CGRN 213

Regulation concerning the priestess or priestesses called Galato at Pednelissos

Date :

late 4th - early third century BC

Justification: lettering and mention of the Persian σίγλος in line 2 (Çoskun).

Provenance

Pednelissos . Found in the city of Hozan not far from the ruins of the ancient town. Now presumed lost.

Support

Published by Comparetti from the copy and squeeze of the fragmentary stone, given to him by Ferteklis. From the copy, the stone appears to have preserved edges to the top, as well as the left and right. The right side is particularly worn. The bottom of the block is broken, particularly in the lower left corner. Though the top side appears to be preserved, the text begins in medias res (cf. line 1). This may suggest that we are dealing with a wall-block of some kind, with the text being inscribed over several such blocks.

  • Height: 34 cm
  • Width: 25-52 cm
  • Depth: unknown

Layout

Letters: 1.3 cm high.

Bibliography

New edition here based on the published drawing in Comparetti 1916-1920 (a). We adopt more cautious restorations than previous editors or no restorations at all in most of the fragmentary lines. We do not provide a complete app.cr., but see the commentary below for further discussion of some of the past proposals.

Cf. also: Hondius SEG 2, 710; Sokolowski LSAM 79; Çoskun 2020, adopting Hondius' text, with some critical notes.

Further bibliography: Frisone 2000; Stavrianopoulou 2005; Talloen 2015: 120 with n. 237; Georgoudi 2017; Parker 2018b: 77.

Text


[..?..]
καὶ παρέχηται μάρτυρα ἕνα, ἀποτεισάτωκαταρασάμε-
νος
σίγλον· ὧι δ’ ἂν μάρτυς μὴ ἦι, τιθέσθω τὴν χεῖρα εἰς κε-
φαλήν
, ἱερεῖα δὲ φερέτω εἰς τοὺς δημοσίους θεοὺς πα[ρ]-
κ
τὸν Πλοῦτον, καὶ ἐσθιέτωσαν οἱ δικασταὶ καὶ οἱ δημόσιο[ι]·
5 διδότω δὲ καὶ Γαλατῶι τέταρτον μέρος οἷα δεῖ π[ιφέρειν]
εἰς τὸν θεόν· Γαλατὼ δὲ ἔστω καθαρὰ καὶ ΑΙ[.....c.10.....]-
τηι καὶ ἱέρεια ἔστω ἕως ἂν ὅσου ζῶι μηδὲ [......c.12......]
[.]αι τις περὶ αὐτὴν μηδ’ ἐπηρασίαν ἕως ἂν ὅσου ζῶ· ὅταν δὲ]
[ἀπ]οθάνηι, ποιείτωσαν κλῆρονπόλις Γαλατῶν ΔΕΙ[....c.7...]
10[...]α[.] εἰ δὲ ἢ ἂν (?) λάχηι, δώσει, ἢ ἂν (?) τελέσει αὐτὴν νε[..]Ο[..c.4..]
[....c.7...] καὶ πυρῶν ἱππέα καὶ ἀμυγδάλων ἱππεῖς δ′ (?) [.....c.9....]
[τεθνη]κυίαι (?) ἔτ᾽ ἔτυν δέλλιν· καὶ ἐὰν καθάρηι αὐτήν, [.....c.10.....]
[....c.8....] μέλανα ἕμη (?) περιβαλλέσθωσαν εἰς τὰ ἱερ [....c.7...]
[....c.8....]Ι ἐπὶ νεκρῶι ἔστω ῥυπαρόν· ἔτι δὲ καὶ [........c.15.......]
15[....c.8.... ἔ]λθωσιν (?), πλυνάτω καὶ ἔστω καθαρόν· ἐν δὲ ἱερ[ῶι (?) ...c.6...]
[....c.8....]αδε ἄρτους ἱεροὺς μὴ πωλήσει· καὶ ὅταν ΠΑΙ[.....c.10.....]
[....c.8.... ἡ] πόλις ἱππέα ἀλεύρων καὶ ειο[....c.7...]ειομ[....c.8....]
[...6...]αιον καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν σπονδ[ὴν] α[......11.....]
[........c.16........]ηι μὴ ἐκ τοῦ καθαρμοῦ γέρα [.]ΔΕΜ[..4..]
20[.........c.17........] ἀεὶ ἦι (?) γυνὴἀνὴρ [..]Λ[..]Δ[...]Τ[...]
[...........c.22...........]αιρωι· ὅταν δὲ [....c.8....]ε[....c.7...]
[..........c.20..........] τοῦ ἱεροκήρυκος κα[.........c.17........]
[.............c.26.............]ο ἱερ[..........c.20..........]
[...............29..............]δι[..........c.19.........]
[..?..]

Translation

[...] and (when/if?) she/he provides one witness, the one who has cursed must pay one siglos. For whom there is no witness, let that person place their hand on their head, and let that person offer sacrificial animals to the public gods except Ploutos, and the judges and the public servants are to have a meal. (5) One must give to Galato a quarter portion conforming to what it is necessary [to bring] to the god. Let Galato be pure and [...] and let her be a priestess for as long as she lives. Do not [...] anyone concerning her nor an insult, as long as she lives. [When] she dies, let the city hold a lottery among the Galatoi (?) [... (10)...] If she obtains the lot (?), she will give/pay, or (?) she will initiate her (?) [...] a measure (lit. a "horseman") of barley and of wheat and four (?) measures of almonds [...] for the deceased woman (?) a yearling pig (?). And when/if one purifies her, [...] let them wrap (the corpse? themselves?) in black garments for the rites [...] let there be [(nothing)] dirty upon the corpse. And besides also [...] (when) they (15) go (?), let one wash and be pure. In the sanctuary (?) [...] shall not sell the sacred breads. And when [...] the city a measure of wheat and [...] and a libation on the table [...] no perquisites from the purification [... (20) ...] always be a woman or a man [...]. And when [...] of the sacred herald [...]

