CGRN 247

Rupestral sacrificial calendar from Parparia on Chios

Date :

early 5th century BC

Justification: lettering (Malouchou). Iota adscript is applied inconsistently as in other Classical regulations from Chios, cf. CGRN 36 and CGRN 38. We therefore print a presumed iota subscript in the relevant cases.

Provenance

Chios . Exact provenance unknown, but first found by Stephanou in 1958 rebuilt in a private house in the remote village of Parparia, in the northwestern part of the island of Chios. The stone has now been transferred to the Chios Museum (inv. no. 18468). For further details, see Malouchou, p. 283-284 and 292-293.

Support

Largely unworked block of blueish stone (σιδερόπετρα), broken at the bottom. The stone still preserves some of the original surface to the upper left, but is heavily worn at the left and right edges. The inscribed surface is also substantially damaged to the lower right, possibly due to reuse of the stone.

  • Height: 78.4 cm
  • Width: 43 cm
  • Depth: 15-16 cm

Layout

Not stoichedon, but with an average of 8-10 letters per line.

Letters: 2-5 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Malouchou 2021, with phs.

Cf. also: Stephanou 1958: 56-58, with ph. of a squeeze; SEG 17, 379; Sokolowski LSS 131; Graf 1985: 427, I.Chios 1, with ph.

Further bibliography: Fustel de Coulanges 1892: 325 no. 4; Zolotas 1908: 271 no. 186; Trümpy 1997: 102-105. Parker 2011: 93 n. 73.

Text


[Π]λυντηρι-
[ν]ος
τρίτῃ[.]
[δ]εκάδος Ζα-
ν
λυμπίωι
5καὶ Ἀγυαίᾳ·
Κυανοψι-
νος
δι[χομη]-
νίη
Π+[...]
ΟΣΙΟΝ[...]
10δεκα
+ΡΟΚ[..c.4..]
ΝΤ+[...c.5..]-
ο+[...c.6...]
[..?..]

Translation

On the 13th (?) of Plynterion: to Zeus Olympios and Aguaias. On the 15th of Kyanopsion: [...] on the [...]

Traduction

Le 13e jour (?) de Plynterion : à Zeus Olympios et Aguaias. Le 15e jour de Kyanopsion : [...] le [...]

Commentary

This inscription appears to contain a small calendar of sacrifices and celebrations very probably belonging to a subcivic group from this rural area in northwestern Chios. The area of Parparia, lying to some degree between Βολισσός and the substantial peak of Mount Pelinnaion, is not particularly well documented and no specific group can be definitively assigned to this area (for the cult of Zeus Pelinaios on Chios, see here CGRN 36). In some respects, the calendar can be seen as comparable to other "excerpts" of sacrificial calendars which were occasionally set up by communities—predominantly by those of the Eastern Aegean—at the relevant cult site: e.g. on Rhodes, cf. CGRN 62 (Lindos), etc. But it clearly belongs to an early context in the Classical period and its rupestral aspects strongly suggest that it does not belong to a formal civic framework (perhaps the best comparandum in the present Collection may be a rock-cut inscription from Thera, though its own context remains uncertain: CGRN 47; contrast the calendar of pastoralists from Thebes-on-the-Mykale, more formalised and set up as a result of the intervention of Miletos: CGRN 81).

The calendar of Chios remains only partially attested, with only 7 out of 12 months known (cf. still Trümpy). The calendar here appears to proceed from the late spring (Plynterion) directly to the fall (Kyanopsion), without any other celebrations intervening. A distinctive feature of this brief, selective sacrificial calendar may be that it only mentioned dates and recipients, not sacrifices or other details (compare also the rock-cut inscription for a festival of Eros from the Athenian Acropolis, CGRN 231); at any rate, the first preserved entry does not appear to contain the mention of any specific offerings. Overall, the general character and sequence of the rituals remains to be clarified.

Lines 1-3: This only one of three attestations of the month Plynterion known from Chios (the others are in CGRN 244, lines 10-11, and in Zolotas). The month takes its name from the old Ionian celebration of the Plynteria, best attested in Athens and taking place in the city on 25 or 29 Thargelion (May/June) in the Attic calendar (cf. e.g. CGRN 20, Face C, line 5, CGRN 21, line 3, and CGRN 45, Face A, fr. 3, col. 1, lines 1-17; at Thorikos, the celebration fell in the following month, Skirophorion, CGRN 32, lines 52-65). The precise date of the celebration concerned here remains problematic. Most editors (Stephanou, Graf, Sokolowski) have restored the date as τρίτῃ ἐ[πὶ | δ]εκάδος (i.e. the 13th), but Malouchou rightly points out that this manner of expressing a date is otherwise unattested; ἐ[πὶ] δέκα is the universally expected formulation. That being said, there are few alternatives: the possible restoration τρίτῃ ἐ[κ | δ]εκάδος ("third day from the tenth") would be similarly unexpected; a correction τρίτῃ ἐ|[ξ] ε⟨ἰ⟩κάδος perhaps even more so.

