CGRN 43

Decree concerning the festival of Hephaistos at Athens

Date :

421/0 BC

Justification: archon Aristion and other officials in function (see IG I³ 80).

Provenance

Athens . Fragment A found at the church of Agios Demetrios Katephoris; fragments B-D found at the Kapnikarea Church. Now in the Epigraphical Museum in Athens (inv. no. 6633). For further discussion of the provenance, see Makres.

Support

Four fragments of Pentelic marble (A-D), together forming the remains of a stele broken to the left of right. Fragment A intact above; below A, C damaged on all sides, below C, B (now lost), and finally D (intact on the left). Probable dimensions of the entirety of the fragments (the width is an estimate):

  • Height: 68 cm
  • Width: 69 cm
  • Depth: (above) 13.8 - (below) 14.7 cm
For more precise dimensions of the extant fragments A, C and D, see Makres.

Layout

Stoichedon 61.

Letters:

line 1: 0.9 cm high;

lines 2-3: 1.9 cm high;

lines 4 ff.: 1.1-1.5 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Makres 2014, with a few restorations (lines 5-6) cautiously maintained from earlier editions (see also AIO). Makres' edition eliminates many proposals for supplements in earlier editions.

Other editions: Kirchhoff IG I 46; Kirchhoff IG I.Suppl. 35b; Hiller von Gaertringen IG I² 84; Lewis IG I³ 82.

Cf. also: Ziehen LGS II 12; Sokolowski LSCG 13; AIO 1304 .

Further bibliography: Clerc 1893: 152-154; Mattingly 1974; Thompson 1977; Kotsidu 1991: 155-170; Rosivach 1994, Appendix B; Aleshire 1994; Van Straten 1995: 109-113; Mattingly 1997; Blok - Lambert 2009; Wijma 2014: 86-94; Richardson 2021.

Text


[θ]ε[οί]·
[Προκλε̑ς] Ἀτάρβο Ε[ὐονυμεὺς]
[ἐγραμμάτ]ευε, ἐπὶ Ἀριστ[ίονος ἄρχοντος]·
[ἔδοχσεν τε̑ι βολε̑ι καὶ το̑ι δ]έμοι· hιπποθοντὶ ἐπρυτάνευε, Προκλε̑ς ἐγραμμά]-
5[τευε,
....8.... ἐπεστάτε· Ἀρισ]τίον ἐ̑ρχε, hυπέ[ρβολος (?) εἶπε ........15.......]
[...............29..............]ι πεντετ[ερίδι (?) ...........21..........]
[..............28..............] νῦμ μὲν τε[.............25............]
[.........17........]ο[......12......]ονοστ[.............26.............]
[.........17........]ν δε [......12......]ερε[.............26.............]
10 [.........17........] μὲν Ι[....................39...................]
[........16........ ἐ]ν τε̑ι ἀγορᾶι [.................34.................]
[........16........ τ]οῖς δεμότεσι Π[................31...............]
[.........17........]κοντα καὶ hεκατὸν [...............29..............]
[........16........ τ]ε̑ς μοσικε̑ς καθάπερ [..............28..............]
15 [......11.....] το̑ [φα]ίστο καὶ τε̑ς Ἀθήναιας [.............26.............]
[.....9....] Ἀθεναίο[ι]ς hόθεν χρὲ ἐχσαιρε̑⟨ν⟩ ἀργύ[ριον ..........19.........]
[....7... hι]εροποιὸ δ]hοίτινες hιεροποιέσοσ ..........19......... δι]-
[α]κλε[ρο̑σαι]
ἐκ το̑ν Δ[..4..]ΤΟΝ hένα ἐκ τε̑ς φυλε̑ς ἐκ ΤΟΛ[..........19.........]
[.]χοι δ[ιακλ]εροσάντ[ον μ]ετὰ το̑ν τε̑ς βολε̑ς· διακλεροσ[..........19.........]-
20ον τε̑ς βολ[ε̑]ς· hοι δὲ λ[αχ]όντες μισθοφορόντον καθάπερ [.........17........ ἐ]-
πιμέλοντα[ι]
τούτον· h[ο]ι δὲ κολακρέται ἀποδιδόντον αὐτ[.......13...... δια]-
κλεροσάτο
δὲ καὶ hε β[ο]λὲ σφο̑ν αὐτο̑ν hιεροπ[ο]ιὸς δέκα ἄνδρ[ας hένα ἐκ τε̑ς φυλ]-
ε̑ς
hεκάστε[ς]· δο̑ναι δὲ [κ]αὶ τοῖς μετοίκοις τρε̑[ς] βοῦς, τούτον τ[.....9.... hοι h]-
ιεροποιοὶ
[νε]μόντον [α]ὐτοῖς ὀμὰ τὰ κρέα· τε̑ς δὲ πονπε̑ς hόπος [ἂν hος κάλλιστα]
25 πενφθε̑ι hο hι]εροπ[οι]οὶ ἐπιμελόσθον, καὶ ἂν τίς τι ἀκοσμε̑, κύριοι ὄντον αὐ]-
τοὶ
μὲν ζεμ[ιο̑ν μέχρι πε]ντέκοντα δραχμο̑ν καὶ ἐκγράφεν ἐς [......12...... ἐὰ]-
[ν]
δέ τις ἄχσ[ιος ἐ̑ι μέζον]ος ζε[μ]ίας, τὰς ἐπιβολὰς ποιό[ντ]ον [hοπόσας ἂν δοκε̑ι κ]-
[α]ἐσαγν[τον ἐς τὸ δικασ]τέρι[ο]ν τὸ το̑ ἄρχοντος· τὸς δ[ὲ β]οῦ ......11..... σάλ]-
πινγος
[προσαγαγε̑ν πρὸς τ]ὸν βομόν· hοίτιν[ε]ς δὲ ἀρο̑νται Ε[......12...... hοι]
30 hιεροποιο[ὶ .....9....] διακοσίος ἐχς Ἀθε[ν]αίον· τὲν δὲ λ[......11..... τε̑ι πε]-
[ν]τετερίδι
[....7... hεφ]αιστίοις· ποιόντο δ][h]οι hιεροπ[οιοὶ ......11.....]
[τὲ]ν λανπάδ τιθέναι καὶ] τὸν ἄλλον ἀγο̑να γίγνεσθαι καθά[περ ......12......]
[..4..]ν θέας (?) [......12......]οι ποιο̑σι· καὶ τὸ λοιπόν, ἐὰν δοκε̑ .......13......]
[... Π]οσει[δο̑νι .....9....]ντον hοι hιεροποιοὶ καὶ το̑ι Ἀπόλ[λονι .....9....]
35 [...5..]ν· h[οι ......11.....]χοι hοι hειρεμένοι ἐς τὰ Προμέθια [.......13......]
[...6...]τ[.......13......]ος hελόσθον· τὸν δὲ βομὸν το̑ι hεφαί[στοι .....9....]
[..........20..........]το ποιεσάτοβολὲ καθότι ἂν αὐτε̑ δοκε̑ι ....7...]
[..........19.........]θαι καθ’ ἑμέραν ἐν τε̑ι τελευταίαι πε[.......13......]
[..........19.........]αν καὶ ἀναγορεύεν καθότι ἂν κριθε̑ι Ι[......12......]
40[........16........ hιερ]οπ[ο]ιοὶ καὶ hοι ἀγονισταί· τὸς δὲ κρ[ιτὰς .....9....]
[.............26.............] δὲ το̑ν ἄθλον τε̑ς ἀναγραφε̑ς h[οὶ .....10.....]
[.......14....... εἶπε· τὰ μὲν ἄλλα καθά]περ τε̑ι βολε̑ι· ἀναγράφ[σαι δὲ τὸ φσέφι]-
[σμα
τόδε ἐστέλει λιθίνει καὶ καταθε̑ναι ἐ]ν το̑ι hιερο̑ι· hο δ [γραμματεὺς ...]
[.....................41....................] ργυρ[........15.......]
[..?..]

