CGRN 236

Sacrificial calendar from the deme of Isthmos on Kos

Date :

ca. 200-150 BC

Justification: lettering (Hallof; by contrast, Herzog had dated the text to the early 4th century BC).

Provenance

Kos, deme of Isthmos . Found in the castle of Kephalos. Fragments A and B are now in the British Museum (inv. nos. 338-339). Fragment C is lost (squeeze in IG archives, Berlin).

Support

White marble stele found in three, non-contiguous fragments (A, B and C). A is broken on the top left and at the bottom left; B is opisthographic and broken on one side; C is broken on its right and left sides.

Fragment A

  • Height: 34 cm
  • Width: 20 cm
  • Depth: 9 cm

Fragment B

  • Height: 17 cm
  • Width: 22 cm
  • Depth: 9 cm

Layout

Since fragment B is opisthographic, it may actually be the first fragment (located higher on the stele than fragment A, at least). However, the order of the fragments remains hypothetical. It is possible that some of the restorations in fragments A (lines 9 and 12) and B (face A, lines 4 and 6) suggest a rather circumscribed text (26-28 letter spaces) and thus a narrow stele, but this cannot be confirmed with any certainty.

Letters: 1 cm high

Bibliography

Edition here based on Hallof IG XII.4 280. Note that several restorations adopted in that edition are not reprised here, though most are discussed in the commentary below. Additionally, a few supplements are different and discussed below. In fragment B, face A, lines 5-6, we notably restore [ποιεῖται] and [ὑπέρ], instead of [ποιεῖ καί] and [μετά] respectively.

Other editions: Newton GIBM 338-339; Paton - Hicks PH 401-403; von Prott LGS I 10-12; Pugliese Carratelli 1963-1964: 158-159, I-II.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSCG 169.

Further bibliography: Habicht 2000: 293-294; Parker 2002: 153; Bosnakis - Hallof 2005; Livadiotti - Rocco 2001; Paul 2013a.

Text

Fragment A
[..?..]
[..?..]ω
[..?.. Ἀσ]κλαπιῶ[ι]
[..?.. τᾶι αὐτᾶι ἁ]μέραι· Ὑγιε[ί]-
[αι
..?.. Ὁ]μονοίαι οἶν
5[..?.. Ἑκ]άται ἐμ πόλει α-
[..?..] ἐπίποκον τελε-
[..?..] σκλαπιῶι ἐν Ἰσθμῶ[ι]
[..?.. Πα]νάμου νευμηνίαι· Ἀ-
[σκλαπιῶι
(?)] καὶ Ἱστίαι Φαμίαι πλα-
10[κοῦντ-
..?.. ἀλφί]των ἡμίεκτον κα[ὶ]
[..?.. θύε]ται ἐπὶ τᾶς ἱστίας
[ἐνάται· Ἀφροδί]ται Πανδάμωι ἔρι-
[φον
..?..] ταύταν θύει ἱέρε-
[.. καὶ ἱερὰ παρέχει· ..?..] δεκάται· Ποτει-
15[δᾶνι
..?.. ἔριφον] ἄρσενα· τᾶι αὐ-
[τᾶι
ἁμέραι· ..?.. ἔ]ριφον ἄρσενα
[..?..] καιδεκάται· Πο-
[τειδᾶνι
..?..] μὴ [ἐλά]σσονος
[..?..]καιδεκάται· κά-
20[ται
..?..]
[..?..]
Fragment B, face A
[..?..]
[..?..]Ω[..?..]
[..?..] θύε ..?..]
[..?..]ς θήλεια· ταύ[ταν θύει] ὑπ[ὲρ]
[..?.. ὁ] μόναρχος· τῶι Ρ[..]ΙΩΙ
5[ποιεῖται δεῖ]πνον ὡς λαμπρότατον
[ὑπὲρ τοῦ μο]νάρχου. ἰκάδι· Θεῶν Μα-
[τρὶ
..?..] τελέα· ταύταν θ-
[ει
..?..]ς· φερέτω δὲ ὁ
[..?..]νον ἐγ δύο
10[..?..]εων
[..?..]
Fragment B, face B
[..?..]ΜΙΝ[..?.. μὴ]
[ἐλάσσονο]ς 𐅄 [..?..]
[..?..]Γ[..?..]ΑΙΩ[..?.. ἄρ]-
[σ]ενα
θ[ύ]ει Π[..?..]
5[δ]ωδεκ[ά]ται· Λ[..?..]
μ ἐλσ[σονος ..?..]
[.]αιτετωι[.]σκλ[..?..]
ον ρσ[εν]α [..?..]
[.]ΑΙ[.]ΛΟΙΣ[..?..]
10[..]ΔΕ[...]Τ[..?..]
[..]οισλ[..?..]γ[..?..]
[..]Ι[.] ἐνάται [..?..]
[...]Ρ[..?..]
[..?..]
Fragment C
[..?..]
[..?..]ΑΕΣΕΝΙΚ[..?..]
[..?.. ἔ]στω ΤΑΣ[..?..]
[..?.. τᾶι αὐτ]ᾶι ἁμέραι [..?..]
[..?..] δειπνὲν Π[..?..]
5[..?.. κα]ρύκων ΝΕ[..?..]
[..?.. ἑκά]στα φυλ [..?..]
[..?.. ἐ]πιβαλλε[..?..]
[..?..]ΕΤΑΝΣΤ[..?..]
[..?..]ΑΣ μὴ φραζ[..?..]
10[..?.. ἐλευ]θέραις (?) ΑΙ[..?..]
[..?..]

Translation

Fragment A

[...] to Asclepius [...]. On [the same] day: to Hygieia [...] to Homonoia, a sheep (5) [...] to Hekate in the city [...] an adult animal covered with wool [...] to Asclepius in Isthmos [...]. On the 1st of Panamos: to [Asclepius (?)] and to Hestia Phamia (10) [... flat cake(s) ...], a half-hekteus of barley and [...] are sacrificed on the hearth. [On the 9th, to Aphrodi]te Pandamos, a female kid [...]; the priest(ess) sacrifices it [and provides the sacred offerings]. On the [...]th, to Poseidon (15) [...] a male [kid...]. On the same [day ...] a male kid [...]. On the [...]th: to Poseidon [...] costing [not] less than [...]. On the [...]th: to Hekate [...]

Fragment B, face A

[...] sacrifices [...] a female [...]; the monarchos [sacrifices it in the name of the ...]. To [... (5) is made] a meal as splendid as possible [on behalf of the] monarchos. On the 20th: to the Mother of the Gods [...] an adult female [...; ...] sacrifices this [...]. The [...] should [...] wear [...] from two [...]

Fragment B, face B

[... costing not less than] 50 dr. [...] sacrifices a [...] male [...]. On the 12th: [...] (5) costing not less than [...] is sacrificed (?) both (?) to Asclepius [...] a male [... (10) ...] a sheep (?) [...]. On the [...]th: [...]