Lines 4-5: The forms Ζανί and Ζανός are well represented on Chios alongside Διί and Διός (see here CGRN 51 and Malouchou for more examples). Graf (p. 31-32) suggests that Zeus Olympios may here have been the focus of rituals by a genos or a phratry; an altar for Zeus Olympios and Herakles has been located at Mesta in southern Chios (cf. Fustel de Coulanges). Malouchou rightly dissociates Ἀγυαίᾳ from a female deity (Ἀγυαίῃ/Ἀγυαίηι would be expected on Chios) and thinks instead of an original form Ἀγυαίας (or Ἀγυαῖος). Another epithet of Zeus remains a possibility, but it is most probable that the divinity honoured here was Apollo, often only known as Ἀγυιεύς (without the theonym); a hero with this moniker is not to be excluded, however. In any case, the inscription appears to provide evidence for an occasion that honoured both Olympian Zeus and the god "of the way" or "of the alley". One might reasonably suppose the sphere of influence of such a deity to be particularly concerned with a city (see Parker: "roads within settlements... not between settlements"). In Athens, Apollo Agyieus could be envisaged as Προστατήριος and Ἀποτροπάιος, fulfilling important protective functions for the local community (cf. IG II³ 4, 953). Each of the four tribes set up an ἄγαλμα of Ἀγυιεύς at Tegea (Paus. 8.53.6). Yet a god or hero called something like Ἀγυαίας could also be aptly suited to the more pastoral context implied by the findspot, perhaps pointing to country roads or villages instead: compare notably the sanctuary of ᾿Αγυ[ιε]ύς which demarcated one of the aspects of the boundaries on Mount Mykale (IK.Priene 415).

Lines 6-10: The second occasion listed takes place at the middle of the month or the full moon of Kyanopsion (in the Attic calendar, the month falls approximately in October/November, and it is likely that the Chian month, in a standard order of Ionian month fell at more or less the same juncture). This is the only attestation of this month known from Chios. While not excluding reading ὅσιον at the beginning of line 9, Malouchou notes that the month of Pyanopsion is sometimes associated with the Proerosia in Attica (Harp. s.v. Πυανόψια; the exact timing was quite variable, however: at Thorikos, the Prerosia are prepared in Hekatombaion and take place already in Boedromion: CGRN 32, lines 1-9; for the imprecisely dated occasion at Paiania, see CGRN 25). Malouchou thus proposes to restore lines 8-9 as πρ̣[οηρ]|ό̣σιον. While very attractive, this suggestion raises two objections. The first and perhaps least important is that this would introduce a marked difference with the first entry in the sacrificial calendar: we would here have an offering (implicitly θῦμα or ἱερόν) qualified προηρόσιον, where previously only deities in the dative and no such offerings were mentioned; there would also not be a clear recipient for this offering (Malouchou thinks that it would have been offered to Zeus, but only implicitly, without the theonym). Second and most importantly, the reading of the letter following the Π in line 8 remains problematic: while Malouchou cautiously prefers to view this as a Ρ (though "we cannot totally exclude the possibility of an Α"), other editors have read this letter as a clear Α (Forrest in SEG, Graf), leading to their suggestion that a sacrifice for Pan could have been intended: Πα̣[νί]. To the eyes of the authors of the present Collection, the letter on the published photographs looks like a large alpha, its lower right portion missing, rather than the relatively elegantly looped rho present elsewhere in the inscription: a deity, not necessarily Pan, thus remains the most likely option. Thinking that the next date continues from the previous occasion, Malouchou proposes to restore [ἑκκαι]|δεκά̣[τη(ι)] in lines 9-10. Alternatively, one can note that new dated entries with month names were practically placed at the left margin of the inscription (lines 1 and 6). Graf suggested to read a month name [Σμι]|σιονος (Ionic for Sminthios) which does not fit with the preserved traces and is otherwise unattested on Chios. But it does remain possible that the traces Ο̣ΣΙΟΝ (or Ω̣ΣΙΟΝ, or even -Ρ̣ΣΙΟΝ) relate to an unattested month name, for which δεκα̣[ in the following line preserves a part of the date.