Translation

[Gods. Prokles], son of Atarbos [of the deme Euonymon, was secretary], during [the archonship] of Aristion. [The council and the] people [decided], when the tribe Hippothontis [had the prytany, Prokles was secretary, ... was president,] and Aristion was archon; Hyper[bolos (?) proposed (5): ...] during the penteteric festival (?) [... (four fragmentary lines) ... (10) ...] in the agora [...] to the deme-members [...] hundred and [...] of the music just as [... (15) ...] of Hephaistos and of Athena [...] for the Athenians, from where it is necessary to take money [...] hieropoioi who act as hieropoioi [...] to select by lot from the [...] one from each tribe from [...]. Let the [...] organise the selection by lot together with those of the council. Selection by lot [... (20) ...] of the council. Those chosen by lot receive wages exactly as [...] who take care of these things. Let the kolakretai give them (?) [...]. The council must choose by lot among themselves ten men as hieropoioi [one from] each tribe. Give three oxen to the metics, from these [...] the hieropoioi distribute the meat to them raw. (25) The hieropoioi must take care of the procession, so that it is conducted [in the most beautiful way possible], and if someone causes any offense/disorder, [let them have the authority] to impose fines of up to 50 drachmae and write them up to the [...]. If someone deserves a higher punishment, let them set the fines [as high as seems good] and let them introduce the case to the lawcourt of the archon. Lead the male oxen [...] of trumpet to the altar. Those men who will lift [(the oxen) ...] (30) the hieropoioi [...] two hundred from among the Athenians. The [...] during the penteteric festival [...] in the Hephaisteia. The hieropoioi must see to it that [...] the torch-race [is held and] the other contest happens in the same manner as [...] of a spectacle (?) [...] they do. And for the rest, if it seems good [...] to Poseidon [...] let the hieropoioi [...] and to Apollo [... (35) ...]. The [...] that were chosen for the Prometheia [...] they must choose [...]. The altar for Hephaistos [...] the council must make [...] in the way that it [seems right] to it [...] daily, on the last day (?) [...] and to publicly proclaim how [...] was decided [... (40)...] the hieropoioi and the competitors. Those selected (?) [...] of the inscribing of the prizes the [...].

[... made the proposal: the other things (are to happen)] just as the council (saw fit). [The decree] is to be recorded [on a stone stele and set up] in the sanctuary; the [secretary ...] money [...].

Traduction

Dieux. Proklès, fils d'Atarbos du dème d'Euonymon, était secrétaire, sous l'archontat d'Aristion. Il a plu au conseil et au peuple, sous la prytanie de la tribu Hippothontis, Proklès était secrétaire, [...] était président, Aristion était archonte; Hyper[bolos (?) a fait la proposition : (5) ...] au cours de la fête pentétérique (?) [... (4 lignes fragmentaires) ... (10) ...] sur l'agora [...] aux démotes [...] cent et [...] de la musique selon [...] (15) d'Héphaistos et d'Athéna [...] pour les Athéniens, d'où il faut prélever l'argent [...] que les hiéropes agissant en tant qu'hiéropes [...] tirer au sort par/de [...] un par tribu par/de [...]. Que les [...] organisent le tirage au sort avec ceux du conseil. Tirage au sort [... (20) ...] en présence (20) du conseil. Que ceux qui sont choisis par le sort soient rémunérés comme [...] qui s'occupent de cela. Que les kolakrètes leur (?) remettent [...]. Que le conseil désigne par le sort en son sein dix hommes comme hiéropes, [un de] chaque tribu. Seront donnés aux métèques trois boeufs dont [...] les hiéropes leur distribueront la viande crue. (25) Que les hiéropes prennent soin de la procession afin qu'elle soit menée [de la plus belle manière possible], et si quelqu'un perturbe l'ordre, qu'ils [aient l'autorité] d'imposer une amende jusqu'à 50 drachmes et de la transcrire à destination [...]. Si quelqu'un est passible d'une amende plus élevée, qu'ils majorent la peine [à leur estime] et qu'ils introduisent une procédure au tribunal de l'archonte. Chacun [conduira] les boeufs au son de la trompette jusqu'à l'autel. Les hommes qui [les] soulèveront [...] (30), que les hiéropes en choisissent deux cents parmi les Athéniens. Le/la [...] durant la fête pentétérique et les Hephaisteia. Que les hiéropes agissent afin que [...] la course aux flambeaux [est tenue et] l'autre concours se passe à la manière [...] d'un spectacle (?) [...] ils font. Quant au reste, s'il paraît bon [...] à Poséidon [...] que les hiéropes [...], et à Apollon [... (35) ...]. Les [...] choisis pour les Prometheia [...] qu'ils choisissent. [...]. L'autel pour Héphaistos [...] que le conseil accomplisse [...] de la manière qui lui [semble bonne ...] par jour, le dernier jour (?) [...] et de proclamer publiquement la manière dont [...] a été jugé [... (40) ...] les hiéropes et les compétiteurs. Ceux qui ont été sélectionnés (?) [...] de l'inscription des prix [...].

[... a fait la proposition. Les autres choses (interviendront)] selon (ce qui sied) au conseil. On inscrira [ce décret sur une stèle de pierre et l'érigera] dans le sanctuaire. Que le [secrétaire [...] argent [...].

Commentary

This decree regulates the celebration of a festival in honour of Hephaistos (cf. lines 15, 31, and 36). By 421, Hephaistos had a temple on the hill west of the Agora, and earlier literary sources mention torch-races in honour of Hephaistos (Hdt. 8.98.2, A. Ag. 279-314). Similarly, the ritual of bull-lifting was already associated with the god of crafts (cf. see lines 29-30). This inscription probably details the reorganization of an already existing festival, rather than instituting an entirely new one (see Wijma, p. 86-88; for another view, cf. Rosivach). For another decree from Athens, testifying to a revamping of the festival of Athena, cf. CGRN 92. As part of this phase of the augmentation of the cult at the start of the Peace of Nikias, the decree moreover coincides with the start of work on the statues in the Hephaisteion (IG I³ 472). The view that this inscription concerns the festival of the Hephaisteia has been challenged by Makres, who argues that it might have concerned the Theseia on the basis of the "demesmen" in line 12. As Makres points out, mention of the latter is unusual in a state decree but does occur in two sources concerning the Theseia (I.Eleusis 85, lines 26-28, and Ath. Pol. 62.1). However, "there is no reference to Theseus or the Theseia in the surviving text" (AIO, with further arguments supporting the "persuasive" common view that the text concerns the Hephaisteia).