Fragment C

[...] let (it) be [... on the same] day [...; ...] to hold a banquet [...] of the heralds [... (5) ...] each tribe [...] throw in [...] not speak [...] (10) to the free women (?) [...].

Traduction

Fragment A

[...] à Asclépios [...]. [Le même] jour : à Hygie [...], à Homonoia, un mouton (5) [...], à Hécate dans la cité, [...] un animal adulte couvert de laine [...] à Asclépios à Isthmos [...]. Le 1er Panamos : à [Asclépios (?)] et à Hestia Phamia, (10) [... gâteau(x) plat(s) ...], un demi-setier d’orge et [...] sacrifiés sur le foyer. [Le 9 : à Aphrodi]te Pandamos, une chevrette [...]; le (la) prêtre(sse) la sacrifie [et fournit les offrandes sacrées]. Le [...] : à Poséidon (15) [... un chevreau] mâle. Le même [jour ...] un chevreau mâle [...]. Le [...] : à Poséidon [...] d’au moins [...]. Le [...] : à Hécate [...]

Fragment B, face A

[...] sacrifie [une ...] femelle . [Le] monarque la [sacrifie au nom de ...]. Pour [... (5) est tenu] le banquet le plus somptueux possible [au nom du] monarque. Le 20 : à la Mère des dieux, [une ...] femelle adulte [...] la sacrifie [...]. Que le [...] porte [...] à partir de deux [...]

Fragment B, face B

[... d’au moins] 50 dr. [...] sacrifie [un ... mâle ...]. Le 12 : [...] (5) d’au moins [...] est sacrifié (?) à la fois (?) à Asclépios [... un] mâle [... (10) ...] un mouton (?) [...]. Le [...] : [...]

Fragment C

[...] que soit [... le même] jour [...; ...] donner un banquet [...] des hérauts [... (5) ...] chaque tribu [...] jeter sur [...] ne parle [...] (10) aux femmes libres (?) [...]

Commentary

The place where the fragments were found, the castle of Kephalos and the Byzantine church of Panagia Palatiani, at the south-west of the island of Kos, corresponds to the location of the deme of Isthmos. As a deme sacrificial calendar from Kos, the document is comparable to the calendar from Phyxa (CGRN 146) and the excerpts from such a calendar published in the deme of Halasarna (CGRN 151). The character of the text is also confirmed by the distinction between ἐμ πόλει, line A5, and ἐν Ἰσθμῶ[ι], line A7, apparently indicating that certain sacrifices took place in the city of Kos and other in the deme of Isthmos respectively; in this regard, Paul (p. 225) draws a comparison with the distinction between ἐν ἄστει (in the city of Athens) and (ἐμ πόλει) Ἐρχιᾶσι (on the acropolis, at Erchia) in CGRN 52. With the exception of the two aforementioned passages, places of worship are not often clearly specified in what remains of the fragments, though much may also be missing. Much uncertainty remains in many cases: in fragment B, face A, lines 3-6, or in fragment C, it is not possible to determine whether the monarchos and the heralds were representatives of the deme (as one might reasonably assume, given the character of the document) or of the city. In the same way, depending on whether one renders a female or male religious agent in lines A14-15, one might favour either the idea that the deme imitates forms of religious life in the city, or the notion that civic religious practices were adapted to a local particularism. For the most part, the relationship of the sacrifices mentioned in the deme document with the cults of the city remains to be clarified.

As discussed above in Layout, the order of the fragments of the deme's sacrificial calendar is hypothetical. All fragments contain dates or partially dated entries, though only fragment A can to some degree be situated in the overall Koan calendar, since it is the only fragment to mention the name of a month, namely the ninth month, Panamos (line A8; ca. July/August; cf. Bosnakis - Hallof, p. 233-240; Paul, p. 382). It is thus likely that, prior to this, fragment A presented the conclusion of the preceding month, Hyakinthios (ca. June/July). The formulation of the entries in the sacrificial calendar may have varied or have not been completely standardised. All the assured occurrences of sacrificial offerings and animals are in the accusative in fragment A and in the nominative in fragment B (these respective cases have been observed for any restorations to the two fragments).

Fragment A

Lines A2-4: The presence of Asclepius in at least two instances in this calendar has supported the idea that he was a central god of the deme of Isthmos, just as Apollo appears to have been for Halasarna (cf. CGRN 151). Asclepius' association with Hygieia (line A3), as well as with Homonoia (line A4), was linked to an extra-urban religious complex including a temple dedicated to Homonoia and one to the couple Asclepius and Hygieia, according to two dedications (Livadiotti - Rocco; Paul, p. 225-227; IG XII.4 586). It is likely in this sanctuary that the sacrifice of line 7 (ἐν Ἰσθμῶ[ι]) took place. The sacrifice of a sheep—whose gender cannot be ascertained—to Homonoia finds only a tentative parallel in the city of Kos: the contract of sale for the priesthood of the goddess (CGRN 208, lines 11-13) mentions that the semestrial hierophylakes must each sacrifice a sheep of 25 dr. to the goddess after being elected. Equally intriguing is the fact that, in the summer term, this sacrifice by the hierophylakes was to take place on the 14th of Hyakinthios. This could suggest a chronological parallel with the worship of Homonoia at Isthmos during this same month, though that remains uncertain.

Lines A5-7: The goddess Hekate can be found in other parts of the island: in the sacrificial calendar of the deme of Phyxa (CGRN 146, lines 12 and 22) she appears without an epithet; at Halasarna (CGRN 151, lines 19 and 25), she is called Stratia and Meliteina. The goddess is absent from what remains of the civic calendar of Kos and Paul has stated (p. 220) that a civic cult is not so far attested. Accordingly, the fact that this specific sacrifice took place ἐμ πόλει may be somewhat unexpected. However, a form of civic cult does appear to be implied by the mention of Hekate Megale in the purity rules for civic priests on Kos (CGRN 85, Face A, lines 12-13). Lines A5-6 have been the subject of numerous restorations regarding which animals were sacrificed, none of which have been retained here. The trace of an alpha at the end of line 5 led Sokolowski to restore α[ἶ|γα], which could now be paralleled by a similar sacrifice of a goat to Hekate at Halasarna (CGRN 151, lines 19 and 20). However, a different case from the deme of Phyxa (CGRN 146, line 13), where the name of the goddess is followed by a toponym, and where Hekate was offered a sheep and a piglet, shows that Sokolowski's restoration can reasonably be doubted. Further doubtful restorations are linked to the very rare adjective ἐπίποκος, an epigraphic hapax. There are only two attestations of this word in later literature, both of which qualify a ram, κριός (Theodoretus, Quaestiones in libros Regnorum et Paralipomenon 80.752.2, and Gnomologium Vaticanum 250.2). This is the reason why Newton restored [ἄρνα] in line A6 (incidentally, ἄρνα (...) τελέαν is now paralleled in the sacrificial calendar of the deme of Phyxa, CGRN 146, lines 23-25); Paton and Hicks then followed with their own proposal, [οἶν]. It was on this latter restoration that Herzog relied to restore this adjective in a purity regulation from Kos (a restoration eliminated in CGRN 148, lines 53-54). Though the animal was most probably ovine, there is no reason to restore [οἶν] in line 6, rather than [κρίον] for example. And though the compound adjective ἐπίποκος is only attested with masculine nouns, it was almost certainly epicene, so even the gender of the animal concerned must remain unclear.