Traduction

[...] et (quand/si) on fait comparaître un témoin, que la personne qui a prononcé des imprécations paie un siglos. En l’absence de témoin, qu’il/elle place la main sur la tête, et qu’il/elle apporte des animaux sacrificiels aux dieux de la cité à l’exception de Ploutos, et que les juges et les officiels tiennent un repas. (5) Et que l’on remette aussi à Galatô un quart de portion, conformément à ce qu’il faut [apporter] au dieu. Que Galatô soit pure et [...] et qu'elle soit prêtresse aussi longtemps qu’elle vivra. Et que l'on ne [...] quiconque ni de l'insulter aussi longtemps qu’elle vivra. À sa mort, la cité procédera au tirage au sort parmi les Galatôs (?) [... (10) ...]. Si elle est tirée au sort (?), elle donnera/paiera, ou bien (?) elle sera initiée (?) [...] une mesure (lit. "un cavalier") de grains d'orge et quatre (?) mesures d’amandes [...] pour la défunte (?), un porcelet de l'année (?). Et quand/si on la purifie, [...] qu'ils/elles emballent (le corps ? eux/elles-mêmes ?) dans des vêtements noirs pour les rites [...] que [rien] de souillé ne touche le cadavre. Et, en outre, [...] (quand) ils/elles (15) viennent (?), qu'on lave et soit pur. Dans le sanctuaire (?) [...] ne vendra pas de pains sacrés. Et quand [...] la cité une mesure de farine de blé [...] et une libation sur la table [...] pas de parts d'honneur provenant de la purification, qui [... (20) ...] sois toujours une femme ou un homme [...] à l'occasion de [...] du héraut sacré et [...]

Commentary

Highly intriguing yet fragmentary, this early Hellenistic inscription from the city of Pednelissos in Pisidia remains difficult to interpret with much clarity. Though largely legible, the probably civic document—cf. ἡ πόλις, lines 9 and 17; see also line 3—also contains various unusual and distinctive formulations. Through its distinctive rituals, the document presents us with a diverse cultural milieu (Greek, Anatolian, Persian, etc.). It is clear that the inscription describes the privileges and obligations connected to a priestess called "Galato" in the community. "Galato" appears to have been a "nickname" or a typical appellation for this priestess, rather than a personal name, properly speaking (see Parker, p. 77). This becomes clear through the fact that when the priestess "Galato" dies, a replacement will be selected who also seems to become a "Galato"; this replacement may have been selected among a group identified as "Galatoi" (see below on lines 8-9).

For a detailed discussion of this text and its context, see now Çoskun, who rightly critiques earlier views that sought to connect it with the hypothetical presence of Celts or Gauls in Pisidia (the phrase ἡ πόλις Γαλατῶν in line 9 had been interpreted as referring to "the polis of the Galatai" or Galatians). The early Hellenistic date for the inscription and its general context prevent such an interpretation. To interpret "Galato" and "Galatoi", Çoskun raises several possibilities: the designation "Galato" / "Galatoi" may be etymologically connected with "Galloi" (partly echoing Sokolowski, who considered that "Galato" served the cult of the Mother of the Gods); or the name is somehow related to the cult of Demeter, together with Ploutos/Plouton (partly following Talloen; this is viewed as "the most likely direction" of interpretation by Çoskun). This question of "what Galato means" is highly uncertain and, in the current state of the evidence, it appears impossible to resolve it definitively. The text only provides us with mentions of two cults: the group of civic gods (δημόσιοι θεοί) of the community of Pednelissos (line 3), and the exception of the god Ploutos (or Plouton; line 4); Galato is explicitly to receive the portion that was due to a god (εἰς τὸν θεόν), perhaps again Ploutos (lines 5-6). "Galato" could thus have served Ploutos specifically or conceivably all of the civic cults of Pednelissos.

As partly preserved, the content of the regulation is varied: beginning in media res, it describes a juridical procedure, during which the priestess could receive a perquisite (lines 1-6); purity rules for the priestess and interdictions against insulting her (lines 6-8); the selection procedure for a new priestess "Galato" when the current holder of the office dies (lines 8-10); rituals for inaugurating the new priestess and honouring the deceased one (lines 12-15?); and various fragmentary rules concerning rituals (lines 16-24), including a prohibition against the selling of sacred bread (lines 16-17). On the whole, the document bears several similarities with other Greek ritual norms, but is also remarkably different in its specific prescriptions and ritual details. For other priestly contracts from Asia Minor included in the present Collection: see for example CGRN 98 (Erythrai) or CGRN 118 (Halikarnassos).

Lines 1-4: The first part of the inscription describes a juridical procedure. A person pronounced a curse, probably a conditional self-curse as part of an oath (see Çoskun; another form of cursing is not necessarily excluded, since the text could have referred to curses uttered against the priestess "Galato"; cf. lines 7-8, which explicitly forbade speaking ill of the priestess). If that person could provide one witness for the matter at hand, they had to pay a fee (or a fine?) of one σίγλος. The σίγλος (shekel) was a Persian coin equivalent to 8 Attic obols. As Comparetti explains, in the case in which a witness was not available or could not be produced, the person could swear an oath by putting their hand upon their head; the fee or fine in this case would consist of providing sacrificial animals (ἱερεῖα) or at least offerings for all of the δημοσίοι θεοί excepting Ploutos (or Plouton). From this, there followed a common meal of the judges and public servants (or slaves).