The first fragmentary lines of the inscription are difficult to interpret. We can discern a reference to a "four-year festival" (line 6. cf. line 31), to an event happening "in the agora" (line 11), to the involvement of "demesmen" (line 12); to a number (line 13, perhaps that of the oxen to be sacrificed by the state), to "music" (line 14) and the gods Hephaistos and Athena (line 15). One may think of a procedure of meat distribution in the agora, possibly of a large number of animals (so Clerc; and cf. here CGRN 19, Face A, lines 19-21). Kotsidu connects the mention of the "agora" with the "music" in another way, while explaining that the musical contests of the Panathenaia were held in the Athenian agora.

The substance of the rest of the decree is somewhat more straightforward or intelligible. Lines 17-23 specify the procedure for the selection of hieropoioi by lot: ten among an unknown group (line 18, formerly but misleadingly taken to be δ[ικα]σ̣το͂ν, "judges"; "donors", δ[ιδον]το͂ν, is the alternative suggestion of A.P. Matthaiou apud Makres); and ten from the members of the council; in both cases, one from each tribe. The tasks of these hieropoioi included providing the metics with three oxen and then distributing to them the raw meat from these animals (lines 23-24). The hieropoioi are also to conduct the procession in the most elegant manner possible and are given the power to fine small offenders, while larger offences are to be relegated to a court of justice (lines 24-28). The festivities also include leading an unknown number of oxen to the altar of Hephaistos, perhaps at the accompanying sound of a trumpet, and men are then to lift up the bulls (lines 28-30). The hieropoioi are probably also in charge of the organization of a torch-race, concerning which detailed provisions are given, though in a lengthy passage that is now unfortunately fragmentary, and that includes enigmatic references to Poseidon and Apollo, as well as the Promethia (lines 31-41). The inscribed text concludes with a rider on the decree passed and recorded in lines 1-41. This additional measure (lines 42-42) by the Athenian assembly confirms all of those proposed by the council earlier, and makes provisions for the inscribing and setting up of the stone, and most probably for its payment (lines 42-44).

Lines 15-16: Mattingly (1974) interpreted ἐξαιρεῖν as "to set aside" and considered the verb to refer to a special fund "reserved" for the cult of Athena and Hephaistos. Thompson's alternative interpretation, taking the phrase as a specification of the way in which the oxen for the metics (lines 23) are to be financed, gave the sense "from the fund from where it is necessary to take out money (to finance sacrifices)". However, Makres argues in favour of Mattingly's view, finding support for the fund of Hephaistos and Athena into which surplus silver was paid at GHI 155, section 6, and the law of 354/3 BC relating to coinage (Richardson).

Lines 17-23: The selection of candidates for a particular task or function by lot was a widespread feature of 5th- and 4th-century Athenian democracy. Sortition was preferred to election in those cases in which humans could not or did not want to motivate the choice for a particular person, and instead the gods were thought to select the right candidate (cf. Aleshire and Blok - Lambert); cf. also here CGRN 74, line 2, with Commentary.

Lines 23-24: Three oxen are to be given to the metics, from which the meat is to be distributed raw. Here, the metics are consciously singled out as a group; contrast references to δεμότεσι (line 12) and Ἀθε[ν]α̣ίον (line 30). As Wijma has argued, the decree should be seen as reflecting the growing involvement of metics in the Athenian community from the mid-5th century onwards, which meant that their position should be acknowledged and at the same time demarcated. Many metics were involved in the extensive building program of Perikles. Accordingly, this group also became involved and honoured in a festival for the god of craftmanship. Note that this is the only Athenian festival at the polis level in which metics were explicitly included in the sacrifices (Wijma, p. 89). On the distribution of meat to metics on the sub-polis level, cf. an earlier regulation from the deme of the Skambonidai, CGRN 19, in which the Skambonidai themselves and the metics were to receive equal portions during a sacrifice to the hero Leos. It is unclear how we should assess the honour being bestowed on the metics by giving them three oxen, since we do not know exactly how many animals were provided to the Athenians during the sacrifice. However, the fact that the meat was to be distributed raw could be significant. The goal may have been to exclude the metics from the festive occasion of a communal banquet, requiring them to take the raw meat away to be consumed elsewhere. As such the regulation would then have had the opposite effect of the often-occurring "οὐ φορά" rule, which strengthened the bonds between the members of a cultic group through an obligatory shared meal on the spot (cf. again Wijma); for οὐ φορά and similar instructions, cf. CGRN 52 (Erchia), passim, and CGRN 32 (Thorikos), Commentary on lines 10-12.

Lines 25-28: The hieropoioi are given the legal capacity to punish disorderly behaviour during the festival, but only up to a certain point (a fine of up to 50 drachmae). For comparable cases of personnel being granted the authority to sanction transgressors up to a certain level, cf. CGRN 75 (Oropos), lines 6-20; for similar fines in this context, cp. CGRN 186 (Ilion), lines 30-32.

Lines 28-29: If this is the correct scenario to be envisaged, there would appear to be no direct parallel for the oxen being led to the altar to the sound of a trumpet. Contrast perhaps CGRN 10 (Gortyn), line 9: an interdiction of sounding the trumpet in a festival context.

Lines 29-30: As reconsidered by Makres, one possible restoration would involve the lifting of the oxen on the participants shoulders: ἐ̣[π᾽ ὄμον]; but, as Makres avers, the trace of an epsilon and the overall reconstruction of the text remain quite uncertain. Nevertheless, the type of ritual is assured: cf. Van Straten, p. 109-113, for a diachronic discussion of festive occasions during which bulls or oxen were lifted. A cup from around 500 BC depicts the lifting of a bull or an ox by five youths, as well as Hephaistos; thus, according to the convincing interpretation of Van Straten (p. 112), this cup illustrates a festival in honour of Hephaistos. We do not know how many oxen were involved and it is not clear how many of the probably 200 Athenian men would be needed to lift each individual bull. For bull- or ox-lifting, cf. also here CGRN 26 (Athens), face A, line 17.