Lines A8-11: On the New Moon (1st day) of Panamos, a divinity appears to be associated with Hestia Phamia. This could tentatively be identified as Asclepius (so Newton; Ἀ|[πόλλωνι] was suggested by von Prott and Paton, but there is little support for the presence of Apollo in the deme of Isthmos). For the probable prominence of Asclepius in the deme of Isthmos, see above on lines A2-4. Hestia is seldom honoured alone but most often in association with another deity in the calendars of the island (with Zeus Polieus in the calendar in Kos, CGRN 86 A, lines 20-45; with Apollo at Halasarna, CGRN 151, lines 8-12; cf. Paul, p. 229 and 281). The location where the sacrifice to Hestia and the associated divinity is made is also noteworthy: "on the hearth". Following Newton, many scholars have considered that the phrase ἐπὶ τᾶς Ἱστίας refers to the deity Hestia herself; Hallof has even added [βωμῶι] in the following line to clarify that the sacrifice was to be made to the two gods jointly, on the altar of Hestia, though this results in odd syntax. Paton and Hicks recognised that the word designates the concrete manifestation of the goddess, namely a hearth, as in CGRN 86 A, line 48, ἐφ᾿ ἑστίαν, and stele D, line 9, ἐπὶ τᾶι ἱστίαι (a variant with ἐπί + genitive remains expected, compare e.g. ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ). However, in these cases, the hearth is related to Zeus Polieus and Hera Argeia Heleia Basileia, respectively, not to the goddess Hestia per se. This is perhaps most clear in the case of Hera: the hearth is "in the temple”, probably that of the goddess herself; for the connection of Hestia (Phamia) with Zeus Polieus in the rituals held on the day preceding the major sacrifice, see earlier, stele A, lines 20-29. Paul (p. 229) suggests that the hearth at Isthmos was the "common hearth of the deme", building on the parallel of the Timacheion where Hestia was honoured at Halasarna (CGRN 151, line 10). For the small flat cake(s) called πλακοῦς mentioned here, cf. CGRN 201, Miletos, lines 31-42.

Lines A12-14: The date of the 9th is restored by Hallof (following Parker) on the basis of two parallels: the sacrifice of a goat to Aphrodite by the priest of Apollo at Halasarna on the 9th of a month that is restored as Panamos (CGRN 131, lines 2-4) and, more clearly and directly, the sacrifices of an adult animal to Aphrodite Pandamos in the city of Kos on the 9th of Panamos (IG XII.4 302, lines 30-31). The restoration suggested by Paton and Hicks for lines 13-14, ἔρι|[φον θήλειαν], relies on the formula "name animal + adjective defining gender" attested in the inscription. The specification of gender would have been important, since this might be the only occurrence of a female ἔριφος in epigraphical sources, corresponding also to the unparalleled specification of the male gender of the ἔριφος in line A16. However, this restoration is not retained here, since it is not certain. If the pronoun ταύταν in line 13 refers to the preceding ἔριφος, then it indicates that the animal under consideration is female. But it cannot be excluded that the lacuna contained an adjective relating to another characteristic of the animal. In lines A13-14, the restoration could be ἱερε|[ύς], as first suggested by Newton. This is based on numerous parallels for the formula θύει ἱαρεὺς καὶ ἱερὰ παρέχει (notably in stele D of the calendar of Kos, CGRN 86). Pugliese Carratelli proposed the alternative ἱέρε[ια] (accepted by Hallof) based on the fact that Aphrodite Pandamos is served by a priestess in the city (cf. CGRN 220). At Halasarna, however, the local priest of Apollo made offerings to Aphrodite, not a priestess (CGRN 131, line 2). Yet ἱερε[ύς], though possible here, would also entail that a specific priest (of an unmentioned god), or, rather strangely, a priest of Aphrodite, was implied. More broadly, it remains open whether we are dealing with the deme's participation in the civic festival on the 9th of Panamos or with a local echo of a well-attested "pan-civic" ritual on Kos.

Lines A14-20: On the cult of Poseidon at Kos, see Paul, p. 136-140. The occasions for these sacrifices are unknown, but the male gender of the animals sacrificed to Poseidon is expected since there is no epigraphical record of a female animal sacrificed to this god.

Fragment B, face A

Lines Ba3-6: The μόναρχος poses a problem for Hallof’s understanding of the lacuna in line B5 ([ποιεῖ καὶ δεῖ]πνον) insofar as the magistrate finds himself both the implicit subject of the verb and an accompanying complement to the same verb in line B6. This difficulty is coupled with that of identifying the magistrate in question, since it is known that there was both a monarch of the city of Kos and a monarch of the deme of Isthmos (cf. Habicht and see esp. IG XII.4 100). The solution which would consist in seeing in the two mentions of the μόναρχος a distributive reference to the monarch of the city and to the μόναρχος of the deme respectively is unsatisfactory, insofar as one would expect this distinction to be the object of greater precision in a cultic calendar. This is why it seems more coherent to restore [ποιεῖται δεῖ]πνον in the gap in line 25, thus maintaining the identity of the monarch in this passage. A second step is to consider which of the two μόναρχοι is conducting the sacrifice here and being honoured during the resulting banquet. Hallof's restoration, ὑπ[ὲρ | τᾶς πόλιος], would most likely imply that this is the civic official: the civic μόναρχος and the hierophants sacrifice "on behalf of the city" in the contract of sale of the priesthood of Zeus Alseios (CGRN 167, line 24-25; an analogous case can be found in CGRN 147, lines 78-79, where the (civic) priest of Hermes Enagonios awards crowns to victors "in the name of the city"). It may also be pointed out that this is the only instance known in which the civic μόναρχος would be represented as performing a religious act alone, without the assistance of other officials. It therefore remains possible (even probable?) that the role of the deme's μόναρχος is being envisaged here; accordingly, the restoration ὑπ[ὲρ | τοῦ δάμου] might then be an alternative to Hallof's reading. Most problematically, the conclusion of line 24 remains elusive. Thinking of a divine recipient for the dinner—an unlikely idea in this form of expression—von Prott as well as Paton - Hicks read τῶι Ἀ[πόλλ]ων̣[ι], while Pugliese Carratelli thought of Ἀσ̣[κλα]π̣ιῶι. On the basis of the preserved traces, Hallof rejects these two readings and thinks of τῶι ἀρ̣[ίσ]τ̣ωι, without integrating this into his edition, presumably because of the uncertain meaning of the expression in this context.

