CGRN 113

Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Kamiros (concerning sacrifices to the Muses and Mnemosyne)

Date :

ca. 300-200 BC

Justification: early to mid-Hellenistic lettering (Pugliese Carratelli).

Provenance

Kamiros , on the island of Rhodes. Now in the Museum of Rhodes.

Support

Small marble stele, broken on the lefthand side at the bottom.

  • Height: 20 cm
  • Width: 20 cm
  • Depth: 6.8 cm

Layout

Letters: 1.1 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Pugliese Carratelli Tit.Cam. 151, with ph. fig. 111.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 101.

Further bibliography: Segre 1951; Badoud 2015: 11-35; Iversen 2017: 192-197; Carbon forthc.

Text


Δαλίου νευμη-
νίαι
Μούσαις
ὄιν, Σμινθίου
[ἐ]νάται δάμαλιν,
5Μναμοσύναι ὄιν
ἰερεὺς
[θύε]ι Διονύσου.
vacat

Translation

On the 1st of the month Dalios, a sheep for the Muses.

On the 9th of Sminthios, a heifer (for the Muses); (5) a sheep for Mnemosyne.

The priest of Dionysus makes the sacrifices.

Traduction

Le 1er du mois de Dalios, un mouton pour les Muses.

Le 9 Sminthios, une génisse (pour les Muses); (5) un mouton pour Mnémosyne.

Le prêtre de Dionysos accomplit les sacrifices.

Commentary

The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here CGRN 62 and CGRN 63, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. CGRN 110 for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. CGRN 115 for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc.

The excerpt here concerns rites for the Muses and Mnemosyne (Memory). In mythology, Mnemosyne and Zeus were the parents of the Muses (e.g. Hes. Th. 54). The rites are all performed by the priest of Dionysus (alternatively, a more minimalist interpretation but less likely would hold that only the last sacrifice in Sminthios is performed by that priest). Since the stele is not attributed to a specific place, it is probable that it belongs to a sanctuary of Dionysus, where the Muses and Mnemosyne were also worshipped as associated goddesses. Dionysus was closely associated with the Muses on Kamiros: a joint priesthood of the two cults is attested, see e.g. Tit.Cam. 40, II line 8 (among many other instances).

Lines 1-3: The new moon of the month of Dalios was apparently an important festival at Kamiros, as we infer from sacrifices to Helios (CGRN 110) and Athena Polias (CGRN 109) respectively on the same day. Perhaps the festival is to be identified as the Dalia. In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen), Dalios was the first month of the year (ca. August/September).

Lines 3-5: The sacrifice performed on the 9th of the month Sminthios appears to have had a considerable importance as far as these cults is concerned. The offering of a heifer to the Muses was significant (cp. the one given to Athena Polias during the important festival of Dalios, CGRN 109 at lines 1-3) and is complemented by a further sacrifice to Mnemosyne. It is possible that we have here the date of the Sminthia, at least at Kamiros. This was a festival which involved the cult of Dionysus, but in which also Apollo was honoured, both called Smintheus (i.e. from Sminthe, a town near Hamaxitos in the Troad); on Rhodes, cf. IG XII.1 762. For the Sminthia in the Coan deme of Phyxa, on the 13th-14th of the month Gerastios, also involving sacrifices to Dionysus, cf. CGRN 146, lines 9-12. A full study of the meaning of the epithet Smintheus and the spread of the cult (also evident in the recurrence of the month Sminthios in various calendars) remain to be undertaken.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 113, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 113, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/113/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xml:id="CGRN_113" xml:lang="en">
	    <teiHeader>
			<fileDesc>
	    		<titleStmt>
	    			<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 113</idno>: Excerpt from the <rs type="textType" key="sacrificial calendar">sacrificial calendar</rs> at Kamiros (concerning sacrifices to the Muses and Mnemosyne)</title>
	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
				</titleStmt>
				<publicationStmt>
					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
					<availability>
						<p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p>	
						<p>All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/">http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/</ref> and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).</p>
					</availability>
				</publicationStmt>
	<sourceDesc><msDesc><msIdentifier><repository>n/a</repository></msIdentifier>
	<physDesc>
		<objectDesc>
			<supportDesc><support><p>Small marble <rs type="objectType">stele</rs>, broken on the lefthand side at the bottom.</p>
				<p><dimensions>
					<height unit="cm">20</height>
					<width unit="cm">20</width>
					<depth unit="cm">6.8</depth>
				</dimensions></p>
			</support>
			</supportDesc>
			<layoutDesc><layout><p>Letters: <height unit="cm">1.1</height>.</p>
			</layout></layoutDesc>
		</objectDesc>
	</physDesc>
	<history>
		<origin>
		<p><origDate notBefore="-0300" notAfter="-0200">ca. 300-200 BC</origDate></p>
		<p><desc>Justification: early to mid-Hellenistic lettering (Pugliese Carratelli).</desc></p>
		</origin>
		<provenance><p><placeName type="ancientFindspot" key="Kamiros" n="Aegean_Islands"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/589836" type="external">Kamiros</ref></placeName>, on the island of Rhodes. Now in the Museum of Rhodes.</p>
		</provenance> 
	</history>
	</msDesc>
	</sourceDesc>
			</fileDesc>
	    	<encodingDesc><p>Encoded for EpiDoc schema 8.17 on 01-01-2014 by JM Carbon.</p>
	    	</encodingDesc>
	    	<profileDesc>
	    		<langUsage>
	    			<language ident="eng">English</language>
	    			<language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
	    			<language ident="lat">Latin</language>
	    			<language ident="fre">French</language>
	    			<language ident="ger">German</language>
	    			<language ident="gre">Modern Greek</language>
	    			<language ident="ita">Italian</language>
	    		</langUsage>
	    		<textClass/>
	    	</profileDesc>
	    	<revisionDesc>
	    		<change>Revised by XX in 20XX.</change>     
	    	</revisionDesc>
	    </teiHeader>
	<facsimile><graphic url="x"><desc/></graphic></facsimile> 
	    <text>
	    	<body>	
				<div type="bibliography">
					<head>Bibliography</head>
			<p>Edition here based on Pugliese Carratelli <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 151, with ph. fig. 111.</p>
			<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 101.</p>
					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud 2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>: 11-35; <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: 192-197; <bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl></p>
				</div>
	    			<div type="edition">
	    				<head>Text</head>
	    				<ab>	
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Δάλιος">Δαλίου</w></name> <w lemma="νουμηνία">νευμη
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" break="no"/>νίαι</w> <name type="deity" key="Muses"><w lemma="Μοῦσα">Μούσαις</w></name>
	    					