Lines 31-36: Several festivals or specific occasions mentioned in this highly fragmentary passage elude a definite understanding. The perhaps repeated reference (cf. line 6) to a penteteris (quadrennial celebration) lacks any context, but may suggest a connection with the Hephaistia (the word has no obvious connection with the Panathenaia, as has sometimes been argued). AIO considers the possibility of a "Great Hephaistia", though it is carefully added that "no such quadrennial festival is ... mentioned by Ath. Pol. 54.7; it is possible that arrangements made now [i.e. at the time of this decree] did not endure". The hieropoioi selected by lot were also to organize a torch-race and "another contest" as part of the festival. In this context, we also find an allusion to the Promethia, which may have served as a point of reference here. Indeed, the Promethia is an obscure festival known only for its torch-races which were organised by tribe (Lys. 21.3, Isae. 7.36). Additional sacrifices perhaps needed to be made to Poseidon and Apollo (line 34; Makres views a connection of these gods with the Theseia as more likely: see above).

Lines 36-43: The kind of action to be performed "as it [seems right] to the council [...]" eludes us, though it apparently concerned the altar consecrated to Hephaistos. The following lines refer to occasions during which the victors are proclaimed and prizes are awarded, presumably the torch-race and the contest mentioned earlier (see lines 31-36, above).

Lines 42-44: The rider of the Athenian assembly is principally concerned with the inscribing the decree itself. As we are informed, this was to take take place "in the sanctuary", i.e. the sanctuary of the relevant deity, in this case probably the Hephaisteion. While many decrees were set up on the Acropolis, those relating to specific cults were commonly set up in the relevant sanctuary. See Makres for further details about the provenance of the stone and its parallels. Along with a few other texts relating to the cult of Hephaistos (e.g. IG I³ 472), it may have moved from an original location near the Hephaisteion, yet remained in the general area to the north of the Acropolis.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN43), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels
  • Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 43, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels et Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, "CGRN 43: Decree concerning the festival of Hephaistos at Athens", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on April 19, 2024. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/43/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN43.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on April 19, 2024. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

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	    			<language ident="lat">Latin</language>
	    			<language ident="fre">French</language>
	    			<language ident="ger">German</language>
	    			<language ident="gre">Modern Greek</language>
	    			<language ident="ita">Italian</language>
	    		</langUsage>
	    		<textClass/>
	    	</profileDesc>
	    	<revisionDesc>
	    		<change>Last revised by J.M. Carbon in 07.2022.</change>     
	    	</revisionDesc>
	    </teiHeader>
	<facsimile><graphic url="x"/></facsimile>
	    <text>
	    	<body>
	    		<div type="bibliography">
	    			<head>Bibliography</head>
	    			
	    			<p> Edition here based on <bibl type="author_date" n="Makres 2014">Makres 2014</bibl>, with a few restorations (lines 5-6) cautiously maintained from earlier editions (see also AIO). Makres' edition eliminates many proposals for supplements in earlier editions.</p>
	    			<p> Other editions: 
	    				Kirchhoff <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I">IG I</bibl> 46; 
	    				Kirchhoff <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I.Suppl.">IG I.Suppl.</bibl> 35b;
	    				Hiller von Gaertringen <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I²">IG I²</bibl> 84;
	    				Lewis <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I³">IG I³</bibl> 82.</p>
	    			
	    			<p> Cf. also:
	    				Ziehen <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS II">LGS II</bibl> 12; 
	    				Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 13;
	    				<ref target="https://www.atticinscriptions.com/inscription/AIO/1304" type="external">AIO 1304</ref>.</p>
	    			
	    			<p>Further bibliography: 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Clerc 1893">Clerc 1893</bibl>: 152-154;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Mattingly 1974">Mattingly 1974</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Thompson 1977">Thompson 1977</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Kotsidu 1991">Kotsidu 1991</bibl>: 155-170;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Rosivach 1994">Rosivach 1994</bibl>, Appendix B;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Aleshire 1994">Aleshire 1994</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Van Straten 1995">Van Straten 1995</bibl>: 109-113;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Mattingly 1997">Mattingly 1997</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Blok - Lambert 2009">Blok - Lambert 2009</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Wijma 2014">Wijma 2014</bibl>: 86-94;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Richardson 2021">Richardson 2021</bibl>.</p>
</div>
	    		
	    			<div type="edition">
					<head>Text</head>
	    				
	    			<ab>
	    	
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/> <name type="deity" key="generic"><w lemma="θεός"><supplied reason="lost">θ</supplied>ε<supplied reason="lost">οί</supplied></w></name>·
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/> <supplied reason="lost">Προκλε̑ς</supplied> Ἀτάρβο Ε<supplied reason="lost">ὐονυμεὺς</supplied> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/> <name type="title"><w lemma="γραμματεύω"><supplied reason="lost">ἐγραμμάτ</supplied>ευε</w></name>, <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> Ἀριστ<supplied reason="lost">ίονος</supplied> <name type="title"><w lemma="ἄρχων"><supplied reason="lost">ἄρχοντος</supplied></w></name>·
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/> <w lemma="δοκέω"><supplied reason="lost">ἔδοχσεν</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τε̑ι</supplied> <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή"><supplied reason="lost">βολε̑ι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ το̑ι</supplied> <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος"><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>έμοι</w></name>· hιπποθοντὶ<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied> <name type="title"><w lemma="πρυτανεύω"><supplied reason="lost">ἐπρυτάνευε</supplied></w></name><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">Προκλε̑ς</supplied> <name type="title"><w lemma="γραμματεύω"><supplied reason="lost">ἐγραμμά</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τευε,</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character"/> <name type="title"><w lemma="ἐπίστημι"><supplied reason="lost">ἐπεστάτε·</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">Ἀρισ</supplied>τίον <name type="title"><w lemma="ἄρχω">ἐ̑ρχε</w></name>, hυπέ<supplied reason="lost">ρβολος</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <w lemma="λέγω"><supplied reason="lost">εἶπε</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="15" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="29" unit="character"/><orig>ι</orig> <name type="festival"><w lemma="πεντετηρίς">πεντετ<supplied reason="lost">ερίδι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="21" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="28" unit="character"/> <w lemma="νῦν"><unclear>ν</unclear>ῦμ</w> μὲν <orig>τε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="25" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character"/><orig>ο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/><orig>ονοστ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="26" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character"/><orig>ν δ<unclear>ε</unclear></orig> <gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/><orig>ερε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="26" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character"/> μὲν <orig>Ι</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="39" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="16" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἐν"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>ν</w> τε̑ι <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀγορά">ἀγο<unclear>ρ</unclear>ᾶι</w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="34" unit="character"/>  
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="16" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>οῖς <name type="group"><w lemma="δημότης">δεμότεσι</w></name> <orig><unclear>Π</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="31" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character"/>κοντα καὶ <w lemma="ἑκατόν">hεκατὸν</w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="29" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="16" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ε̑ς <w lemma="μουσική">μοσικε̑ς</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="καθάπερ">καθάπε<unclear>ρ</unclear></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="28" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/> το̑ <name type="deity" key="Hephaistos"><w lemma="Ἥφαιστος">hε<supplied reason="lost">φα</supplied>ίστο</w></name> καὶ τε̑ς <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη">Ἀθήναια<unclear>ς</unclear></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="26" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/> <name type="group"><name type="ethnic" key="Athens"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀθεναίο<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied><unclear>ς</unclear></w></name></name> <w lemma="ὅθεν">hόθεν</w> <w lemma="χρή">χρὲ</w> <w lemma="ἐξαιρέω">ἐχσαιρε̑<supplied reason="omitted">ν</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἀργύριον">ἀργύ<supplied reason="lost">ριον</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_17" n="17"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός"><supplied reason="lost">hι</supplied>εροποιὸ<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ὲ <w lemma="ὅστις">hοίτινες</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="ἱεροποιέω">hιεροποιέσοσ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character"/> <w lemma="διακληρόω"><supplied reason="lost">δι</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>κλε<supplied reason="lost">ρο̑σαι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐκ</w> το̑ν <orig>Δ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/><orig>ΤΟΝ</orig> <w lemma="εἷς">hένα</w> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐκ</w> τε̑ς <name type="group"><w lemma="φυλή">φυλε̑ς</w></name> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐκ</w> <orig>ΤΟΛ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character"/>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>χοι</orig> <w lemma="διακληρόω">δ<supplied reason="lost">ιακλ</supplied>εροσάντ<supplied reason="lost">ον</supplied></w> <w lemma="μετά"><supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied>ετὰ</w> το̑ν τε̑ς <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή">βολε̑ς</w></name>· <w lemma="διακληρόω">διακλεροσ</w><gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character"/>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20" break="no"/><orig>ον</orig> τε̑ς <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή">βολ<supplied reason="lost">ε̑</supplied>ς</w></name>· hοι δὲ <w lemma="λαγχάνω">λ<supplied reason="lost">αχ</supplied>όντες</w> <w lemma="μισθοφορέω">μισθοφορόντον</w> <w lemma="καθάπερ">καθάπερ</w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="17" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἐπιμελέομαι"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>
	    								