Fragment B, face B

This face presents only small and mostly uncertain traces relating to a few dated entries. At lines Bb6-7, we consider the restorations of the IG edition, [θύε|τ]αί τ̣ε τῶι̣ [Ἀ]σ̣κλ[απιῶι, to be at least partly problematic. It is possible that Asclepius may have been mentioned, but the sense of the clause, with a relatively unexpected conjunction τε, is unclear. Unless we are to suppose that a new month was introduced between lines Bb5 ("on the 12th") and Bb12, then ἐνάται in the latter line should be interpreted not as the 9th, but as the 19th (ἐνάτα [πρὸ ἰκάδος]) or the 22nd (ἐνάτα ἐξ ἰκάδος / μετ’ ἰκάδα) of the month in question, now lost.

Fragment C

Lines C6-7: The role of the heralds is relatively well documented in the city's sacrificial calendar (CGRN 86, see esp. stele A) and was concerned not only with proclamations, but also with other ritual functions. It is not certain whether the tribes mentioned here are those of the city or the deme of Isthmos. Moreover, as each chiliastys (division of a civic tribe) had a herald, it is difficult to say here whether these heralds are those of the deme or those of the city (cf. Paul, p. 31).

Line C8: A form of the verb ἐπιβάλλειν seems possible here. This may parallel a phrase found in the two diagraphai of the priesthood of Dionysus Thyllophoros, which reference the placement (ἐπιβαλλέτω) of the sacred offerings (τὰ ἱερά) on the altar by the priestess or her assistant (IG XII.4, 304, lines 39-40 and 326, lines 67-68).

Line C9: The partially preserved phrase μὴ φραζ- may point to an interdiction to speak. A parallel with the proclamation of εὐφαμία by the herald in the civic calendar of Kos is certainly not to be excluded (cf. notably the heralds in line C5), though this practice has itself been subject to interpretation (CGRN 86 A, line 32; for discussion, cf. Paul, p. 280). In the absence of a more precise context, little else can be said.

Line C10: The word [ἐλευ]θέραις might attest to the participation of free women in an act of worship (cf. CGRN 102, line 20), but this remains entirely uncertain and other restorations seem possible.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN236), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Manfred Lesgourgues
  • Zoé Pitz

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 236, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Manfred Lesgourgues et Zoé Pitz, "CGRN 236: Sacrificial calendar from the deme of Isthmos on Kos", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on January 28, 2023. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/236/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN236.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on January 28, 2023. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

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								<p>White marble <rs type="objectType" key="stele">stele</rs> found in three, non-contiguous fragments (A, B and C). A is broken on the top left and at the bottom left; B is opisthographic and broken on one side; C is broken on its right and left sides.</p>
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						<height unit="cm">34</height>
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	<p>Since fragment B is opisthographic, it may actually be the first fragment (located higher on the stele than fragment A, at least). However, the order of the fragments remains hypothetical. It is possible that some of the restorations in fragments A (lines 9 and 12) and B (face A, lines 4 and 6) suggest a rather circumscribed text (26-28 letter spaces) and thus a narrow stele, but this cannot be confirmed with any certainty. </p>

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					<p><placeName type="ancientFindspot" key="Kos" n="Aegean_Islands"><ref target="https://pleiades.stoa.org/places/599539" type="external">Kos, deme of Isthmos</ref></placeName>. Found in the castle of Kephalos. Fragments A and B are now in the British Museum (inv. nos. 338-339). Fragment C is lost (squeeze in <title>IG</title> archives, Berlin).
							</p>
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			<div type="bibliography">
				<head>Bibliography</head>

<p>Edition here based on Hallof <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 280. Note that several restorations adopted in that edition are not reprised here, though
most are discussed in the commentary below. Additionally, a few supplements are different and discussed below. In fragment B, face A, lines 5-6, we notably restore [ποιεῖται] and [ὑπέρ], instead of [ποιεῖ καί] and [μετά] respectively.</p>

<p>Other editions: Newton <bibl type="abbr" n="GIBM">GIBM</bibl> 338-339;
				Paton - Hicks <bibl type="abbr" n="PH">PH</bibl> 401-403;
				von Prott <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS I">LGS I</bibl> 10-12;
				<bibl type="author_date" n="Pugliese Carratelli 1963-1964">Pugliese Carratelli 1963-1964</bibl>: 158-159, I-II.</p>

<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 169.</p>

<p>Further bibliography: 	<bibl type="author_date" n="Habicht 2000">Habicht 2000</bibl>: 293-294;
				<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2002">Parker 2002</bibl>: 153;
				<bibl type="author_date" n="Bosnakis - Hallof 2005">Bosnakis - Hallof 2005</bibl>;
				<bibl type="author_date" n="Livadiotti - Rocco 2001">Livadiotti - Rocco 2001</bibl>;
				<bibl type="author_date" n="Paul 2013a">Paul 2013a</bibl>.</p>
			</div>
			
			<div type="edition">
				<head>Text</head>

<ab subtype="fragment" n="A">Fragment A

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

<lb xml:id="line_A1" n="A1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ω</orig>

<lb xml:id="line_A2" n="A2"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="deity" key="Asclepius"><w lemma="Ἀσκληπιός"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀσ</supplied>κλαπιῶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_A3" n="A3"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">τᾶι</supplied> <w lemma="αὐτός"><supplied reason="lost">αὐτᾶι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα"><supplied reason="lost">ἁ</supplied><unclear>μ</unclear>έραι</w>· <name type="deity" key="Hygieia"><w lemma="ὑγίεια">Ὑγιε<supplied reason="lost">ί</supplied>

<lb xml:id="line_A4" n="A4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">αι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="deity" key="Homonoia"><w lemma="ὁμόνοια"><supplied reason="lost">Ὁ</supplied>μονοίαι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">οἶν</w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_A5" n="A5"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="deity" key="Hekate"><w lemma="Ἑκάτη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἑκ</supplied>άται</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐμ</w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="πόλις">πόλει</w></name> <orig><unclear>α</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="1" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_A6" n="A6" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἐπίποκος">ἐπίποκον</w> <name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος">τελε</w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_A7" n="A7" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="deity" key="Asclepius"><w lemma="Ἀσκληπιός"><unclear>Ἀ</unclear>σκλαπιῶι</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <placeName key="Isthmos"><w lemma="Ἰσθμός">Ἰσθμῶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></placeName>

<lb xml:id="line_A8" n="A8"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="month"><w lemma="Πάναμος"><supplied reason="lost">Πα</supplied><unclear>ν</unclear>άμου</w></name> <w lemma="νουμηνία">νευμηνίαι</w>· <name type="deity" key="Asclepius"><w lemma="Ἀσκληπιός">Ἀ