Lines 5-6: This clause most naturally follows from the case that precedes: as part of the consumption of the aforementioned sacrifices by the judges and their attendants, "Galato" was to receive a quarter portion as her prerogative, "the same as it is necessary to bring/offer to the god". In Comparetti's view, the quarter portion that needed to be given to "Galato" corresponds to the portion that would otherwise have been given to Ploutos: it would therefore follow that "Galato" was priestess of Ploutos. Alternatively, this clause could be a general rule, to be detached from lines 1-4 above. For quarter portions granted to priests and priestesses, see here CGRN 37 (Chios), lines 13-14 (of grains), and CGRN 42 (Iasos), line 3 (of viscera). "Galato" was required to remain pure (on such requirements for priests, see CGRN 148) but the exact restoration of the end of the line is uncertain.

Lines 7-8: Here we have a very exceptional case of censorship, since it is explicitly forbidden to criticize the priestess: cf. Stavrianopoulou, who discusses this case in the context of other measures in ritual norms that are aimed at safeguarding the authority of priests. The word ἐπηρασία appears to be unique, but has been paralleled with ἐπήρεια ("insult", "abuse").

Lines 8-12: This section of the inscription concerns the actions to be taken when the lifetime priestess named "Galato" dies. In the Greek world, there were normally four different ways in which to obtain a priesthood: by lot, through inheritance, through democratic vote, and through sale. In this case, the procedure is sortition and the polis is the body responsible for it. The exact details of the process remain murky, however. Hondius, Sokolowski and Çoskun all restore Γαλατῶν δε[κ]άδ[ος συναχθεί|σης], the latter translating this as "after gathering a group of ten Galatoi". This would apparently entail a pre-selection of a group of ten female candidates already called Galatoi. This is possible but also raises a host of questions: how many Galatoi can there have been at Pednelissos? How could this collectivity be distinguished from the priestess called "Galato"? In any case, the restoration of the end of line 9 is overly bold: the details of how this sortition was conducted are now lost (it is even possible that we have a high stop and then Γαλατῶν δὲ ...). The following clause in line 10, though its Greek appears rather muddled, seems to refer to the inauguration of the new priestess: if chosen by lot, she has to pay (for her initiation?); the sense of the remainder of the line is difficult: it perhaps implies that other "Galatoi" were individually to "initiate her", i.e. the new priestess (Çoskun takes this to mean "finish her", i.e. the deceased priestess' funerary rites). For the initiation or consecration of priests and priestess, see here CGRN 85 (Kos), line 1; for measures of grains and other substances used during the inaugural presentation of a priestess, see CGRN 175 (Priene), lines 33-35. Earlier restorations to the end of line 10 assumed a reference to a group of neokoroi: this is possible, but by no means assured. There follow various offerings, either part of the consecration of the new priestess or the funerary rituals for the deceased priestess, or both. The word ἱππεύς designates a unique type of measure, perhaps local or Persian. The offering of almonds is without parallel in the present Collection. It is not certain that the measure was qualified by an alphabetic numeral; we could also have had e.g. δ[έκα]. The standard restoration of the beginning of line 12 considers that a sacrifice was offered to the deceased (τῆι τεθνη]κυίαι), though many other feminine participial forms in the perfect tense would also be possible. Hondius and Sokolowski interpret the word ἔτυς as a unparalleled variant of ἔτειον. Similarly, the unattested word δέλλις can be compared with δέλφαξ or δελφάκιον; for these terms for a pig that has attained some degree of maturity beyond that of a piglet (χοῖρος)—here probably a year of age, at the beginning of puberty—see here CGRN 125 (Olbia), line 15, and CGRN 199 (Delos), line 3.

Lines 12-15: Given the fragmentary and rather unique character of the lines, the interpretation must remain to a large degree uncertain. Though a connection with a funeral is apparent, it is particularly unclear which of the gestures in lines 12-13 concern the new priestess, the corpse of the deceased or even other participants in the rituals. For example, who was to be purified at the end of line 12? The corpse or the new priestess are possible, but the agent of the ritual—which employs a singular verb—is unclear in either case. At any rate, some verbs in the plural follow and thus it is clear that a group of people, perhaps women, were also participants in the rituals, here called τὰ ἱερά (line 13). We consider that, in these unknown circumstances, these figures probably had to wrap themselves in black clothes (since the imperative περιβαλλέσθωσαν is medio-passive). However, we cannot be completely certain that the wrapping does not concern the deceased corpse. The medio-passive verb could have been constructed with a double object ("Let them wrap her/the corpse with black garments", the first object perhaps remaining implicit). Yet there are possible problems with the reference to black garments: the word ἕμη appears to be a unique variant for εἷμα, "garment", and we know from elsewhere that the colour black was not necessarily adapted to funerals (for example: CGRN 35, Iulis, lines 1-6, in which the deceased is wrapped in white clothes, and CGRN 108, Gambreion, lines 5-9, for grey or white clothes worn by those mourning). Accordingly, an alternative reading for the present text might be [...] μέλαν δ̣ὲ μὴ περιβαλλέσθωσαν: the participants might then have been forbidden from wearing black or wrapping the corpse in black. The corpse was to remain uncontaminated (probably [... μηδὲν ...] ἐπὶ νεκρῶι ἔστω ῥυπαρόν, line 14). Perhaps when the participants departed from the funeral (ἔ]λθωσιν?, line 15), each (or someone specific) had to wash something and it would then be considered pure. Since νεκρός is a masculine word and the new priestess is female, we would have expected ἔστω καθαρός/καθαρή if the prescription referred to the body of the deceased or to an individual. For an overview of funerary legislation in the Greek world, cf. Frisone.