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21" break="no"/>πιμέλοντα<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <w lemma="οὗτος">τούτον</w>· h<supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied><unclear>ι</unclear> δὲ <name type="title"><w lemma="κωλακρέτης">κολακρέται</w></name> <w lemma="ἀποδίδωμι">ἀποδιδόντον</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτ</w><gap reason="lost" quantity="13" unit="character"/> <w lemma="διακληρόω"><supplied reason="lost">δια</supplied>
	    									
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22" break="no"/>κλεροσάτο</w> δὲ καὶ hε <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή">β<supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>λὲ</w></name> <w lemma="σφεῖς">σφο̑ν</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτο̑ν</w> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">hιεροπ<supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ιὸς</w></name> <w lemma="δέκα">δέκα</w> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἄνδρ<supplied reason="lost">ας</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="εἷς"><supplied reason="lost">hένα</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἐκ"><supplied reason="lost">ἐκ</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τε̑ς</supplied> <name type="group"><w lemma="φυλή"><supplied reason="lost">φυλ</supplied>
	    										
<lb xml:id="line_23" n="23" break="no"/>ε̑ς</w></name> <w lemma="ἕκαστος">hεκάστε<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w>· <w lemma="δίδωμι">δο̑ναι</w> δὲ <supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>αὶ τοῖς <name type="group"><w lemma="μέτοικος">μετοίκοις</w></name> <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρε̑<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦς</w></name>, <w lemma="οὗτος">τούτον</w> <orig>τ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">hοι</supplied> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός"><supplied reason="lost">h</supplied>
	    											
<lb xml:id="line_24" n="24" break="no"/>ιεροποιοὶ</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="νέμω"><supplied reason="lost">νε</supplied>μόντον</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός"><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>ὐτοῖς</w> <w lemma="ὠμός">ὀμὰ</w> τὰ <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κρέα</w></name>· τε̑ς δὲ <w lemma="πομπή">πονπε̑ς</w> <w lemma="ὅπως">hόπος</w> <supplied reason="lost"><w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="ὡς">hος</w> <w lemma="καλός">κάλλιστα</w></supplied>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_25" n="25"/> <w lemma="πέμπω">πενφθε̑ι</w> hο<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός"><supplied reason="lost">hι</supplied>εροπ<supplied reason="lost">οι</supplied>οὶ</w></name> <w lemma="ἐπιμελέομαι">ἐπιμελόσθον</w>, καὶ <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="τις">τίς</w> <w lemma="τις">τι</w> <w lemma="ἀκοσμέω">ἀκοσμε̑<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <name type="authority"><w lemma="κύριος"><supplied reason="lost">κύριοι</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί"><supplied reason="lost">ὄντον</supplied></w> <w lemma="αὐτός"><supplied reason="lost">αὐ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_26" n="26" break="no"/>τοὶ</w> μὲν <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζεμ<supplied reason="lost">ιο̑ν</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="μέχρι"><supplied reason="lost">μέχρι</supplied></w> <w lemma="πεντήκοντα"><supplied reason="lost">πε</supplied>ντέκοντα</w> <w lemma="δραχμή">δραχμο̑ν</w> καὶ <w lemma="ἐκγράφω">ἐκγράφεν</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἐάν"><supplied reason="lost">ἐὰ</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_27" n="27" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w> δέ <w lemma="τις">τις</w> <w lemma="ἄξιος">ἄχσ<supplied reason="lost">ιος</supplied></w> <w lemma="εἰμί"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ̑ι</supplied></w> <w lemma="μέγας"><supplied reason="lost">μέζον</supplied>ος</w> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζε<supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied>ίας</w></name>, τὰς <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ἐπιβολή">ἐπιβολὰς</w></name> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιό<supplied reason="lost">ντ</supplied>ον</w> <w lemma="ὁπόσος"><supplied reason="lost">hοπόσας</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἄν"><supplied reason="lost">ἂν</supplied></w> <w lemma="δοκέω"><supplied reason="lost">δοκε̑ι</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_28" n="28" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>ὶ <w lemma="εἰσάγω">ἐσαγ<unclear>όν</unclear><supplied reason="lost">τον</supplied></w> <w lemma="εἰς"><supplied reason="lost">ἐς</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τὸ</supplied> <w lemma="δικαστήριον"><supplied reason="lost">δικασ</supplied><unclear>τ</unclear>έρ<unclear>ι</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ν</w> τὸ το̑ <name type="title"><w lemma="ἄρχων">ἄρχοντος</w></name>· τὸς δ<supplied reason="lost">ὲ</supplied> <name type="gender"><name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς"><supplied reason="lost">β</supplied>οῦ<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/> <name type="invocation"><w lemma="σάλπιγξ"><supplied reason="lost">σάλ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_29" n="29" break="no"/>πινγος</w></name> <w lemma="προσάγω"><supplied reason="lost">προσαγαγε̑ν</supplied></w> <w lemma="πρός"><supplied reason="lost">πρὸς</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ὸν <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βομόν</w></name>· <w lemma="ὅστις">hοίτιν<supplied reason="lost">ε</supplied>ς</w> δὲ <w lemma="ἀείρω">ἀρο̑νται</w> <orig><unclear>Ε</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">hοι</supplied>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_30" n="30"/> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός"><unclear>h</unclear>ιερο<unclear>π</unclear>οιο<supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/> <w lemma="διακόσιοι">διακοσίος</w> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐχς</w> <name type="ethnic"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀθε<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied><unclear>α</unclear>ίον</w></name>· τὲν δὲ <orig>λ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/>  <supplied reason="lost">τε̑ι</supplied> <name type="festival"><w lemma="πεντετηρίς"><supplied reason="lost">πε</supplied>                                