<lb xml:id="line_A9" n="A9" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">σκλαπιῶι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> καὶ <name type="deity" key="Hestia"><w lemma="ἑστία">Ἱστίαι</w></name> <name type="epithet" key="Phamia"><w lemma="Φαμία">Φαμίαι</w></name> <name type="bakery"><w lemma="πλακοῦς">πλ<unclear>α</unclear>

<lb xml:id="line_A10" n="A10" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κοῦντ-</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἄλφιτον"><supplied reason="lost">ἀλφί</supplied><unclear>τ</unclear>ων</w></name> <w lemma="ἡμίεκτον">ἡμίεκτον</w> κα<supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied>

<lb xml:id="line_A11" n="A11"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θύε</supplied>ται</w></name> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τᾶς <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἑστία">ἱστίας</w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_A12" n="A12"/><w lemma="ἔνατος"><supplied reason="lost">ἐνάται</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <name type="deity" key="Aphrodite"><w lemma="Ἀφροδίτη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀφροδί</supplied>ται</w></name> <name type="epithet"><w lemma="πάνδημος">Πανδάμωι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><name type="gender"> <w lemma="ἔριφος"> ἔρι

<lb xml:id="line_A13" n="A13" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">φον</supplied></w></name></name></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="οὗτος">ταύταν</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύει</w></name> <name type="personnel"> <w lemma="unclear">ἱέρε</w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_A14" n="A14" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character" precision="low"/> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἱερός"><supplied reason="lost">ἱερὰ</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="παρέχω"><supplied reason="lost">παρέχει</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="unclear">δεκάται</w>· <name type="deity" key="Poseidon"><w lemma="Ποσειδῶν">Ποτει

<lb xml:id="line_A15" n="A15" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">δᾶνι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
<name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><w lemma="ἔριφος"><supplied reason="lost">ἔριφον</supplied></w></name></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ἄρσενα</w></name>· τᾶι <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐ

<lb xml:id="line_A16" n="A16" break="no"/> <supplied reason="lost">τᾶι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα"><supplied reason="lost">ἁμέραι</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><w lemma="ἔριφος"><supplied reason="lost">ἔ</supplied>ριφον</w></name></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ἄρσενα</w></name>

<lb xml:id="line_A17" n="A17"/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="unclear"><unclear>κ</unclear>αιδεκάται</w>· <name type="deity" key="Poseidon"><w lemma="Ποσειδῶν">Πο

<lb xml:id="line_A18" n="A18" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τειδᾶνι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
<w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="ἐλάσσων"><supplied reason="lost">ἐλά</supplied>σσονος</w>

<lb xml:id="line_A19" n="A19"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><w lemma="unclear">καιδεκάται</w>· <name type="deity" key="Hekate"><w lemma="Ἑκάτη"><unclear>Ἑ</unclear>κά

<lb xml:id="line_A20" n="A20" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ται</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

</ab>

<ab subtype="fragment" n="Ba">Fragment B, face A

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba1" n="Ba1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Ω</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba2" n="Ba2"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
<name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύε<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name>
<gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba3" n="Ba3"/>
<gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ς</orig> <name type="gender"><w lemma="θῆλυς">θήλεια</w></name>· <w lemma="οὗτος">ταύ<supplied reason="lost">ταν</supplied></w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θύει</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ὑπέρ">ὑπ<supplied reason="lost">ὲρ</supplied></w>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba4" n="Ba4"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>  <supplied reason="lost">ὁ</supplied> <name type="title"><w lemma="μόναρχος">μόναρχος</w></name>· τῶι
<orig>Ἀ<unclear>Ρ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Ι</unclear>ΩΙ</orig>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba5" n="Ba5"/><w lemma="ποιέω"><supplied reason="lost">ποιεῖται</supplied></w> <name type="meal"><w lemma="δεῖπνον"><supplied reason="lost">δεῖ</supplied>πνον</w></name> <w lemma="ὡς">ὡς</w> <w lemma="λαμπρός">λαμπρότατον</w>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba6" n="Ba6"/><w lemma="ὑπέρ"><supplied reason="lost">ὑπὲρ</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τοῦ</supplied> <name type="title"><w lemma="μόναρχος"><supplied reason="lost">μο</supplied>νάρχου</w></name>. <w lemma="εἰκάς">ἰκάδι</w>· <name type="deity" key="generic"><w lemma="θεός">Θεῶν</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Meter"><w lemma="μήτηρ">Μα

<lb xml:id="line_Ba7" n="Ba7" break="no"/> <supplied reason="lost">τρὶ</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
<name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος">τελέα</w></name>· <w lemma="οὗτος">ταύταν</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θ<unclear>ύ</unclear>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba8" n="Ba8" break="no"/> <supplied reason="lost">ει</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ς</orig>· <w lemma="φέρω">φερέτω</w> δὲ ὁ

<lb xml:id="line_Ba9" n="Ba9"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>ν</unclear>ον</orig> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐγ</w> <w lemma="δύο">δύο</w>

<lb xml:id="line_Ba10" n="Ba10"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>εων</orig>

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
</ab>

<ab subtype="fragment" n="Bb">Fragment B, face B

<lb xml:id="line_Bb1" n="Bb1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>ΜΙΝ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="μή"><supplied reason="lost">μὴ</supplied></w>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb2" n="Bb2"/><w lemma="ἐλάσσων"><supplied reason="lost">ἐλάσσονο</supplied>ς</w> U+10144 <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb3" n="Bb3"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Γ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>ΑΙ</unclear>Ω</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην"><supplied reason="lost">ἄρ</supplied>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb4" n="Bb4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">σ</supplied>ε<unclear>ν</unclear>α</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θ<supplied reason="lost">ύ</supplied><unclear>ε</unclear>ι</w></name> <orig>Π</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb5" n="Bb5"/><w lemma="δωδέκατος"><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ωδε<unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ά</supplied>ται</w>·
<orig><unclear>Λ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb6" n="Bb6"/><w lemma="μή"><unclear>μ</unclear>ὴ</w> <w lemma="ἐλάσσων">ἐλ<unclear>ά</unclear>σ<supplied reason="lost">σονος</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb7" n="Bb7"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>αι<unclear>τ</unclear>ετω<unclear>ι</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>σ</unclear>κλ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb8" n="Bb8"/><orig><unclear>ο</unclear>ν</orig> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην"><unclear>ἄ</unclear>ρσ<supplied reason="lost">εν</supplied><unclear>α</unclear></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb9" n="Bb9"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>Α<unclear>Ι</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ΛΟΙ<unclear>Σ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb10" n="Bb10"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>ΔΕ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>Τ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb11" n="Bb11"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>οισλ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>γ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb12" n="Bb12"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Ι</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἔνατος">ἐνάται</w> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_Bb13" n="Bb13"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>Ρ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