Lines 15-17: The interdiction against "selling sacred bread" is unique. This may refer to the offerings of πόπανα and πελανοί, which would normally have been given to the priestess as perquisites, and which she may have been tempted to convert into a source of income. Perhaps the measure of wheat connected with the polis (line 17) might be a form of compensation for this.

Lines 18-19: These lines may have described the perquisites of the priestess connected to various rituals, such as libations and purifications. In the latter case, apparently no perquisites were given: indeed, purifications were not considered typical sacrifices like a θυσία, see the discussion by Georgoudi; in a different sort of ritual, compare also the explicit absence of γέρα in the sacrifices for Herakles on Thasos, CGRN 27.

Lines 20-24: These fragmentary lines are difficult to interpret, including the mention of the official called a "sacred herald" in an uncertain capacity. On line 20, the curious alternative γυνὴ ἢ ἀνήρ was probably justified in the lacuna following ἀνήρ: a man could act in place of a woman under certain conditions that now escape us.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN213), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels
  • Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 213, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels et Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, "CGRN 213: Regulation concerning the priestess or priestesses called Galato at Pednelissos", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on September 25, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/213/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN213.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on September 25, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xml:id="CGRN_213" xml:lang="en">
	    <teiHeader>
			<fileDesc>
	    		<titleStmt>
	    			<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 213</idno>: <rs type="textType" key="priestly contract">Regulation concerning the priestess or priestesses called Galato</rs> at Pednelissos</title>
	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
				<author>Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge</author></titleStmt>
				<publicationStmt>
					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
					<availability>
						<p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p><p>All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (<idno type="DOI">https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN213</idno>), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).</p></availability>
				</publicationStmt>
				<sourceDesc><msDesc><msIdentifier><repository>n/a</repository></msIdentifier>
	<physDesc>
	<objectDesc>
	<supportDesc><support>
		<p> Published by Comparetti from the copy and squeeze of the fragmentary <rs type="objectType">stone</rs>, given to him by Ferteklis. From the copy, the stone appears to have preserved edges to the top, as well as the left and right. The right side is particularly worn. The bottom of the block is broken, particularly in the lower left corner. Though the top side appears to be preserved, the text begins <foreign>in medias res</foreign> (cf. line 1). This may suggest that we are dealing with a wall-block of some kind, with the text being inscribed over several such blocks. </p>
	<p><dimensions>
	<height unit="cm">34</height>
	<width unit="cm">25-52</width>
	<depth>unknown</depth>
	</dimensions></p>	
	</support> </supportDesc>
		<layoutDesc><layout>
		
			<p>Letters: <height unit="cm">1.3</height>.</p>	
	</layout></layoutDesc>
</objectDesc>
		</physDesc>
					<history>
						<origin>
		<p><origDate notBefore="-0323" notAfter="-0275">late 4th - early third century BC</origDate></p>
							
		<p><desc>Justification: lettering and mention of the Persian σίγλος in line 2 (Çoskun).</desc></p>
						</origin>
						<provenance><p><placeName key="Pednelissos" n="Asia_Minor_and_Anatolia"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/639046/" type="external">Pednelissos</ref></placeName>. Found in the city of Hozan not far from the ruins of the ancient town. Now presumed lost.</p>
						</provenance> 
					</history>
				</msDesc>
				</sourceDesc>
			</fileDesc>
	    	<encodingDesc><p>Encoded for EpiDoc schema 8.17 on 06-06-2015 by S. Peels</p>
	    	</encodingDesc>
	    	<profileDesc>
	    		<langUsage>
	    			<language ident="eng">English</language>
	    			<language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
	    			<language ident="lat">Latin</language>
	    			<language ident="fre">French</language>
	    			<language ident="ger">German</language>
	    			<language ident="gre">Modern Greek</language>
	    			<language ident="ita">Italian</language>
	    		</langUsage>
	    		<textClass/>
	    	</profileDesc>
	    	<revisionDesc>
	    		<change>Last revised by J.M. Carbon in 07.2022.</change>     
	    	</revisionDesc>
	    </teiHeader>
	<facsimile><graphic url="x"/></facsimile>
	    <text>
	    	<body>
	    		<div type="bibliography">
	    			<head>Bibliography</head>		
<p>New edition here based on the published drawing in <bibl type="author_date" n="Comparetti 1916-1920 (a)">Comparetti 1916-1920 (a)</bibl>. We adopt more cautious restorations than previous editors or no restorations at all in most of the fragmentary lines. We do not provide a complete app.cr., but see the commentary below for further discussion of some of the past proposals.</p>	
	    	
	    			<p> Cf. also: 
	    				Hondius <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 2, 710; 
	    				Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSAM</bibl> 79; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Çoskun 2020">Çoskun 2020</bibl>, adopting Hondius' text, with some critical notes.</p>
	    			