<lb xml:id="line_31" n="31" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>τετερίδι</w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/> <name type="festival"><w lemma="Ἡφαίστια"><supplied reason="lost">hεφ</supplied>αιστίοις</w></name>· <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιόντο<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ὲ <supplied reason="lost">h</supplied><unclear>ο</unclear>ι <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">hιεροπ<supplied reason="lost">οιοὶ</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_32" n="32"/> <supplied reason="lost">τὲ</supplied>ν <name type="festival"><w lemma="λαμπάς">λανπάδ<supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="τίθημι"><supplied reason="lost">τιθέναι</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> τὸν <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλον</w> <name type="festival"><w lemma="ἀγών">ἀγο̑να</w></name> <w lemma="γίγνομαι">γίγνεσθαι</w> <w lemma="καθάπερ">καθά<supplied reason="lost">περ</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_33" n="33"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/><orig>ν</orig> <name type="festival"><w lemma="θέα">θέας</w></name> (?) <gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/><orig>οι</orig> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιο̑σι</w>· καὶ τὸ <w lemma="λοιπός">λοιπόν</w>, <w lemma="ἐάν">ἐὰν</w> <w lemma="δοκέω">δοκε̑<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="13" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_34" n="34"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/> <name type="deity" key="Poseidon"><w lemma="Ποσειδῶν"><supplied reason="lost">Π</supplied>οσε<unclear>ι</unclear><supplied reason="lost">δο̑νι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/><orig>ντον</orig> hοι <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">hιεροποιοὶ</w></name> καὶ το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="Ἀπόλλων">Ἀπό<unclear>λ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">λονι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/>  
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_35" n="35"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/><orig>ν</orig>· h<supplied reason="lost">οι</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/><orig>χοι</orig> hοι <w lemma="αἱρέω">hειρεμένοι</w> <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> τὰ <name type="deity" key="Prometheus"><name type="festival"><w lemma="Προμήθεια">Προμέθια</w></name></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="13" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_36" n="36"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>τ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="13" unit="character"/><orig>ος</orig> <w lemma="αἱρέω">hελόσθον</w>· τὸν δὲ <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βομὸν</w></name> το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Hephaistos"><w lemma="Ἥφαιστος">hεφαί<supplied reason="lost">στοι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_37" n="37"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="20" unit="character"/><orig>το</orig> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποιεσάτο</w> hε <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή">βολὲ</w></name> <w lemma="καθότι">καθότι</w> <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτε̑<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <w lemma="δοκέω"><supplied reason="lost">δοκε̑ι</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_38" n="38"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character"/><orig>θαι</orig> <w lemma="κατά">καθ’</w> <w lemma="ἡμέρα">ἑμέραν</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τε̑ι <w lemma="τελευταῖος">τελευταίαι</w> <orig>πε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="13" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_39" n="39"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="19" unit="character"/><orig>αν</orig> καὶ <name type="speechAct"><w lemma="ἀναγορεύω">ἀναγορεύεν</w></name> <w lemma="καθότι">καθότι</w> <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="κρίνω">κριθε̑ι</w> <orig>Ι</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_40" n="40"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="16" unit="character"/> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός"><supplied reason="lost">hιερ</supplied><unclear>οπ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ιοὶ</w></name> καὶ hοι <name type="group"><w lemma="ἀγωνιστής">ἀγονισταί</w></name>· τὸς δὲ <w lemma="κριτής">κρ<supplied reason="lost">ιτὰς</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/> 
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_41" n="41"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="26" unit="character"/> δὲ το̑ν <w lemma="ἆθλος">ἄθλον</w> τε̑ς <w lemma="ἀναγραφή">ἀναγραφε̑ς</w> <unclear>h</unclear><supplied reason="lost">οὶ</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="10" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_42" n="42"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="14" unit="character"/> <w lemma="λέγω"><supplied reason="lost">εἶπε</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τὰ μὲν</supplied> <w lemma="ἄλλος"><supplied reason="lost">ἄλλα</supplied></w> <w lemma="καθάπερ"><supplied reason="lost">καθά</supplied><unclear>πε</unclear>ρ</w> τε̑ι <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή">βολε̑ι</w></name>· <w lemma="ἀναγράφω">ἀναγράφ<supplied reason="lost">σαι</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">δὲ τὸ</supplied> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ψήφισμα"><supplied reason="lost">φσέφι</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_43" n="43" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">σμα</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ὅδε"><supplied reason="lost">τόδε</supplied></w> <objectType key="stele"><w lemma="στήλη"><supplied reason="lost">ἐστέλει</supplied></w></objectType> <w lemma="λίθινος"><supplied reason="lost">λιθίνει</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <w lemma="κατατίθημι"><supplied reason="lost">καταθε̑ναι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἐν"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>ν</w> το̑ι <name type="structure"><w lemma="ἱερόν">hιερο̑ι</w></name>· hο <unclear>δὲ</unclear> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="γραμματεύς"><supplied reason="lost">γραμματεὺς</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_44" n="44"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="41" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἀργύριον"><unclear>ἀρ</unclear>γυ<unclear>ρ</unclear></w><gap reason="lost" quantity="15" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    				
	</ab>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>

<p>[Gods. Prokles], son of Atarbos [of the deme Euonymon, was secretary], during [the archonship] of Aristion. [The council and the] people [decided], when the tribe Hippothontis [had the prytany, Prokles was secretary, ... was president,] and Aristion was archon; Hyper[bolos (?) proposed (5): ...] during the penteteric festival (?) [...  (four fragmentary lines) ...  (10) ...] in the agora [...] to the deme-members [...] hundred and [...] of the music just as [... (15) ...] of Hephaistos and of Athena [...] for the Athenians, from where it is necessary to take money [...] <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> who act as <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> [...] to select by lot from the [...] one from each tribe from [...]. Let the [...] organise the selection by lot together with those of the council. Selection by lot [... (20) ...] of the council. Those chosen by lot receive wages exactly as [...] who take care of these things. Let the <foreign>kolakretai</foreign> give them (?) [...]. The council must choose by lot among themselves ten men as <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> [one from] each tribe. Give three oxen to the metics, from these [...] the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> distribute the meat to them raw. (25) The <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> must take care of the procession, so that it is conducted [in the most beautiful way possible], and if someone causes any offense/disorder, [let them have the authority] to impose fines of up to 50 drachmae and write them up to the [...]. If someone deserves a higher punishment, let them set the fines [as high as seems good] and let them introduce the case to the lawcourt of the archon. Lead the male oxen [...] of trumpet to the altar. Those men who will lift [(the oxen) ...] (30) the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> [...] two hundred from among the Athenians. The [...] during the penteteric festival [...] in the Hephaisteia. The <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> must see to it that [...] the torch-race [is held and] the other contest happens in the same manner as [...] of a spectacle (?) [...] they do. And for the rest, if it seems good [...] to Poseidon [...] let the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> [...] and to Apollo [... (35) ...]. The [...] that were chosen for the Prometheia [...] they must choose [...]. The altar for Hephaistos [...] the council must make [...] in the way that it [seems right] to it [...] daily, on the last day (?) [...] and to publicly proclaim how [...] was decided [... (40)...] the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> and the competitors. Those selected (?) [...] of the inscribing of the prizes the [...].</p>

