CGRN 33

Small sacrificial regulation for the Anakeion at Elateia

Date :

end of 5th century BC

Justification: letterforms (Dittenberger)

Provenance

Elateia ). Found in the village of Sfaka near Drachmani. Now in the Museum in Drachmani.

Support

Large stone block, perhaps a boundary stone.

  • Height: 90 cm
  • Width: 50 cm
  • Depth: 22 cm

Layout

Letters: unknown height.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Dittenberger IG IX.1 129.

Other edition: Foucart 1884.

Cf. also: Ziehen LGS II 79; Sokolowski LSCG 82.

Further bibliography: Bilco 1884; Roberts - Gardner IGE 229bis; Detienne 1979; Cole 1992; Osborne 1993; Dillon 2002; Blok 2005.

Text


ἐν το̑ι ϝα-
νακείοι

θύοντα
σκανε̑ν·
5 γυναῖκα
μὲ παρίμε[ν].

Translation

In the sanctuary of the Anakes, the one who sacrifices may put up a tent. A woman cannot enter.

Traduction

Dans le sanctuaire des Anakes, celui qui sacrifie peut dresser une tente. Une femme ne peut pas entrer.

Commentary

This text (which may have been a boundary stone) contains short regulations abour behaviour in and entrance to the sanctuary.

Lines 1-2: Various temples of the Anakes ("Lords") are attested in Athens and in Epidauros. For the references, LSJ s.v. Ἀνάκειον. For sacrifice to the Anakes in the present in the present Collection cf. CGRN 32 (Thorikos), line 37.

Lines 3-4: "The one who sacrifices" (θύοντα σκανε̑̄ν... τὸν θύοντα) should probably be taken as the subject accusative of an accusative with infinitive construction. The meaning of the infinitive σκανε̑̄ν is unclear. σκανε̑̄ν is a variant of σκανοῦν, 'to put up a tent'. Ziehen takes the infinitive in an imperatival sense and has argued that σκανέω refers to setting up a tent for the post-sacrificial meal, and the rule thus in fact prescribes consumption 'on the spot'. Ziehen adduces a law from Kos (LSCG 168, line 1) in which worshippers are urged to 'sacrifice and set up a tent' ([θ]υέτω δὲ καὶ σκανοπαγείσθω). Perhaps we should take the verb as referring to (facultative) 'camping' (staying the night). In this reading (Bilco, Roberts - Gardner) we should translate 'the one who sacrifices may put up a tent in the sanctuary of the Anakes' (as opposed to other visitors). For a discussion of restrictions on camping in sanctuary space: Dillon, p. 123-124. Cf. CGRN 129 (Patara), lines 6-8, where only those offering a sacrifice are allowed to camp in the sanctuary.

Lines 5-6: For γυναῖκα με̄̀ παρίμεν, cf. LSJ s.v. πάρειμι (εἶμι) III. This is one of the cases in which women are forbidden entrance as a group. Such cases occur infrequently and are discussed in some detail by Cole and Osborne. Cole (p. 105) provides a list of eight similar cases, ranging from the 5th to the 2nd century BC. In some of these, the entrance of women is framed as being against the religious norm (οὐ θέμις, e.g. CGRN 27, Thasos, lines 3-4, or οὐκ ὀσία, e.g. CGRN 62, Lindos). We do not know precisely what these inscriptions prohibit, but because of their general focus on aspects of the sacrificial ritual, it is likely that they concern women’s participation in sacrifice. The status of such prohibitions against women is a matter of ongoing scholarly debate. For Detienne, p.131, women were always excluded in these contexts, and sacred laws explicitly prescribing such exclusions made a point of emphasizing (for some reason) what was anyway expected. Alternatively, women were normally included, and these inscriptions represent the exceptional case; casuistic prohitibitions against women were restricted to individual cults with particular rules of (and reasons for) exclusion (e.g. Dillon, p. 338; Blok, p. 133).

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 33, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 33, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/33/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2017]).

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	    			<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 33</idno>: Small <rs type="textType" key="sacrificial regulation">sacrificial regulation</rs> for the Anakeion at Elateia</title> 
	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
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							<p><origDate notBefore="-0425" notAfter="-0400">end of 5th century BC</origDate></p>
							
							<p><desc>Justification: letterforms (Dittenberger)</desc></p>
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		<placeName type="ancientFindspot" key="Elateia" n="Central_and_Northern_Greece"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/540755" type="external">Elateia</ref></placeName>). Found in the village of Sfaka near Drachmani. Now in the Museum in Drachmani.
	