</ab>

<ab subtype="fragment" n="C">Fragment C

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C1" n="C1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Α</unclear>ΕΣΕΝ<unclear>ΙΚ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C2" n="C2"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="εἰμί"><supplied reason="lost">ἔ</supplied>στω</w> <orig>ΤΑΣ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C3" n="C3"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">τᾶι</supplied> <w lemma="αὐτός"><supplied reason="lost">αὐτ</supplied>ᾶι</w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἁμέραι</w> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C4" n="C4"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="meal"><w lemma="δειπνέω">δειπνὲν</w> </name>
<orig><unclear>Π</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C5" n="C5"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="κῆρυξ"><supplied reason="lost">κα</supplied>ρύκων</w></name> <orig>ΝΕ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C6" n="C6"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἕκαστος"><supplied reason="lost">ἑκά</supplied><unclear>σ</unclear>τα</w> <name type="group"><w lemma="φυλή">φυλ<unclear>ὰ</unclear></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C7" n="C7"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἐπιβάλλω"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>πιβαλλε</w><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C8" n="C8"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ΕΤΑΝΣ<unclear>Τ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C9" n="C9"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ΑΣ</orig> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w>
<w lemma="φράζω"> φρ<unclear>α</unclear>ζ</w><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_C10" n="C10"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἐλεύθερος"><supplied reason="lost">ἐλευ</supplied>θέραις </w></name> (?)
<orig>ΑΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/></ab>

			</div>
			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
				<head>Translation</head>

<p> Fragment A </p>
<p> [...] to Asclepius [...]. On [the same] day: to Hygieia [...] to Homonoia, a sheep (5) [...] to Hekate in the city [...] an adult animal covered with wool [...] to
Asclepius in Isthmos [...]. On the 1st of Panamos: to [Asclepius (?)] and to Hestia Phamia (10) [... flat cake(s) ...], a half-<foreign>hekteus</foreign> of barley and [...] are
sacrificed on the hearth. [On the 9th, to Aphrodi]te Pandamos, a female kid [...]; the priest(ess) sacrifices it [and provides the sacred offerings]. On the [...]th, to
Poseidon (15) [...] a male [kid...]. On the same [day ...] a male kid [...]. On the [...]th: to Poseidon [...] costing [not] less than [...]. On the [...]th:  to Hekate [...]</p>

<p>Fragment B, face A</p>
 <p>[...] sacrifices [...] a female [...]; the <foreign>monarchos</foreign> [sacrifices it in the name of the ...]. To [... (5) is made] a meal as splendid
as possible [on behalf of the] <foreign>monarchos</foreign>. On the 20th: to the Mother of the Gods [...] an adult female [...; ...] sacrifices this [...]. The [...] should  [...] wear [...] from two [...]</p>

<p> Fragment B, face B </p>
<p>[... costing not less than] 50 dr. [...] sacrifices a [...] male [...]. On the 12th: [...] (5) costing not less than [...] is sacrificed (?) both (?) to Asclepius [...]
a male [... (10) ...] a sheep (?) [...]. On the [...]th: [...]</p>

<p> Fragment C </p>
<p>[...] let (it) be [... on the same] day [...; ...] to hold a banquet [...] of the heralds [... (5) ...] each tribe [...] throw in [...] not speak [...] (10) to the free women (?) [...].</p>

	</div>
			<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
				<head>Traduction </head>

<p> Fragment A </p>
				
<p>[...] à Asclépios [...]. [Le même] jour : à Hygie [...], à Homonoia, un mouton (5) [...], à Hécate dans la cité, [...] un animal adulte couvert de laine [...] à Asclépios à Isthmos [...]. Le 1er
Panamos : à [Asclépios (?)] et à Hestia Phamia, (10) [... gâteau(x) plat(s) ...], un demi-setier d’orge et [...] sacrifiés sur le foyer. [Le 9 : à Aphrodi]te Pandamos,
une chevrette [...]; le (la) prêtre(sse) la sacrifie [et fournit les offrandes sacrées]. Le [...] : à Poséidon (15) [... un chevreau] mâle. Le même [jour ...] un chevreau mâle [...]. Le [...] : à  Poséidon [...] d’au moins [...]. Le
[...] :  à Hécate [...]</p>

<p> Fragment B, face A</p>
				
<p>[...] sacrifie [une ...] femelle . [Le] monarque la [sacrifie au nom de ...]. Pour [... (5) est tenu] le banquet le plus somptueux possible [au nom du] monarque. Le 20
: à la Mère des dieux, [une ...] femelle adulte [...] la sacrifie [...]. Que le [...] porte [...] à partir de deux [...]</p>

<p> Fragment B, face B</p>
				
<p>[... d’au moins] 50 dr. [...] sacrifie [un ... mâle ...]. Le 12 : [...] (5) d’au moins [...] est sacrifié (?) à la fois (?) à Asclépios [... un] mâle [... (10) ...] un mouton (?) [...]. Le [...] : [...]</p>

<p> Fragment C </p>
				
<p>[...] que soit [... le même] jour [...; ...] donner un banquet [...] des hérauts [... (5) ...] chaque tribu [...] jeter sur [...] ne parle [...] (10) aux femmes libres (?) [...]
</p>

			</div>
			<div type="commentary">
				<head>Commentary</head>

<p>The place where the fragments were found, the castle of Kephalos and the Byzantine church of Panagia Palatiani, at the south-west of the island of Kos, corresponds to
the location of the deme of Isthmos. As a deme sacrificial calendar from Kos, the document is  comparable to the calendar from Phyxa (<ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref>) and the excerpts from such a calendar published in the deme of Halasarna (<ref target="CGRN_151">CGRN 151</ref>). The character of the text is also confirmed by the distinction between ἐμ πόλει, line A5, and ἐν Ἰσθμῶ[ι], line A7, apparently indicating that certain sacrifices took place in the city of Kos and other in the deme of Isthmos respectively; in this regard, Paul (p. 225) draws a comparison with the distinction between ἐν ἄστει (in the city of Athens) and (ἐμ πόλει) Ἐρχιᾶσι (on the acropolis, at Erchia) in <ref target="CGRN_52">CGRN 52</ref>. With the exception of the two aforementioned passages, places of worship are not often clearly specified in what remains of the fragments, though much may also be missing. Much uncertainty remains in many cases: in fragment B, face A, lines 3-6, or in fragment C, it is not possible to determine whether the <foreign>monarchos</foreign> and the heralds were representatives of the deme (as one might reasonably assume, given the character of the document) or of the city. In the same way, depending on whether one renders a female or male religious agent in lines A14-15, one might favour either the idea that the deme imitates forms of religious life in the city, or the notion that civic religious practices were adapted to a local particularism. For the most part, the relationship of the sacrifices mentioned in the deme document with the cults of the city remains to be clarified.</p>