	   <lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄιν</w></name>, <name type="month"><w lemma="Σμινθεύς">Σμινθίου</w></name>
	    					
	    <lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><w lemma="ἔνατος"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>νάται</w> <name type="animal" key="ox"><name type="gender"><w lemma="δάμαλις">δάμαλιν</w></name></name>,
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="deity" key="Mnemosyne"><w lemma="Μνημοσύνη">Μναμοσύναι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄιν</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἰερεὺς</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7"/><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θύε</supplied>ι</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Dionysus"><w lemma="Διόνυσος">Διονύσου</w></name>.
	    					
<lb/><space quantity="2" unit="line"/>
	    				</ab>
	    			</div>
	    			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
					<p>On the 1st of the month Dalios, a sheep for the Muses.</p>
	    				<p>On the 9th of Sminthios, a heifer (for the Muses); (5) a sheep for Mnemosyne.</p>
	    				<p>The priest of Dionysus makes the sacrifices.</p>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>Le 1er du mois de Dalios, un mouton pour les Muses.</p>
					<p>Le 9 Sminthios, une génisse (pour les Muses); (5) un mouton pour Mnémosyne.</p>
					<p>Le prêtre de Dionysos accomplit les sacrifices.</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p>The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_63">CGRN 63</ref>, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref> for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc.</p>

<p>The excerpt here concerns rites for the Muses and Mnemosyne (Memory). In mythology, Mnemosyne and Zeus were the parents of the Muses (e.g. Hes. <title>Th.</title> 54). The rites are all performed by the priest of Dionysus (alternatively, a more minimalist interpretation but less likely would hold that only the last sacrifice in Sminthios is performed by that priest). Since the stele is not attributed to a specific place, it is probable that it belongs to a sanctuary of Dionysus, where the Muses and Mnemosyne were also worshipped as associated goddesses. Dionysus was closely associated with the Muses on Kamiros: a joint priesthood of the two cults is attested, see e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 40, II line 8 (among many other instances).</p>		
												
<p>Lines 1-3: The new moon of the month of Dalios was apparently an important festival at Kamiros, as we infer from sacrifices to Helios (<ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref>) and Athena Polias (<ref target="CGRN_109">CGRN 109</ref>) respectively on the same day. Perhaps the festival is to be identified as the Dalia. In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen), Dalios was the first month of the year (ca. August/September).
						</p>
							
<p>Lines 3-5: The sacrifice performed on the 9th of the month Sminthios appears to have had a considerable importance as far as these cults is concerned. The offering of a heifer to the Muses was significant (cp. the one given to Athena Polias during the important festival of Dalios, <ref target="CGRN_109">CGRN 109</ref> at lines 1-3) and is complemented by a further sacrifice to Mnemosyne. It is possible that we have here the date of the Sminthia, at least at Kamiros. This was a festival which involved the cult of Dionysus, but in which also Apollo was honoured, both called Smintheus (i.e. from Sminthe, a town near Hamaxitos in the Troad); on Rhodes, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.1">IG XII.1</bibl> 762. For the Sminthia in the Coan deme of Phyxa, on the 13th-14th of the month Gerastios, also involving sacrifices to Dionysus, cf. <ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref>, lines 9-12. A full study of the meaning of the epithet Smintheus and the spread of the cult (also evident in the recurrence of the month Sminthios in various calendars) remain to be undertaken.</p>	
					</div>
			</body>
    	</text>
	</TEI>