	    			<p> Further bibliography: 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Frisone 2000">Frisone 2000</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Stavrianopoulou 2005">Stavrianopoulou 2005</bibl>; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Talloen 2015">Talloen 2015</bibl>: 120 with n. 237; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Georgoudi 2017">Georgoudi 2017</bibl>; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2018b">Parker 2018b</bibl>: 77.</p>
</div>
	    			<div type="edition">
					<head>Text</head>
	    				
	    			<ab>
<lb/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/> καὶ <w lemma="παρέχω">παρέχηται</w> <w lemma="μάρτυς">μάρτυρα</w> <w lemma="εἷς">ἕνα</w>, <w lemma="ἀποτίνω">ἀποτεισάτω</w> ὁ <w lemma="καταράομαι">καταρασάμε
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" break="no"/>νος</w> <w lemma="σίγλος">σίγλον</w>· <w lemma="ὅς">ὧι</w> δ’ <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="μάρτυς">μάρτυς</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="ὅς">ἦι</w>, <w lemma="τίθημι">τιθέσθω</w> τὴν <w lemma="χείρ">χεῖρα</w> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <w lemma="κεφαλή">κε
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3" break="no"/>φαλήν</w>, <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="ἱερεῖον">ἱερεῖα</w></name> δὲ <w lemma="φέρω">φερέτω</w> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> τοὺς <name type="group"><w lemma="δημόσιος">δημοσίους</w></name> <name type="deity" key="generic"><w lemma="θεός">θεοὺς</w></name> <w lemma="παρέκ">πα<supplied reason="lost">ρ</supplied><unclear>ὲ</unclear>
	    								    							
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/>κ</w> τὸν <name type="deity" key="Ploutos"><w lemma="πλοῦτος">Πλοῦτον</w></name>, καὶ <w lemma="ἐσθίω">ἐσθιέτωσαν</w> οἱ <name type="title"><w lemma="δικαστής">δικασταὶ</w></name> καὶ οἱ <name type="group"><w lemma="δημόσιος">δημόσιο<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name>·
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/> <w lemma="δίδωμι">διδότω</w> δὲ καὶ Γαλατῶι <w lemma="τέταρτος">τέταρτον</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="μέρος">μέρος</w></name> <w lemma="οἷος">οἷα</w> <w lemma="δεῖ">δεῖ</w> <w lemma="ἐπιφέρω"><unclear>ἐπ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ιφέρειν</supplied></w>
	    					    				
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> τὸν <name type="deity" key="Ploutos"><w lemma="θεός">θεόν</w></name>· Γαλατὼ δὲ <w lemma="εἰμί">ἔστω</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός">καθαρὰ</w></name> καὶ <orig>ΑΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="10" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/><orig><unclear>τ</unclear>ηι</orig> καὶ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱέρεια">ἱέρεια</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἔστω</w> <w lemma="ἕως">ἕως</w> <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="ὅσος">ὅσου</w> <w lemma="ζῶ">ζῶι</w> <w lemma="μηδέ">μηδὲ</w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>αι</orig> <w lemma="τις">τις</w> <w lemma="περί">περὶ</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὴν</w> <w lemma="μηδέ">μηδ’</w> <w lemma="ἐπήρεια">ἐπηρασίαν</w> <w lemma="ἕως">ἕως</w> <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="ὅσος">ὅσου</w> <w lemma="ζῶ">ζῶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">ὅταν</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">δὲ</supplied>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/><name type="death"><w lemma="ἀποθνήσκω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπ</supplied>οθάνηι</w></name>, <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιείτωσαν</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="κλῆρος">κλῆρον</w></name> ἡ <name type="group"><w lemma="πόλις">πόλις</w></name> Γαλατῶν <orig>ΔΕ<unclear>Ι</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	   
<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>α</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/> <w lemma="εἰ">εἰ</w> δὲ ἢ <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> (?) <name type="portion"><name type="authority"><w lemma="λαγχάνω">λάχηι</w></name></name>, <w lemma="δίδωμι">δώσει</w>, ἢ <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> (?) <w lemma="τελέω">τελέσει</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτὴν</w> <orig>νε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>Ο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character" precision="low"/> καὶ <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="πυρός">πυρῶν</w></name> <w lemma="ἱππεύς">ἱππέα</w> καὶ <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἀμύγδαλον">ἀμυγδάλων</w></name> <w lemma="ἱππεύς">ἱππεῖς</w> <num value="4">δ′</num> (?) <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    					    				
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12"/><name type="death"><w lemma="θνῄσκω"><supplied reason="lost">τεθνη</supplied>κυίαι</w></name> (?) <w lemma="ἔτι">ἔτ᾽</w> <name type="age"><w lemma="ἔτυς">ἔτυν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="swine"><w lemma="δέλλις">δέλλιν</w></name>· καὶ <w lemma="ἐάν">ἐὰν</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθάρηι</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτήν</w>, <gap reason="lost" quantity="10" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/> <name type="colour2"><w lemma="μέλας">μέλανα</w></name> <name type="clothing"><w lemma="εἷμα">ἕμη</w></name> (?) <w lemma="περιβάλλω">περιβαλλέσθωσαν</w> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> τὰ <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱερ<unclear>ὰ</unclear></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>Ι</orig> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> <name type="death"><w lemma="νεκρός">νεκρῶι</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἔστω</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="ῥυπαρός">ῥυπαρόν</w></name>· <w lemma="ἔτι">ἔτι</w> δὲ καὶ <gap reason="lost" quantity="15" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/> <w lemma="ἔρχομαι"><supplied reason="lost">ἔ</supplied>λθωσιν</w> (?), <name type="liquid"><w lemma="πλύνω">πλυνάτω</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="εἰμί">ἔστω</w> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρός">καθαρόν</w></name>· <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> δὲ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱερ<supplied reason="lost">ῶι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>αδε</orig> <name type="bakery"><w lemma="ἄρτος">ἄρτους</w></name> <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱεροὺς</w></name> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="πωλέω">πωλήσει</w>· καὶ <w lemma="ὅταν">ὅταν</w> <orig>ΠΑΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="10" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_17" n="17"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/> <supplied reason="lost">ἡ</supplied> <name type="group"><w lemma="πόλις">πόλις</w></name> <w lemma="ἱππεύς">ἱππέα</w> <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἄλευρον">ἀλεύρων</w></name> καὶ <orig>ειο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>ειομ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character"/><orig>αιον</orig> καὶ <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τὴν <name type="structure"><w lemma="τράπεζα">τράπεζαν</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="σπονδή">σπονδ<supplied reason="lost">ὴν</supplied></w></name> <orig>α</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="16" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>ηι</orig> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐκ</w> τοῦ <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαρμός">καθαρμοῦ</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="γέρας">γέρα</w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ΔΕ<unclear>Μ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/> 
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character" precision="low"/> <w lemma="ἀεί">ἀεὶ</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">ἦι</w> (?) <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυνὴ</w></name> ἢ <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἀνὴρ</w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Λ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>Δ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>Τ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character" precision="low"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="22" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>αιρωι</orig>· <w lemma="ὅταν">ὅταν</w> δὲ <gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>ε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="20" unit="character" precision="low"/>  τοῦ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροκῆρυξ">ἱεροκήρυκος</w></name> <orig><unclear>κ</unclear>α</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    								
<lb xml:id="line_23" n="23"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="26" unit="character" precision="low"/><orig>ο</orig> ἱερ<gap reason="lost" quantity="20" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_24" n="24"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="29" unit="character"/><orig>δι</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character" precision="low"/> 
	    				   				