<p>As discussed above in Layout, the order of the fragments of the deme's sacrificial calendar is hypothetical. All fragments contain dates or partially dated entries, though only
fragment A can to some degree be situated in the overall Koan calendar, since it is the only fragment to mention the name of a month, namely the ninth month, Panamos (line A8; ca. July/August; cf. Bosnakis - Hallof, p. 233-240; Paul, p. 382). It is thus likely that, prior to this, fragment A presented the conclusion of the preceding month, Hyakinthios (ca. June/July). The formulation of the entries in the sacrificial calendar may have varied or have not been completely standardised. All the assured occurrences of sacrificial offerings and animals are in the accusative in fragment A and in the nominative in fragment B (these respective cases have been observed for any restorations to the two fragments).</p>
				
<p> Fragment A </p>

<p>Lines A2-4: The presence of Asclepius in at least two instances in this calendar has supported the idea that he was a central god of the deme of Isthmos, just as Apollo appears to have been for Halasarna (cf. <ref target="CGRN_151">CGRN 151</ref>). Asclepius' association with Hygieia (line A3), as well as with Homonoia (line A4), was linked to an extra-urban religious complex including a temple dedicated to Homonoia and one to the  couple Asclepius and Hygieia, according to two dedications (Livadiotti - Rocco; Paul, p. 225-227; <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 586). It is likely in this sanctuary that the sacrifice of line 7 (ἐν Ἰσθμῶ[ι]) took place. The sacrifice of a sheep—whose gender cannot be ascertained—to Homonoia finds only a tentative parallel in the city of Kos: the contract of sale for the priesthood of the goddess (<ref target="CGRN_208">CGRN 208</ref>, lines 11-13) mentions that the semestrial <foreign>hierophylakes</foreign> must each sacrifice a sheep of 25 dr. to the goddess after being elected. Equally intriguing is the fact that, in the summer term, this sacrifice by the <foreign>hierophylakes</foreign> was to take place on the 14th of Hyakinthios. This could suggest a chronological parallel with the worship of Homonoia at Isthmos during this same month, though that remains uncertain.</p>

<p>Lines A5-7: The goddess Hekate can be found in other parts of the island: in the sacrificial calendar of the deme of Phyxa (<ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref>,
lines 12 and 22) she appears without an epithet; at Halasarna (<ref target="CGRN_151">CGRN 151</ref>, lines 19 and 25), she is called Stratia and Meliteina. The goddess
is absent from what remains of the civic calendar of Kos and Paul has stated (p. 220) that a civic cult is not so far attested. Accordingly, the fact that this specific
sacrifice took place ἐμ πόλει may be somewhat unexpected. However, a form of civic cult does appear to be implied by the mention of Hekate Megale in the purity rules for
civic priests on Kos (<ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 85</ref>, Face A, lines 12-13). Lines A5-6 have been the subject of numerous restorations regarding which animals were sacrificed, none of which have been retained here. The trace of an alpha at the end of line 5 led Sokolowski to restore α[ἶ|γα], which could now be paralleled by a  similar sacrifice of a goat to Hekate at Halasarna (<ref target="CGRN_151">CGRN 151</ref>, lines 19 and 20). However, a different case from the deme of Phyxa (<ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref>, line 13), where the name of the goddess is followed by a toponym, and where Hekate was offered a sheep and a piglet, shows that Sokolowski's restoration can reasonably be doubted. Further doubtful restorations are linked to the very rare adjective ἐπίποκος, an epigraphic hapax. There are only two attestations of this word in later literature, both of which qualify a ram, κριός (Theodoretus, <title>Quaestiones in libros Regnorum et Paralipomenon</title> 80.752.2, and <title>Gnomologium Vaticanum</title> 250.2). This is the reason why Newton restored [ἄρνα] in line A6 (incidentally, ἄρνα (...) τελέαν is now paralleled in the sacrificial calendar of the deme of Phyxa, <ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref>, lines 23-25); Paton and Hicks then followed with their own proposal, [οἶν]. It was on this latter restoration that Herzog relied to restore this adjective in a purity regulation from Kos (a restoration eliminated in <ref target="CGRN_148">CGRN 148</ref>, lines 53-54). Though the animal was most probably ovine, there is no reason to restore [οἶν] in line 6, rather than [κρίον] for example. And though the compound adjective ἐπίποκος is only attested with masculine nouns, it was almost certainly epicene, so even the gender of the animal concerned must remain unclear.</p>

<p>Lines A8-11: On the New Moon (1st day) of Panamos, a divinity appears to be associated with Hestia Phamia. This could tentatively be identified as Asclepius (so Newton; Ἀ|[πόλλωνι] was suggested by von Prott and Paton, but there is little support for the presence of Apollo in the deme of Isthmos). For the probable prominence of Asclepius in the deme of Isthmos, see above on lines A2-4. Hestia is seldom honoured alone but most often in association with another deity in the calendars of the island (with Zeus Polieus in the calendar in Kos, <ref target="CGRN_86">CGRN 86</ref> A, lines 20-45; with Apollo at Halasarna, <ref target="CGRN_151">CGRN 151</ref>, lines 8-12; cf. Paul, p. 229 and 281). The location where the sacrifice to Hestia and the associated divinity is made is also noteworthy: "on the hearth". Following Newton, many scholars have considered that the phrase ἐπὶ τᾶς Ἱστίας refers to the deity Hestia herself; Hallof has even added [βωμῶι] in the following line to clarify that the sacrifice was to be made to the two gods jointly, on the altar of Hestia, though this results in odd syntax. Paton and Hicks recognised that the word designates the concrete manifestation of the goddess, namely a hearth, as in <ref target="CGRN_86">CGRN 86</ref> A, line 48, ἐφ᾿ ἑστίαν, and stele D, line 9, ἐπὶ τᾶι ἱστίαι (a variant with ἐπί + genitive remains expected, compare e.g. ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ). However, in these cases, the hearth is related to Zeus Polieus and Hera Argeia Heleia Basileia, respectively, not to the goddess Hestia per se. This is perhaps most clear in the case of Hera: the hearth is "in the temple”, probably that of the goddess herself; for the connection of Hestia (Phamia) with Zeus Polieus in the rituals held on the day preceding the major sacrifice, see earlier, stele A, lines 20-29. Paul (p. 229) suggests that the hearth at Isthmos was the "common hearth of the deme", building on the parallel of the Timacheion where Hestia was honoured at Halasarna (<ref target="CGRN_151">CGRN 151</ref>, line 10). For the small flat cake(s) called πλακοῦς mentioned here, cf. <ref target="CGRN_201">CGRN 201</ref>,  Miletos, lines 31-42.</p>