<p>[... made the proposal: the other things (are to happen)] just as the council (saw fit). [The decree] is to be recorded [on a stone stele and set up] in the sanctuary; the [secretary ...] money [...].</p>
					</div>
	    		
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					
<p>Dieux. Proklès, fils d'Atarbos du dème d'Euonymon, était secrétaire, sous l'archontat d'Aristion. Il a plu au conseil et au peuple, sous la prytanie de la tribu Hippothontis, Proklès était secrétaire, [...] était président, Aristion était archonte; Hyper[bolos (?) a fait la proposition : (5) ...] au cours de la fête pentétérique (?) [... (4 lignes fragmentaires) ... (10) ...] sur l'agora [...] aux démotes [...] cent et [...] de la musique selon [...] (15) d'Héphaistos et d'Athéna [...] pour les Athéniens, d'où il faut prélever l'argent [...] que les hiéropes agissant en tant qu'hiéropes [...] tirer au sort par/de [...] un par tribu par/de [...]. Que les [...] organisent le tirage au sort avec ceux du conseil. Tirage au sort [... (20) ...] en présence (20) du conseil. Que ceux qui sont choisis par le sort soient rémunérés comme [...] qui s'occupent de cela. Que les kolakrètes leur (?) remettent [...]. Que le conseil désigne par le sort en son sein dix hommes comme hiéropes, [un de] chaque tribu. Seront donnés aux métèques trois boeufs dont [...] les hiéropes leur distribueront la viande crue. (25) Que les hiéropes prennent soin de la procession afin qu'elle soit menée [de la plus belle manière possible], et si quelqu'un perturbe l'ordre, qu'ils [aient l'autorité] d'imposer une amende jusqu'à 50 drachmes et de la transcrire à destination [...]. Si quelqu'un est passible d'une amende plus élevée, qu'ils majorent la peine [à leur estime] et qu'ils introduisent une procédure au tribunal de l'archonte. Chacun [conduira] les boeufs au son de la trompette jusqu'à l'autel. Les hommes qui [les] soulèveront [...] (30), que les hiéropes en choisissent deux cents parmi les Athéniens. Le/la [...] durant la fête pentétérique et les Hephaisteia. Que les hiéropes agissent afin que [...] la course aux flambeaux [est tenue et] l'autre concours se passe à la manière [...] d'un spectacle (?) [...] ils font. Quant au reste, s'il paraît bon [...] à Poséidon [...] que les hiéropes [...], et à Apollon [... (35) ...]. Les [...] choisis pour les Prometheia [...] qu'ils choisissent. [...]. L'autel pour Héphaistos [...] que le conseil accomplisse [...] de la manière qui lui [semble bonne ...] par jour, le dernier jour (?) [...] et de proclamer publiquement la manière dont [...] a été jugé [... (40) ...] les hiéropes et les compétiteurs. Ceux qui ont été sélectionnés (?) [...] de l'inscription des prix [...]. </p> 
					
<p>[... a fait la proposition. Les autres choses (interviendront)] selon (ce qui sied) au conseil. On inscrira [ce décret sur une stèle de pierre et l'érigera] dans le sanctuaire. Que le [secrétaire [...] argent [...].</p>

				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p>This decree regulates the celebration of a festival in honour of Hephaistos (cf. lines 15, 31, and 36). By 421, Hephaistos had a temple on the hill west of the Agora, and earlier literary sources mention torch-races in honour of Hephaistos (Hdt. 8.98.2, A. <title>Ag</title>. 279-314). Similarly, the ritual of bull-lifting was already associated with the god of crafts (cf. see lines 29-30). This inscription probably details the reorganization of an already existing festival, rather than instituting an entirely new one (see Wijma, p. 86-88; for another view, cf. Rosivach). For another decree from Athens, testifying to a revamping of the festival of Athena, cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_92/">CGRN 92</ref>. As part of this phase of the augmentation of the cult at the start of the Peace of Nikias, the decree moreover coincides with the start of work on the statues in the Hephaisteion (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG I³">IG I³</bibl> 472). The view that this inscription concerns the festival of the Hephaisteia has been challenged by Makres, who argues that it might have concerned the Theseia on the basis of the "demesmen" in line 12. As Makres points out, mention of the latter is unusual in a state decree but does occur in two sources concerning the Theseia (<bibl type="abbr" n="I.Eleusis">I.Eleusis</bibl> 85, lines 26-28, and <title>Ath. Pol.</title> 62.1).  However, "there is no reference to Theseus or the Theseia in the surviving text" (AIO, with further arguments supporting the "persuasive" common view that the text concerns the Hephaisteia).</p>
						
<p> The first fragmentary lines of the inscription are difficult to interpret. We can discern a reference to a "four-year festival" (line 6. cf. line 31), to an event happening "in the agora" (line 11), to the involvement of "demesmen" (line 12); to a number (line 13, perhaps that of the oxen to be sacrificed by the state), to "music" (line 14) and the gods Hephaistos and Athena (line 15). One may think of a procedure of meat distribution in the agora, possibly of a large number of animals (so Clerc; and cf. here <ref target="CGRN_19">CGRN 19</ref>, Face A, lines 19-21). Kotsidu connects the mention of the "agora" with the "music" in another way, while explaining that the musical contests of the Panathenaia were held in the Athenian agora.</p>
			
<p>The substance of the rest of the decree is somewhat more straightforward or intelligible. Lines 17-23 specify the procedure for the selection of <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> by lot: ten among an unknown group (line 18, formerly but misleadingly taken to be δ[ικα]σ̣το͂ν, "judges"; "donors", δ[ιδον]το͂ν, is the alternative suggestion of A.P. Matthaiou apud Makres); and ten from the members of the council; in both cases, one from each tribe. The tasks of these <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> included providing the metics with three oxen and then distributing to them the raw meat from these animals (lines 23-24). The <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> are also to conduct the procession in the most elegant manner possible and are given the power to fine small offenders, while larger offences are to be relegated to a court of justice (lines 24-28). The festivities also include leading an unknown number of oxen to the altar of Hephaistos, perhaps at the accompanying sound of a trumpet, and men are then to lift up the bulls (lines 28-30). The <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> are probably also in charge of the
organization of a torch-race, concerning which detailed provisions are given, though in a lengthy passage that is now unfortunately fragmentary, and that includes enigmatic references to Poseidon and Apollo, as well as the Promethia (lines 31-41). The inscribed text concludes with a rider on the decree passed and recorded in lines 1-41. This additional measure (lines 42-42) by the Athenian assembly confirms all of those proposed by the council earlier, and makes provisions for the inscribing and setting up of the stone, and most probably for its payment (lines 42-44).</p>
			