Lines 11-12: The first letter in line 11, represented as illegible here, is read by Malouchou as "the right edge of the upper horizontal stroke of a letter (Γ, Ε, or Τ)". The first letter of line 12 could either be part of a Ν or an Υ (Malouchou favours and prints the former). Following a suggestion by A.P. Matthaiou to read something like [ἱ]|ερο̑ κ[...], Malouchou considers the restoration [ἱ]|ε̣ρόκ[αυτο]|ν̣ τ[έλεον?] (in the first case, a hapax legomenon, but properly formed from the verb ἱεροκαυτέω). This is not implausible, but presents two distinct drawbacks: an unattested word and a lack of syllabic division, otherwise consistently preserved in the inscription. Though it only partly matches the first trace in line 11, perhaps an interesting alternative to consider might be the month Προκύκλιος (thus Π̣ροκ[υκλίο]|υ̣), which is well known in Aetolia but also in Aeolian Kyme (SEG 34, 1238, lines 17-18 and 39); the worship of Θεοὶ Προκύκλιοι is attested in Chios' neighbour, Erythrai (I.Erythrai 201, lines D.18, 23). This might then have been followed by a date, e.g. τε̣[τράδι] (Malouchou: "After the Τ an upper horizontal stroke of an Ε or of a Τ").

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN247), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 247, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon et Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, "CGRN 247: Rupestral sacrificial calendar from Parparia on Chios", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on May 28, 2024. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/247/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN247.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on May 28, 2024. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

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							<p><desc>Justification: lettering (Malouchou). <foreign>Iota</foreign> adscript is applied inconsistently as in other Classical regulations from Chios, cf. <ref target="CGRN_36">CGRN 36</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_38">CGRN 38</ref>. We therefore print a presumed <foreign>iota</foreign> subscript in the relevant cases.</desc></p>
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			<div type="bibliography">
				<head>Bibliography</head>
				
<p>Edition here based on <bibl type="author_date" n="Malouchou_2021">Malouchou 2021</bibl>, with phs.</p>
				
<p>Cf. also: <bibl type="author_date" n="Stephanou_1958">Stephanou 1958</bibl>: 56-58, with ph. of a squeeze;
	<bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 17, 379;
	Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 131;
<bibl type="author_date" n="Graf_1985">Graf 1985</bibl>: 427, I.Chios 1, with ph.</p>

<p>Further bibliography: 
<bibl type="author_date" n="Fustel_de_Coulanges_1892">Fustel de Coulanges 1892</bibl>: 325 no. 4;
<bibl type="author_date" n="Zolotas_1908">Zolotas 1908</bibl>: 271 no. 186; 
<bibl type="author_date" n="Trümpy_1997">Trümpy 1997</bibl>: 102-105.
<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker_2011">Parker 2011</bibl>: 93 n. 73. </p>
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<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Πλυντηριών"><supplied reason="lost">Π</supplied><unclear>λυ</unclear>ντηρι<unclear>ῶ</unclear>
					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>ος</w></name> <w lemma="τρίτη">τρίτῃ</w> ἐ<gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character" precision="low"/>
					
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><w lemma="δεκάς"><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>εκάδος</w> <name type="deity" key="Zeus"><w lemma="Ζεύς">Ζα
					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/><unclear>νὶ</unclear></w></name> <name type="epithet" key="Olympios"><w lemma="Ὀλύμπιος">Ὀ<unclear>λυ</unclear>μπίωι</w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><unclear>κ</unclear>αὶ <name type="deity" key="Agyaias"><name type="epithet" key="Agyieus"><w lemma="Ἀγυαίας">Ἀγυαίᾳ</w></name></name>·
					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Πυανοψιών">Κυανοψι<unclear>ῶ</unclear>
					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/>νος</w></name> <w lemma="διχομηνία">δι<supplied reason="lost">χομη</supplied>
					
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8" break="no"/>νίη</w> <orig>Π</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="letter"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character" precision="low"/>

<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/><orig><unclear>Ο</unclear>ΣΙΟΝ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character" precision="low"/>

<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10"/>δεκ<unclear>α</unclear><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="letter" precision="low"/> 

<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11"/><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="letter"/><orig>ΡΟΚ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character" precision="low"/>

<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12"/><orig><unclear>Ν</unclear>Τ</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="letter"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character" precision="low"/>

<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13" break="no"/><orig>ο</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="letter"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character" precision="low"/>

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

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				<head>Translation</head>
				
<p>On the 13th (?) of Plynterion: to Zeus Olympios and Aguaias. On the 15th of Kyanopsion: [...] on the [...]</p>
				
			</div>
			
			<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
				<head>Traduction </head>

