cf. <ref target="CGRN_37">CGRN 37</ref>, Chios, line 5; <ref target="CGRN_221">CGRN 221</ref>, Kos, line 16). The fact that the priesthood may be inherited precludes the idea that the fifty-year period corresponds to a lifetime position and instead shows that it is indeed a strict temporal delimitation of the office. On the initiation or consecration of priests and priestesses taking office, see <ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 85</ref> (Kos), Face A, lines 1-6; <ref target="CGRN_175">CGRN 175</ref> (Priene), line 36; <ref target="CGRN_220">CGRN 220</ref> (Kos), lines 47-50; <ref target="CGRN_248">CGRN 248</ref> (Miletos), lines 12-13. On Zeus Telesiourgos, see also <ref target="CGRN_248">CGRN 248</ref> with Commentary.</p>

<p>Lines 14-15 : The reference to the priest’s right to wear clothes of his choice is striking; for a parallel: <ref target="CGRN_176">CGRN 176</ref>, Priene, lines 19-20. However, it cannot be excluded that the text subsequently contained a more restrictive clause on the missing Block B. On the regulation of the priest's attire in priesthood sales: cf. <ref target="CGRN_124">CGRN 124</ref> (Pergamon), lines 1-4; <ref target="CGRN_221">CGRN 221</ref> (Kos), lines 22-24.</p>

<p>Block C</p>
				
<p>Lines 1-13: This part of the regulation defines the sacrifices to be offered to Asclepius by different groups of people, including agents of the Milesian cults. The animal to be sacrificed is always a sheep, which is male in the first two cases preserved. The <foreign>hydrophoros</foreign> was a young priestess of Artemis at the sanctuary of Didyma. There are numerous honorary inscriptions in the sanctuary commemorating this annual office (cf. Marcellesi). The <foreign>paraphylax</foreign> was a magistrate responsible for maintaining order in the sanctuary of Didyma (see Robert 1937). The <foreign>agonothetes</foreign> was in charge of the Didymeia. The <foreign>stephanephoros</foreign> was the eponymous magistrate of the city (for further discussion of the office of <foreign>aisymnetes</foreign>/<foreign>stephanephoros</foreign>/priest of Apollo, see the complexities evoked in <ref target="CGRN_201">CGRN 201</ref>). The text also emphasizes the sacrifices to be made by two further groups particularly concerned with issues of health: the <foreign>paidonomoi</foreign>, in charge of the children’s physical education, and women who had given birth. The unparalleled use of the verb ζώννυμι here is probably referring to belt-loosening during childbirth and to wearing a belt again after having passed the whole period of impurity caused by childbirth (on this period, see e.g. <ref target="CGRN 99">CGRN 99</ref>, Cyrene, line 109; <ref target="CGRN 144">CGRN 144</ref>, Ptolemais, lines 11-12). On the portions attributed to the priest at Miletos, see <ref target="CGRN_39">CGRN 39</ref> and especially <ref target="CGRN_138">CGRN 138</ref>, lines 15-18 (an almost identical list, with the exception of the skin and the remaining ἱερά). On fines for denying priests their prerogatives from the sacrifice, see e.g. <ref target="CGRN_37">CGRN 37</ref>, lines 14-15 (Chios: 10 dr.), <ref target="CGRN_142">CGRN 142</ref>, lines 20-23 (Kos: 50 dr.) and <ref target="CGRN_208">CGRN 208</ref>, line 20 (Kos: 30 dr. for each portion). </p>
				
			</div>
		</body>
	</text>
</TEI>