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

	    	</ab>
				</div>
	    		
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
				<head>Translation</head>
					
<p>[...] and (when/if?) she/he provides one witness, the one who has cursed must pay one <foreign>siglos</foreign>. For whom there is no witness, let that person place their hand on their head, and let that person offer sacrificial animals to the public gods except Ploutos, and the judges and the public servants are to have a meal. (5) One must give to Galato a quarter portion conforming to what it is necessary [to bring] to the god. Let Galato be pure and [...] and let her be a priestess for as long as she lives. Do not [...] anyone concerning her nor an insult, as long as she lives. [When] she dies, let the city hold a lottery among the Galatoi (?) [... (10)...] If she obtains the lot (?), she will give/pay, or (?) she will initiate her (?) [...] a measure (lit. a "horseman") of barley and of wheat and four (?) measures of almonds [...] for the deceased woman (?) a yearling pig (?). And when/if one purifies her, [...] let them wrap (the corpse? themselves?) in black garments for the rites [...] let there be [(nothing)] dirty upon the corpse. And besides also [...] (when) they (15) go (?), let one wash and be pure. In the sanctuary (?) [...] shall not sell the sacred breads. And when [...] the city a measure of wheat and [...] and a libation on the table [...] no perquisites from the purification [... (20) ...] always be a woman or a man [...]. And when [...] of the sacred herald [...]</p>
					</div>
	    		
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					
<p>[...] et (quand/si) on fait comparaître un témoin, que la personne qui a prononcé des imprécations paie un <foreign>siglos</foreign>. En l’absence de témoin, qu’il/elle place la main sur la tête, et qu’il/elle apporte des animaux sacrificiels aux dieux de la cité à l’exception de Ploutos, et que les juges et les officiels tiennent un repas. (5) Et que l’on remette aussi à Galatô un quart de portion, conformément à ce qu’il faut [apporter] au dieu. Que Galatô soit pure et [...] et qu'elle soit prêtresse aussi longtemps qu’elle vivra. Et que l'on ne [...] quiconque ni de l'insulter aussi longtemps qu’elle vivra. À sa mort, la cité procédera au tirage au sort parmi les Galatôs (?) [... (10) ...]. Si elle est tirée au sort (?), elle donnera/paiera, ou bien (?) elle sera initiée (?) [...] une mesure (lit. "un cavalier") de grains d'orge et quatre (?) mesures d’amandes [...] pour la défunte (?), un porcelet de l'année (?). Et quand/si on la purifie, [...] qu'ils/elles emballent (le corps ? eux/elles-mêmes ?) dans des vêtements noirs pour les rites [...] que [rien] de souillé ne touche le cadavre. Et, en outre, [...] (quand) ils/elles (15) viennent (?), qu'on lave et soit pur. Dans le sanctuaire (?) [...] ne vendra pas de pains sacrés. Et quand [...] la cité une mesure de farine de blé [...] et une libation sur la table [...] pas de parts d'honneur provenant de la purification, qui [... (20) ...] sois toujours une femme ou un homme [...] à l'occasion de [...] du héraut sacré et [...]</p>
				</div>
	    		