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	    			<head>Bibliography</head>
	    			
	    			<p> Edition here based on Dittenberger <bibl type="abbr" n="IG IX.1">IG IX.1</bibl> 129. </p>
	    			<p> Other edition: <bibl type="author_date" n="Foucart 1884">Foucart 1884</bibl>. </p>
	    			<p> Cf. also:
	    				Ziehen <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS II">LGS II</bibl> 79; 
	    				Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 82. </p> 
	    			<p> Further bibliography: 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Bilco 1884">Bilco 1884</bibl>; 
	    				Roberts - Gardner <bibl type="abbr" n="IGE">IGE</bibl> 229bis;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Detienne 1979">Detienne 1979</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Cole 1992">Cole 1992</bibl>; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Osborne 1993">Osborne 1993</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Dillon 2002">Dillon 2002</bibl>;
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Blok 2005">Blok 2005</bibl>.
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					<head>Text</head>
	    				
	    			<ab>
	
	    				<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> το̑ι <name type="structure"><w lemma="Ἀνάκειον">ϝα
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" break="no"/> νακείοι</w></name>
	    				
	    				<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύοντα</w></name>
	    				
	    				<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/> <w lemma="σκηνέω">σκανε̑ν</w>·
	    				
	    				<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/> <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυναῖκα</w></name>
	    				
	    				<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/> <w lemma="μή">μὲ</w> <w lemma="πάρειμι">παρίμε<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>.</w>
	    				
	    
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					<head>Translation</head>
					<p>In the sanctuary of the Anakes, the one who sacrifices may put up a tent. A woman cannot enter.</p>
					</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>Dans le sanctuaire des Anakes, celui qui sacrifie peut dresser une tente. Une femme ne peut pas entrer.</p>
				
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					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    

<p> This text (which may have been a boundary stone) contains short regulations abour behaviour in and entrance to the sanctuary.</p> 
	
<p> Lines 1-2: Various temples of the Anakes ("Lords") are attested in Athens and in Epidauros. For the references, <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. Ἀνάκειον. For sacrifice to the Anakes in the present in the present Collection cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32/">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), line 37.</p>  
		
<p>Lines 3-4: "The one who sacrifices" (θύοντα σκανε̑̄ν... τὸν θύοντα) should probably be taken as the subject accusative of an accusative with infinitive construction. The meaning of the infinitive σκανε̑̄ν is unclear. σκανε̑̄ν is a variant of σκανοῦν, 'to put up a tent'. Ziehen takes the infinitive in an imperatival sense and has argued that σκανέω refers to setting up a tent for the post-sacrificial meal, and the rule thus in fact prescribes consumption 'on the spot'. Ziehen adduces a law from Kos (<bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 168, line 1) in which worshippers are urged to 'sacrifice and set up a tent' ([θ]υέτω δὲ καὶ σκανοπαγείσθω). Perhaps we should take the verb as referring to (facultative) 'camping' (staying the night). In this reading (Bilco, Roberts - Gardner) we should translate 'the one who sacrifices may put up a tent in the sanctuary of the Anakes' (as opposed to other visitors). For a discussion of restrictions on camping in sanctuary space: Dillon, p. 123-124. Cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_129/">CGRN 129</ref> (Patara), lines 6-8, where only those offering a sacrifice are allowed to camp in the sanctuary.</p>
								
<p>Lines 5-6: For γυναῖκα με̄̀ παρίμεν, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. πάρειμι (εἶμι) III. This is one of the cases in which women are forbidden entrance as a group. Such cases occur infrequently and are discussed in some detail by Cole and Osborne. Cole (p. 105) provides a list of eight similar cases, ranging from the 5th to the 2nd century BC. In some of these, the entrance of women is framed as being against the religious norm (οὐ θέμις, e.g. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_27/">CGRN 27</ref>, Thasos, lines 3-4, or οὐκ ὀσία, e.g. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_62/">CGRN 62</ref>, Lindos). We do not know precisely what these inscriptions prohibit, but because of their general focus on aspects of the sacrificial ritual, it is likely that they concern women’s participation in sacrifice. The status of such prohibitions against women is a matter of ongoing scholarly debate. For Detienne, p.131,  women were always excluded in these contexts, and sacred laws explicitly prescribing such exclusions made a point of emphasizing (for some reason) what was anyway expected. Alternatively, women were normally included, and these inscriptions represent the exceptional case; casuistic prohitibitions against women were restricted to individual cults with particular rules of (and reasons for) exclusion (e.g. Dillon, p. 338; Blok, p. 133).</p>
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