<p>Lines 15-16: Mattingly (1974) interpreted ἐξαιρεῖν as "to set aside" and considered the verb to refer to a special fund "reserved" for the cult of Athena and Hephaistos. Thompson's alternative interpretation, taking the phrase as a specification of the way in which the oxen for the metics (lines 23) are to be financed, gave the sense "from the fund from where it is necessary to take out money (to finance sacrifices)". However, Makres argues in favour of Mattingly's view, finding support for the fund of Hephaistos and Athena into which surplus silver was paid at <bibl type="abbr" n="GHI">GHI</bibl> 155, section 6, and the law of 354/3 BC relating to coinage (Richardson).</p>
		
<p>Lines 17-23: The selection of candidates for a particular task or function by lot was a widespread feature of 5th- and 4th-century Athenian democracy. Sortition was preferred to election in those cases in which humans could not or did not want to motivate the choice for a particular person, and instead the gods were thought to select the right candidate (cf. Aleshire and Blok - Lambert); cf. also here <ref target="CGRN_74">CGRN 74</ref>, line 2, with Commentary.</p>
		
<p>Lines 23-24: Three oxen are to be given to the metics, from which the meat is to be distributed raw. Here, the metics are consciously singled out as a group; contrast references to δεμότεσι (line 12) and Ἀθε[ν]α̣ίον (line 30). As Wijma has argued, the decree should be seen as reflecting the growing involvement of metics in the Athenian community from the mid-5th century onwards, which meant that their position should be acknowledged and at the same time demarcated. Many metics were involved in the extensive building program of Perikles. Accordingly, this group also became involved and honoured in a festival for the god of craftmanship. Note that this is the only Athenian festival at the polis level in which metics were explicitly included in the sacrifices (Wijma, p. 89). On the distribution of meat to metics on the sub-polis level, cf. an earlier regulation from the deme of the Skambonidai, <ref target="CGRN_19">CGRN 19</ref>, in which the Skambonidai themselves and the metics were to receive equal portions during a sacrifice to the hero Leos. It is unclear how we should assess the honour being bestowed on the metics by giving them three oxen, since we do not know exactly how many animals were provided to the Athenians during the sacrifice. However, the fact that the meat was to be distributed raw could be significant. The goal may have been to exclude the metics from the festive occasion of a communal banquet, requiring them to take the raw meat away to be consumed elsewhere. As such the regulation would then have had the opposite effect of the often-occurring "οὐ φορά" rule, which strengthened the bonds between the members of a cultic group through an obligatory shared meal on the spot (cf. again Wijma); for οὐ φορά and similar instructions, cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_52/">CGRN 52</ref> (Erchia), <foreign>passim</foreign>, and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32/">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), Commentary on lines 10-12.</p>
		
<p>Lines 25-28: The <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> are given the legal capacity to punish disorderly behaviour during the festival, but only up to a certain point (a fine of up to 50 drachmae). For comparable cases of personnel being granted the authority to sanction transgressors up to a certain level, cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_75/">CGRN 75</ref> (Oropos), lines 6-20; for similar fines in this context, cp. <ref target="CGRN_186">CGRN 186</ref> (Ilion), lines 30-32.</p>
		
<p>Lines 28-29: If this is the correct scenario to be envisaged, there would appear to be no direct parallel for the oxen being led to the altar to the sound of a trumpet. Contrast perhaps <ref target="CGRN_10">CGRN 10</ref> (Gortyn), line 9: an interdiction of sounding the trumpet in a festival context.</p>

<p>Lines 29-30: As reconsidered by Makres, one possible restoration would involve the lifting of the oxen on the participants shoulders: ἐ̣[π᾽ ὄμον]; but, as Makres avers, the trace of an epsilon and the overall reconstruction of the text remain quite uncertain. Nevertheless, the type of ritual is assured: cf. Van Straten, p. 109-113, for a diachronic discussion of festive occasions during which bulls or oxen were lifted. A cup from around 500 BC depicts the lifting of a bull or an ox by five youths, as well as Hephaistos; thus, according to the convincing interpretation of Van Straten (p. 112), this cup illustrates a festival in honour of Hephaistos. We do not know how many oxen were involved and it is not clear how many of the probably 200 Athenian men would be needed to lift each individual bull. For bull- or ox-lifting, cf. also here <ref target="CGRN_26">CGRN 26</ref> (Athens), face A, line 17.</p>
		
<p>Lines 31-36: Several festivals or specific occasions mentioned in this highly fragmentary passage elude a definite understanding. The perhaps repeated reference (cf. line 6) to a penteteris (quadrennial celebration) lacks any context, but may suggest a connection with the Hephaistia (the word has no obvious connection with the Panathenaia, as has sometimes been argued). AIO considers the possibility of a "Great Hephaistia", though it is carefully added that "no such quadrennial festival is ... mentioned by <title>Ath. Pol.</title> 54.7; it is possible that arrangements made now [i.e. at the time of this decree] did not endure". The <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> selected by lot were also to organize a torch-race and "another contest" as part of the festival. In this context, we also find an allusion to the Promethia, which may have served as a point of reference here. Indeed, the Promethia is an obscure festival known only for its torch-races which were organised by tribe (Lys. 21.3, Isae. 7.36). Additional sacrifices perhaps needed to be made to Poseidon and Apollo (line 34; Makres views a connection of these gods with the Theseia as more likely: see above).</p> 

<p>Lines 36-43: The kind of action to be performed "as it [seems right] to the council [...]" eludes us, though it apparently concerned the altar consecrated to Hephaistos. The following lines refer to occasions during which the victors are proclaimed and prizes are awarded, presumably the torch-race and the contest mentioned earlier (see lines 31-36, above).</p>

<p>Lines 42-44: The rider of the Athenian assembly is principally concerned with the inscribing the decree itself. As we are informed, this was to take take place "in the sanctuary", i.e. the sanctuary of the relevant deity, in this case probably the Hephaisteion. While many decrees were set up on the Acropolis, those relating to specific cults were commonly set up in the relevant sanctuary. See Makres for further details about the provenance of the stone and its parallels. Along with a few other texts relating to the cult of Hephaistos (e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I³">IG I³</bibl> 472), it may have moved from an original location near the Hephaisteion, yet remained in the general area to the north of the Acropolis.</p> 	
					</div>
			</body>
    	</text>
	</TEI>