<p>Lines A12-14: The date of the 9th is restored by Hallof (following Parker) on the basis of two parallels: the sacrifice of a goat to Aphrodite by the priest of Apollo at Halasarna on the 9th of a month that is restored as Panamos (<ref target="CGRN_131">CGRN 131</ref>, lines 2-4) and, more clearly and directly, the sacrifices of an adult animal to Aphrodite Pandamos in the city of Kos on the 9th of Panamos (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 302, lines 30-31). The restoration suggested by Paton and Hicks for lines 13-14,
ἔρι|[φον θήλειαν], relies on the formula "name animal + adjective defining gender" attested in the inscription. The specification of gender would have been important, since this might be the only occurrence of a female ἔριφος in epigraphical sources, corresponding also to the unparalleled specification of the male gender of the ἔριφος in line A16. However, this restoration is not retained here, since it is not certain. If the pronoun ταύταν in line 13 refers to the preceding ἔριφος, then it indicates that the animal under consideration is female. But it cannot be excluded that the lacuna contained an adjective relating to another characteristic of the animal. In lines A13-14, the restoration could be ἱερε|[ύς], as first suggested by Newton. This is based on numerous parallels for the formula θύει ἱαρεὺς καὶ ἱερὰ παρέχει (notably in stele D of the calendar of Kos, <ref target="CGRN_86">CGRN 86</ref>). Pugliese Carratelli proposed the alternative ἱέρε[ια] (accepted by Hallof) based on the fact that Aphrodite Pandamos is served by a priestess in the city (cf. <ref target="CGRN_220">CGRN 220</ref>). At Halasarna, however, the local priest of Apollo made offerings to Aphrodite, not a priestess (<ref target="CGRN_131">CGRN 131</ref>, line 2). Yet ἱερε[ύς], though possible here, would also entail that a specific priest (of an unmentioned god), or, rather strangely, a priest of Aphrodite, was implied. More broadly, it remains open whether we are dealing with the deme's participation in the civic festival on the 9th of Panamos or with a local echo of a well-attested "pan-civic" ritual on Kos.</p>

<p>Lines A14-20: On the cult of Poseidon at Kos, see Paul, p. 136-140. The occasions for these sacrifices are unknown, but the male gender of the animals sacrificed to Poseidon is expected since there is no epigraphical record of a female animal sacrificed to this god.</p>
				
<p> Fragment B, face A </p>

<p>Lines Ba3-6: The μόναρχος poses a problem for Hallof’s understanding of the lacuna in line B5 ([ποιεῖ καὶ δεῖ]πνον) insofar as the magistrate finds himself both the
implicit subject of the verb and an accompanying complement to the same verb in line B6. This difficulty is coupled with that of identifying the magistrate in question,
since it is known that there was both a monarch of the city of Kos and a monarch of the deme of Isthmos (cf. Habicht and see esp. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG
XII.4</bibl> 100). The solution which would consist in seeing in the two mentions of the μόναρχος a distributive reference to the monarch of the city and to the μόναρχος
of the deme respectively is unsatisfactory, insofar as one would expect this distinction to be the object of greater precision in a cultic calendar. This is why it seems
more coherent to restore [ποιεῖται δεῖ]πνον in the gap in line 25, thus maintaining the identity of the monarch in this passage. A second step is to consider which of
the two μόναρχοι is conducting the sacrifice here and being honoured during the resulting banquet. Hallof's restoration, ὑπ[ὲρ | τᾶς πόλιος], would most likely imply that this is the civic official: the civic μόναρχος and the hierophants sacrifice "on behalf  of the city" in the contract of sale of the priesthood of Zeus Alseios (<ref target="CGRN_167">CGRN 167</ref>, line 24-25; an analogous case can be found in <ref target="CGRN_147">CGRN 147</ref>, lines 78-79, where the (civic) priest of Hermes Enagonios awards crowns to victors "in the name of the city"). It may also be pointed out that this is the only instance known in which the civic μόναρχος would be represented as performing a religious act alone, without the assistance of other officials. It therefore remains possible (even probable?) that the role of the deme's μόναρχος is being envisaged here; accordingly, the restoration ὑπ[ὲρ | τοῦ δάμου] might then be an
alternative to Hallof's reading. Most problematically, the conclusion of line 24 remains elusive. Thinking of a divine recipient for the dinner—an unlikely idea in this
form of expression—von Prott as well as Paton - Hicks read τῶι  Ἀ[πόλλ]ων̣[ι], while Pugliese Carratelli thought of Ἀσ̣[κλα]π̣ιῶι. On the basis of the preserved traces, Hallof rejects these two readings and thinks of τῶι ἀρ̣[ίσ]τ̣ωι, without integrating this into his edition, presumably because of the uncertain meaning of the expression in this context.</p>

<p>Fragment B, face B</p>
				
<p>This face presents only small and mostly uncertain traces relating to a few dated entries. At lines Bb6-7, we consider the restorations of the <title>IG</title> edition, [θύε|τ]αί τ̣ε τῶι̣ [Ἀ]σ̣κλ[απιῶι, to be at least partly problematic. It is possible that Asclepius may have been mentioned, but the sense of the clause, with a relatively unexpected conjunction τε, is unclear. Unless we are to suppose that a new month was introduced between lines Bb5 ("on the 12th") and Bb12, then ἐνάται in the latter line should be interpreted not as the 9th, but as the 19th (ἐνάτα [πρὸ ἰκάδος]) or the 22nd (ἐνάτα ἐξ ἰκάδος / μετ’ ἰκάδα) of the month in question, now lost. </p>
				
<p> Fragment C </p>

<p>Lines C6-7: The role of the heralds is relatively well documented in the city's sacrificial calendar (<ref target="CGRN_86">CGRN 86</ref>, see esp. stele A) and was concerned not only with proclamations, but also with other ritual functions. It is not certain whether the tribes mentioned here are those of the city or the deme of Isthmos. Moreover, as each chiliastys (division of a civic tribe) had a herald, it is difficult to say here whether these heralds are those of the deme or those of the city (cf. Paul, p. 31).</p>

<p>Line C8: A form of the verb ἐπιβάλλειν seems possible here. This may parallel a phrase found in the two <foreign>diagraphai</foreign> of the priesthood of Dionysus
Thyllophoros, which reference the placement (ἐπιβαλλέτω) of the sacred offerings (τὰ ἱερά) on the altar by the priestess or her assistant (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl>, 304, lines 39-40 and 326, lines 67-68).</p>

<p>Line C9: The partially preserved phrase μὴ φραζ- may point to an interdiction to speak. A parallel with the proclamation of εὐφαμία by the herald in the civic
calendar of Kos is certainly not to be excluded (cf. notably the heralds in line C5), though this practice has itself been subject to interpretation (<ref target="CGRN_86">CGRN 86</ref> A, line 32; for discussion, cf. Paul, p. 280). In the absence of a more precise context, little else can be said. </p>

<p>Line C10: The word [ἐλευ]θέραις might attest to the participation of free women in an act of worship (cf. <ref target="CGRN_102">CGRN 102</ref>, line 20), but this remains entirely uncertain and other restorations seem possible.</p>
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