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p>Highly intriguing yet fragmentary, this early Hellenistic inscription from the city of Pednelissos in Pisidia remains difficult to interpret with much clarity. Though largely legible, the probably civic document—cf. ἡ πόλις, lines 9 and 17; see also line 3—also contains various unusual and distinctive formulations. Through its distinctive rituals, the document presents us with a diverse cultural milieu (Greek, Anatolian, Persian, etc.). It is clear that the inscription describes the privileges and obligations connected to a priestess called "Galato" in the community. "Galato" appears to have been a "nickname" or a typical appellation for this priestess, rather than a personal name, properly speaking (see Parker, p. 77). This becomes clear through the fact that when the priestess "Galato" dies, a replacement will be selected who also seems to become a "Galato"; this replacement may have been selected among a group identified as "Galatoi" (see below on lines 8-9). </p>
						
<p>For a detailed discussion of this text and its context, see now Çoskun, who rightly critiques earlier views that sought to connect it with the hypothetical presence of Celts or Gauls in Pisidia (the phrase ἡ πόλις Γαλατῶν in line 9 had been interpreted as referring to "the <foreign>polis</foreign> of the Galatai"  or Galatians). The early Hellenistic date for the inscription and its general context prevent such an interpretation. To interpret "Galato" and "Galatoi", Çoskun raises several possibilities: the designation "Galato" / "Galatoi" may be etymologically connected with "Galloi" (partly echoing Sokolowski, who considered that "Galato" served the cult of the Mother of the Gods); or the name is somehow related to the cult of Demeter, together with Ploutos/Plouton (partly following Talloen; this is viewed as "the most likely direction" of interpretation by Çoskun). This question of "what Galato means" is highly uncertain and, in the current state of the evidence, it appears impossible to resolve it definitively. The text only provides us with mentions of two cults: the group of civic gods (δημόσιοι θεοί) of the community of Pednelissos (line 3), and the exception of the god Ploutos (or Plouton; line 4); Galato is explicitly to receive the portion that was due to a god (εἰς τὸν θεόν), perhaps again Ploutos (lines 5-6). "Galato" could thus have served Ploutos specifically or conceivably all of the civic cults of Pednelissos.</p>

<p>As partly preserved, the content of the regulation is varied: beginning <foreign>in media res</foreign>, it describes a juridical procedure, during which the priestess could receive a perquisite (lines 1-6); purity rules for the priestess and interdictions against insulting her (lines 6-8); the selection procedure for a new priestess "Galato" when the current holder of the office dies (lines 8-10); rituals for inaugurating the new priestess and honouring the deceased one (lines 12-15?); and various fragmentary rules concerning rituals (lines 16-24), including a prohibition against the selling of sacred bread (lines 16-17). On the whole, the document bears several similarities with other Greek ritual norms, but is also remarkably different in its specific prescriptions and ritual details. For other priestly contracts from Asia Minor included in the present Collection: see for example <ref target="CGRN_98">CGRN 98</ref> (Erythrai) or <ref target="CGRN_118">CGRN 118</ref> (Halikarnassos).</p>
		
<p> Lines 1-4: The first part of the inscription describes a juridical procedure. A person pronounced a curse, probably a conditional self-curse as part of an oath (see Çoskun; another form of cursing is not necessarily excluded, since the text could have referred to curses uttered against the priestess "Galato"; cf. lines 7-8, which explicitly forbade speaking ill of the priestess). If that person could provide one witness for the matter at hand, they had to pay a fee (or a fine?) of one σίγλος. The σίγλος (shekel) was a Persian coin equivalent to 8 Attic obols. As Comparetti explains, in the case in which a witness was not available or could not be produced, the person could swear an oath by putting their hand upon their head; the fee or fine in this case would consist of providing sacrificial animals (ἱερεῖα) or at least offerings for all of the δημοσίοι θεοί excepting Ploutos (or Plouton). From this, there followed a common meal of the judges and public servants (or slaves).</p>
	
<p> Lines 5-6: This clause most naturally follows from the case that precedes: as part of the consumption of the aforementioned sacrifices by the judges and their attendants, "Galato" was to receive a quarter portion as her prerogative, "the same as it is necessary to bring/offer to the god". In Comparetti's view, the quarter portion that needed to be given to "Galato" corresponds to the portion that would otherwise have been given to Ploutos: it would therefore follow that "Galato" was priestess of Ploutos. Alternatively, this clause could be a general rule, to be detached from lines 1-4 above. For quarter portions granted to priests and priestesses, see here <ref target="CGRN_37">CGRN 37</ref> (Chios), lines 13-14 (of grains), and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_42/">CGRN 42</ref> (Iasos), line 3 (of viscera). "Galato" was required to remain pure (on such requirements for priests, see <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_148/">CGRN 148</ref>) but the exact restoration of the end of the line is uncertain.</p> 
	
<p> Lines 7-8: Here we have a very exceptional case of censorship, since it is explicitly forbidden to criticize the priestess: cf. Stavrianopoulou, who discusses this case in the context of other measures in ritual norms that are aimed at safeguarding the authority of priests. The word ἐπηρασία appears to be unique, but has been paralleled with ἐπήρεια ("insult", "abuse").</p>
													