<p>Le 13e jour (?) de Plynterion : à Zeus Olympios et Aguaias. Le 15e jour de Kyanopsion : [...] le [...]</p>

			</div>
			
			<div type="commentary">
				<head>Commentary</head>
				
<p>This inscription appears to contain a small calendar of sacrifices and celebrations very probably belonging to a subcivic group from this rural area in northwestern Chios. The area of Parparia, lying to some degree between Βολισσός and the substantial peak of Mount Pelinnaion, is not particularly well documented and no specific group can be definitively assigned to this area (for the cult of Zeus Pelinaios on Chios, see here <ref target="CGRN_36">CGRN 36</ref>). In some respects, the calendar can be seen as comparable to other "excerpts" of sacrificial calendars which were occasionally set up by communities—predominantly by those of the Eastern Aegean—at the relevant cult site: e.g. on Rhodes, cf. <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> (Lindos), etc. But it clearly belongs to an early context in the Classical period and its rupestral aspects strongly suggest that it does not belong to a formal civic framework (perhaps the best comparandum in the present Collection may be a rock-cut inscription from Thera, though its own context remains uncertain: <ref target="CGRN_47">CGRN 47</ref>; contrast the calendar of pastoralists from Thebes-on-the-Mykale, more formalised and set up as a result of the intervention of Miletos: <ref target="CGRN_81">CGRN 81</ref>).</p>

<p>The calendar of Chios remains only partially attested, with only 7 out of 12 months known (cf. still Trümpy). The calendar  here appears to proceed from the late spring (Plynterion) directly to the fall (Kyanopsion), without any other celebrations intervening. A distinctive feature of this brief, selective sacrificial calendar may be that it only mentioned dates and recipients, not sacrifices or other details (compare also the rock-cut inscription for a festival of Eros from the Athenian Acropolis, <ref target="CGRN_231">CGRN 231</ref>); at any rate, the first preserved entry does not appear to contain the mention of any specific offerings. Overall, the general character and sequence of the rituals remains to be clarified.</p>

<p>Lines 1-3: This only one of three attestations of the month Plynterion known from Chios (the others are in <ref target="CGRN_244">CGRN 244</ref>, lines 10-11, and in Zolotas). The month takes its name from the old Ionian celebration of the Plynteria, best attested in Athens and taking place in the city on 25 or 29 Thargelion (May/June) in the Attic calendar (cf. e.g.  <ref target="CGRN_20">CGRN 20</ref>, Face C, line 5, <ref target="CGRN_21">CGRN 21</ref>, line 3, and <ref target="CGRN_45">CGRN 45</ref>, Face A, fr. 3, col. 1, lines 1-17; at Thorikos, the celebration fell in the following month, Skirophorion, <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref>, lines 52-65). The precise date of the celebration concerned here remains problematic. Most editors (Stephanou, Graf, Sokolowski) have restored the date as τρίτῃ ἐ[πὶ | δ]εκάδος (i.e. the 13th), but Malouchou rightly points out that this manner of expressing a date is otherwise unattested; ἐ[πὶ] δέκα is the universally expected formulation. That being said, there are few alternatives: the possible restoration τρίτῃ ἐ[κ | δ]εκάδος ("third day from the tenth") would be similarly unexpected; a correction τρίτῃ ἐ|[ξ] ε<supplied reason="omitted">ἰ</supplied>κάδος perhaps even more so. </p>
	
<p>Lines 4-5: The forms Ζανί and Ζανός are well represented on Chios alongside Διί and Διός (see here <ref target="CGRN_51">CGRN 51</ref> and Malouchou for more examples). Graf (p. 31-32) suggests that Zeus Olympios may here have been the focus of rituals by a <foreign>genos</foreign> or a phratry; an altar for Zeus Olympios and Herakles has been located at Mesta in southern Chios (cf. Fustel de Coulanges). Malouchou rightly dissociates Ἀγυαίᾳ from a female deity (Ἀγυαίῃ/Ἀγυαίηι would be expected on Chios) and thinks instead of an original form Ἀγυαίας (or Ἀγυαῖος). Another epithet of Zeus remains a possibility, but it is most probable that the divinity honoured here was Apollo, often only known as Ἀγυιεύς (without the theonym); a hero with this moniker is not to be excluded, however. In any case, the inscription appears to provide evidence for an occasion that honoured both Olympian Zeus and the god "of the way" or "of the alley". One might reasonably suppose the sphere of influence of such a deity to be particularly concerned with a city (see Parker: "roads within settlements... not between settlements"). In Athens, Apollo Agyieus could be envisaged as Προστατήριος and Ἀποτροπάιος, fulfilling important protective functions for the local community (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG II³">IG II³</bibl> 4, 953). Each of the four tribes set up an ἄγαλμα of Ἀγυιεύς at Tegea (Paus. 8.53.6). Yet a god or hero called something like Ἀγυαίας could also be aptly suited to the more pastoral context implied by the findspot, perhaps pointing to country roads or villages instead: compare notably the sanctuary of ᾿Αγυ[ιε]ύς which demarcated one of the aspects of the boundaries on Mount Mykale (<bibl type="abbr" n="IK.Priene">IK.Priene</bibl> 415). </p>

