CGRN 158

Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Kamiros (concerning sacrifices to Dionysus)

Date :

ca. 50 BC - 50 AD

Justification: late Hellenistic or early Roman lettering (Segre - Pugliese-Carratelli).

Provenance

Kamiros . Exact findspot unknown. Now in the Museum of Rhodes.

Support

Small stele of Lartian marble, broken at the bottom.

  • Height: 16.5 cm
  • Width: 15.5 cm
  • Depth: 5.5 cm

Layout

Letters: 1.2 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Segre - Pugliese-Carratelli Tit.Cam. 156, with ph. fig. 115.

Other edition: Segre 1951: 144 no. 5.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 104.

Further bibliography: Badoud 2015: 11-35; Iversen 2017: 192-197; Carbon forthc.

Text


Πανάμου
δεκάται
Διονύσωι
τράγον
5πρατήνιον
[ἰερ]οποι[οὶ]
[θύοντι].
[..?..]

Translation

On the 10th of Panamos, a yearling he-goat to Dionysus; the hieropoioi [sacrifice it].

Traduction

Le 10 Panamos, un bouc d'un an à Dionysos; les hiéropes [le sacrifient].

Commentary

The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here CGRN 62 and CGRN 63, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. CGRN 110 for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. CGRN 115 for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc. Though the inscription appears to date later than most of these Hellenistic excerpts, Segre (1951) notes that the text nonetheless preserves a general style and especially a layout typical of the earlier excerpts from the sacrificial calendar; it may therefore have been reinscribed in the late Hellenistic or early Roman period after an earlier model.

The excerpt is particularly brief in this case (for other very brief excerpts, cp. CGRN 112, Kamiros, and both CGRN 115 and CGRN 116, Lindos). Its context is unfortunately now lost. This part of the calendar may have originally pertained to the cult of Dionysus on or near the Acropolis of Kamiros: a priesthood of the god is well known at the site from the early Hellenistic period (cf. e.g. Tit.Cam. 26) and this priest is also known to have officiated in the (sometimes explicitly joint) cult of the Muses, cf. here CGRN 113. In this case, however, it would seem that the civic cultic officials known as the hieropoioi, abundantly attested at Kamiros, officiated during the sacrifice. Most of the other sacrificial excerpts from Kamiros specify the agent of the sacrifice (after the date, the offering and the recipient); the hieropoioi appear in such a role in CGRN 110, CGRN 112 (perhaps), and CGRN 114. Therefore, this restoration seems rather secure.

As Segre aptly notes, the offering of a he-goat to Dionysus is particularly evocative. Dionysus was well known as the recipient of offerings of such animals (recall, for instance, the popular etymology of tragedy as a "goat-song" following the sacrifice of such an animal prior to the performance of plays in the theatre). Indeed, sacrifices of he-goats are well-attested for the god, as in CGRN 57 (Aixone), lines 9-11, Dionysus Anthios; and especially ones having reached a minimum or precise age, cf. here CGRN 32 (Thorikos), lines 33-34 (during the Anthesteria, a sacrifice of a he-goat having lost its milk teeth, i.e. probably during the second year of life when the adult teeth erupted); as well as CGRN 169 (Kallatis), lines 11-13 (heavily restored, but possibly also a yearling he-goat for Dionysus). That being said, the timing of this sacrificial occasion at Kamiros remains to be further elucidated. The date of the 10th of Panamos (a high-summer month, ca. July/August, the last in the Rhodian calendar according to reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here; for a different view, see Iversen) is not otherwise attested. Sacrifices for Dionysus took place two months earlier (10th of Agrianios) in the territory of nearby Lindos: CGRN 116.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 158, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 158, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/158/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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					<head>Bibliography</head>
					<p>Edition here based on Segre - Pugliese-Carratelli <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 156, with ph. fig. 115.</p>

<p>Other edition: <bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>: 144 no. 5.</p>
			<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 104.</p>
					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud 2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>: 11-35; <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: 192-197; <bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl></p>
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	    				<head>Text</head>
	    				<ab>	
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Πάναμος">Πανάμου</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><w lemma="δέκατος">δεκάται</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><name type="deity" key="Dionysus"><w lemma="Διόνυσος">Διονύσωι</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="gender"><w lemma="τράγος">τράγον</w></name></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="age"><w lemma="πρατήνιον">πρατήνιον</w></name>
	    						    					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός"><supplied reason="lost">ἰερ</supplied><unclear>οποι</unclear><supplied reason="lost">οὶ</supplied></w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7"/><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θύοντι</supplied></w></name>.
	    					
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    						
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					<head>Translation</head>
	    				<p>On the 10th of Panamos, a yearling he-goat to Dionysus; the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> [sacrifice it].</p>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>Le 10 Panamos, un bouc d'un an à Dionysos; les hiéropes [le sacrifient].</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p>The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_63">CGRN 63</ref>, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref> for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc. Though the inscription appears to date later than most of these Hellenistic excerpts, Segre (1951) notes that the text nonetheless preserves a general style and especially a layout typical of the earlier excerpts from the sacrificial calendar; it may therefore have been reinscribed in the late Hellenistic or early Roman period after an earlier model.</p>
						
<p>The excerpt is particularly brief in this case (for other very brief excerpts, cp. <ref target="CGRN_112">CGRN 112</ref>, Kamiros, and both <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_116">CGRN 116</ref>, Lindos). Its context is unfortunately now lost. This part of the calendar may have originally pertained to the cult of Dionysus on or near the Acropolis of Kamiros: a priesthood of the god is well known at the site from the early Hellenistic period (cf. e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 26) and this priest is also known to have officiated in the (sometimes explicitly joint) cult of the Muses, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_113">CGRN 113</ref>. In this case, however, it would seem that the civic cultic officials known as the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign>, abundantly attested at Kamiros, officiated during the sacrifice. Most of the other sacrificial excerpts from Kamiros specify the agent of the sacrifice (after the date, the offering and the recipient); the
<foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> appear in such a role in <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref>, <ref target="CGRN_112">CGRN 112</ref> (perhaps), and <ref target="CGRN_114">CGRN 114</ref>. Therefore, this restoration seems rather secure.</p>
 
<p>As Segre aptly notes, the offering of a he-goat to Dionysus is particularly evocative. Dionysus was well known as the recipient of offerings of such animals (recall, for instance, the popular etymology of tragedy as a "goat-song" following the sacrifice of such an animal prior to the performance of plays in the theatre). Indeed, sacrifices of he-goats are well-attested for the god, as in <ref target="CGRN_57">CGRN 57</ref> (Aixone), lines 9-11, Dionysus Anthios; and especially ones having reached a minimum or precise age, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), lines 33-34 (during the Anthesteria, a sacrifice of a he-goat having lost its milk teeth, i.e. probably during the second year of life when the adult teeth erupted); as well as <ref target="CGRN_169">CGRN 169</ref> (Kallatis), lines 11-13 (heavily restored, but possibly also a yearling he-goat for Dionysus). That being said, the timing of this sacrificial occasion at Kamiros remains to be further elucidated. The
date of the 10th of Panamos (a high-summer month, ca. July/August, the last in the Rhodian calendar according to reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here; for a different view, see Iversen) is not otherwise attested. Sacrifices for Dionysus took place two months earlier (10th of Agrianios) in the territory of nearby Lindos: <ref target="CGRN_116">CGRN 116</ref>.</p>
						
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