<p> Lines 8-12: This section of the inscription concerns the actions to be taken when the lifetime priestess named "Galato"  dies. In the Greek world, there were normally four different ways in which to obtain a priesthood: by lot, through inheritance, through democratic vote, and through sale. In this case, the procedure is sortition and the <foreign>polis</foreign> is the body responsible for it. The exact details of the process remain murky, however. Hondius, Sokolowski and Çoskun all restore Γαλατῶν δε[κ]άδ[ος συναχθεί|σης], the latter translating this as "after gathering a group of ten Galatoi". This would apparently entail a pre-selection of a group of ten female candidates already called Galatoi. This is possible but also raises a host of questions: how many Galatoi can there have been at Pednelissos? How could this collectivity be distinguished from the priestess called "Galato"? In any case, the restoration of the end of line 9 is overly bold: the details of how this sortition was conducted are now lost (it is even possible that we have a high stop and then Γαλατῶν δὲ ...). The following clause in line 10, though its Greek appears rather muddled, seems to refer to the inauguration of the new priestess: if chosen by lot, she has to pay (for her initiation?); the sense of the remainder of the line is difficult: it perhaps implies that other "Galatoi" were individually to "initiate her", i.e. the new priestess (Çoskun takes this to mean "finish her", i.e. the deceased priestess' funerary rites). For the initiation or consecration of priests and priestess, see here <ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 85</ref> (Kos), line 1; for measures of grains and other substances used during the inaugural presentation of a priestess, see  <ref target="CGRN_175">CGRN 175</ref> (Priene), lines 33-35. Earlier restorations to the end of line 10 assumed a reference to a group of <foreign>neokoroi</foreign>: this is possible, but by no means assured. There follow various offerings, either part of the consecration of the new priestess or the funerary rituals for the deceased priestess, or both. The word ἱππεύς designates a unique type of measure, perhaps local or Persian. The offering of almonds is without parallel in the present Collection. It is not certain that the measure was qualified by an alphabetic numeral; we could also have had e.g. δ[έκα]. The standard restoration of the beginning of line 12 considers that a sacrifice was offered to the deceased (τῆι τεθνη]κυίαι), though many other feminine participial forms in the perfect tense would also be possible. Hondius and Sokolowski interpret the word ἔτυς as a unparalleled variant of ἔτειον. Similarly, the unattested word δέλλις can be compared with δέλφαξ or δελφάκιον; for these terms for a pig that has attained some degree of maturity beyond that of a piglet (χοῖρος)—here probably a year of age, at the beginning of puberty—see here <ref target="CGRN_125">CGRN 125 </ref> (Olbia), line 15, and <ref target="CGRN_199/">CGRN 199</ref> (Delos), line 3.</p>
			
<p> Lines 12-15: Given the fragmentary and rather unique character of the lines, the interpretation must remain to a large degree uncertain. Though a connection with a funeral is apparent, it is particularly unclear which of the gestures in lines 12-13 concern the new priestess, the corpse of the deceased or even other participants in the rituals. For example, who was to be purified at the end of line 12? The corpse or the new priestess are possible, but the agent of the ritual—which employs a singular verb—is unclear in either case. At any rate, some verbs in the plural follow and thus it is clear that a group of people, perhaps women, were also participants in the rituals, here called τὰ ἱερά (line 13). We consider that, in these unknown circumstances, these figures probably had to wrap themselves in black clothes (since the imperative περιβαλλέσθωσαν is medio-passive). However, we cannot be completely certain that the wrapping does not concern the deceased corpse. The medio-passive verb could have been constructed with a double object ("Let them wrap her/the corpse with black garments", the first object perhaps remaining implicit). Yet there are possible problems with the reference to black garments: the word ἕμη appears to be a unique variant for εἷμα, "garment", and we know from elsewhere that the colour black was not necessarily adapted to funerals (for example: <ref target="CGRN_35">CGRN 35</ref>, Iulis, lines 1-6, in which the deceased is wrapped in white clothes, and <ref target="CGRN_108">CGRN 108</ref>, Gambreion, lines 5-9, for grey or white clothes worn by those mourning). Accordingly, an alternative reading for the present text might be [...] μέλαν δ̣ὲ μὴ περιβαλλέσθωσαν: the participants might then have been forbidden from wearing black or wrapping the corpse in black. The corpse was to remain uncontaminated (probably [... μηδὲν ...] ἐπὶ νεκρῶι ἔστω ῥυπαρόν, line 14). Perhaps when the participants departed from the funeral (ἔ]λθωσιν?, line 15), each (or someone specific) had to wash something and it would then be considered pure. Since νεκρός is a masculine word and the new priestess is female, we would have expected ἔστω καθαρός/καθαρή if the prescription referred to the body of the deceased or to an individual. For an overview of funerary legislation in the Greek world, cf. Frisone.</p>

<p> Lines 15-17: The interdiction against "selling sacred bread" is unique. This may refer to the offerings of πόπανα and πελανοί, which would normally have been given to the priestess as perquisites, and which she may have been tempted to convert into a source of income. Perhaps the measure of wheat connected with the <foreign>polis</foreign> (line 17) might be a form of compensation for this.</p>
	
<p> Lines 18-19: These lines may have described the perquisites of the priestess connected to various rituals, such as libations and purifications. In the latter case, apparently no perquisites were given: indeed, purifications were not considered typical sacrifices like a θυσία, see the discussion by Georgoudi; in a different sort of ritual, compare also the explicit absence of γέρα in the sacrifices for Herakles on Thasos, <ref target="CGRN_27">CGRN 27</ref>. </p>
	
<p> Lines 20-24: These fragmentary lines are difficult to interpret, including the mention of the official called a "sacred herald" in an uncertain capacity. On line 20, the curious alternative γυνὴ ἢ ἀνήρ was probably justified in the lacuna following ἀνήρ: a man could act in place of a woman under certain conditions that now escape us.</p> 
					</div>
			</body>
    	</text>
	</TEI>