<p>Lines 6-10: The second occasion listed takes place at the middle of the month or the full moon of Kyanopsion (in the Attic calendar, the month falls approximately in October/November, and it is likely that the Chian month, in a standard order of Ionian month fell at more or less the same juncture). This is the only attestation of this month known from Chios. While not excluding reading ὅσιον at the beginning of line 9, Malouchou notes that the month of Pyanopsion is sometimes associated with the Proerosia in Attica (Harp. s.v. Πυανόψια; the exact timing was quite variable, however: at Thorikos, the Prerosia are prepared in Hekatombaion and take place already in Boedromion: <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref>, lines 1-9; for the imprecisely dated occasion at Paiania, see <ref target="CGRN_25">CGRN 25</ref>). Malouchou thus proposes to restore lines 8-9 as πρ̣[οηρ]|ό̣σιον. While very attractive, this suggestion raises two objections. The first and perhaps least important is that this would introduce a marked difference with the first entry in the sacrificial calendar: we would here have an offering (implicitly θῦμα or ἱερόν) qualified προηρόσιον, where previously only deities in the dative and no such offerings were mentioned; there would also not be a clear recipient for this offering (Malouchou thinks that it would have been offered to Zeus, but only implicitly, without the theonym). Second and most importantly, the reading of the letter following the Π in line 8 remains problematic: while Malouchou cautiously prefers to view this as a Ρ (though "we cannot totally exclude the possibility of an Α"), other editors have read this letter as a clear Α (Forrest in <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl>, Graf), leading to their suggestion that a sacrifice for Pan could have been intended: Πα̣[νί]. To the eyes of the authors of the present Collection, the letter on the published photographs looks like a large <foreign>alpha</foreign>, its lower right portion missing, rather than the relatively elegantly looped <foreign>rho</foreign> present elsewhere in the inscription: a deity, not necessarily Pan, thus remains the most likely option. Thinking that the next date continues from the previous occasion, Malouchou proposes to restore [ἑκκαι]|δεκά̣[τη(ι)] in lines 9-10. Alternatively, one can note that new dated entries with month names were practically placed at the left margin of the inscription (lines 1 and 6). Graf suggested to read a month name [Σμι]|σι<corr><reg>ῶ</reg><sic>ο</sic></corr>νος (Ionic for Sminthios) which does not fit with the preserved traces and is otherwise unattested on Chios. But it does remain possible that the traces Ο̣ΣΙΟΝ (or Ω̣ΣΙΟΝ, or even -Ρ̣ΣΙΟΝ) relate to an unattested month name, for which δεκα̣[ in the following line preserves a part of the date.</p>	

<p>Lines 11-12: The first letter in line 11, represented as illegible here, is read by Malouchou as "the right edge of the upper horizontal stroke of a letter (Γ, Ε, or Τ)". The first letter of line 12 could either be part of a Ν or an Υ (Malouchou favours and prints the former). Following a suggestion by A.P. Matthaiou to read something like [ἱ]|ερο̑ κ[...], Malouchou considers the restoration [ἱ]|ε̣ρόκ[αυτο]|ν̣ τ[έλεον?] (in the first case, a <foreign>hapax legomenon</foreign>, but properly formed from the verb ἱεροκαυτέω). This is not implausible, but presents two distinct drawbacks: an unattested word and a lack of syllabic division, otherwise consistently preserved in the inscription. Though it only partly matches the first trace in line 11, perhaps an interesting alternative to consider might be the month Προκύκλιος (thus Π̣ροκ[υκλίο]|υ̣), which is well known in Aetolia but also in Aeolian Kyme (<bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 34, 1238, lines 17-18 and 39); the worship of Θεοὶ Προκύκλιοι is attested in Chios' neighbour, Erythrai (<bibl type="abbr" n="I.Erythrai">I.Erythrai</bibl> 201, lines D.18, 23). This might then have been followed by a date, e.g. τε̣[τράδι] (Malouchou: "After the Τ an upper horizontal stroke of an Ε or of a Τ").</p>	
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