CGRN 226

Sacrificial regulation for Aphrodite from the Rhodian Peraia

Date :

1st-2nd century AD

Justification: lettering (Fraser - Bean: "Roman period").

Provenance

Near Tymnos . The stone was found by G.E. Bean in 1948 at Kızılköy, east of the ancient site of Tymnos (Selimiye?). The inscription was found in "the ruins of an ancient building", on a terrace supported by a wall of Hellenistic masonry, which was located below the acropolis called Asarcık and to the east (see Fraser - Bean; contra Sokolowski, supposing that the stone was transported from Rhodes; this idea is rightly rejected by Bresson and Blümel). Current location unknown.

Support

Stone block. Left side of the stone broken. Exact type of support unknown. No dimensions given by Fraser - Bean.

    Layout

    Letters: 2.7-3.3 cm high.

    Bibliography

    Edition here based on Fraser - Bean 1954: 43 no. 39. There are no textual problems.

    Cf. also: SEG 14, 715; Sokolowski LSS 110; Bresson I.Pér.Rhod. 65; Blümel I.Peraia 292.

    Further bibliography: Segre 1951; Badoud 2015; Iversen 2017; Carbon forthc.

    Text


    [Ἀφ]ροδίτας· Καρνείου
    [ἰκά]δι ἄρναἔριφον καὶ
    [Ἀγ]ριανίου ἕκται ἱσταμέ-
    [νο]υ
    βοῦν καὶ ἐρίφους δύο.

    Translation

    (Altar?) of Aphrodite: on the 20th of Karneios, a lamb or a kid; and on the 6th of Agrianios, a bovine and two kids.

    Traduction

    (Autel ?) d’Aphrodite : le 20 Karneios, un agneau ou un chevreau; et le 6 Agrianios, un bovin et deux chevreaux.

    Commentary

    The text sets out the offerings to be made to Aphrodite on two specific occasions. The inscription is perhaps based on an extract from a sacrificial calendar: there are many such extracts to be found at different sites across the island of Rhodes, which were inscribed presumably as a reminder at the relevant cult-site; compare for example CGRN 62 and CGRN 63, both from Lindos (the earliest such examples from Rhodes), and CGRN 110 from Kamiros (on these texts, see Segre and Carbon). In the reconstruction of the Rhodian sacrificial calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here, Karneios was the third month (October/November) and Agrianios the tenth (May/June; for different views, see Iversen).

    Line 1: The genitive [Ἀφ]ροδίτας which begins the inscription probably designates the altar or cult place of the deity to be honoured (for similar inscriptions starting with a deity’s name in the genitive, see e.g. CGRN 11, Thalamai, CGRN 58, Thera, and CGRN 153, Kamiros). Regrettably, however, no further details about the block are known, and so any identification of the support must remain elusive. At any rate, the site on the terrace may have been a local sanctuary of the goddess in this area of the Rhodian Peraia, which was perhaps part of the territory of Tymnos (a deme of Kamiros, still in the Imperial period), though this remains debated (see Blümel, placing Kızılköy as perhaps belonging to the place called Hydai or Hydas). Little can be said about the characteristics of Aphrodite who was worshipped here without an epithet (for Aphrodite in Asia Minor, cf. e.g. CGRN 233, Aphrodisias; a sanctuary and priesthood of Aphrodite are also known in Rhodes, cf. NSER 12, etc.).

    Lines 1-2: The sacrifice on the 20th of Karneios—a date otherwise unknown in the Rhodian calendar—allows for a choice between a lamb or a kid. This might suggest that, on this occasion, the emphasis lay on the young age of the sacrificial animal, rather than on its precise species. Sacrifices of goats to Aphrodite are common (see e.g. CGRN 83, Miletupolis, line 6, CGRN 131, Halasarna, line 3, and CGRN 146, Phyxa, line 3). Sheep, however, are more rare: in our collection, this inscription is in fact the only occurrence of a sheep that could be sacrificed to Aphrodite.

    Lines 3-4: The sacrifice on the 6th of Agrianios specifies an ox and two kids. The sacrifice of multiple animals—whether or not of the same species—to a single deity at a particular occasion is relatively frequent, but nonetheless points to an occasion of a certain magnitude. However, the date is otherwise unknown and the (local? Rhodian?) importance of this celebration for Aphrodite cannot be evaluated. The combination of animals from the bovine and the caprine species is also relatively rare: see CGRN 83, line 11 (Apollo Karneios at Miletupolis); ID 440, line 60 (Poseidon on Delos).

    Publication

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

    All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN226), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

    Authors

    • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
    • Julien Dechevez
    • Elie Piette
    • Zoé Pitz
    • Rebecca Van Hove

    How To Cite

    Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 226, lines x-x.

    Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Julien Dechevez, Elie Piette, Zoé Pitz et Rebecca Van Hove, "CGRN 226: Sacrificial regulation for Aphrodite from the Rhodian Peraia", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on November 27, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/226/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN226.

    Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on November 27, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

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    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
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    				<author>Elie Piette</author>
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    				<author>Rebecca Van Hove</author>
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    								<desc>Justification: lettering (Fraser - Bean: "Roman period").</desc>
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    			<head>Bibliography</head>
    	<p>Edition here based on <bibl type="author_date" n="Fraser - Bean 1954">Fraser - Bean 1954</bibl>: 43 no. 39. There are no textual problems.</p>
    				
    	<p>Cf. also: <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 14, 715; 
    			Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 110; 
    			Bresson <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Pér.Rhod.">I.Pér.Rhod.</bibl> 65; 
    			Blümel <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Peraia">I.Peraia</bibl> 292.</p>
    				
    	<p>Further bibliography: 
    		<bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>; 
    		<bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud_2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>; 
    		<bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen_2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>; 
    		<bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl></p>
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    				<ab>
    					
    <lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="deity" key="Aphrodite"><w lemma="Ἀφροδίτη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀφ</supplied>ροδίτας</w></name>· <name type="month"><w lemma="Κάρνειος">Καρνείου</w></name> 
    					
    <lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><w lemma="ἰκάς"><supplied reason="lost">ἰκά</supplied>δι</w> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><name type="age"><w lemma="ἀρήν">ἄρνα</w></name></name> ἢ <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"> <w lemma="ἔριφος">ἔριφον</w></name></name> καὶ 
    					
    <lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Ἀγριάνιος"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀγ</supplied>ρ<unclear>ι</unclear>ανίου</w></name> <w lemma="ἕκτος">ἕκται</w> <w lemma="ἵστημι">ἱσταμέ 
    
    <lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">νο</supplied>υ</w> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦν</w></name> καὶ <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><w lemma="ἔριφος">ἐρίφους</w></name></name> <w lemma="δύο">δύο</w>. </ab>
    				
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    <p>(Altar?) of Aphrodite: on the 20th of Karneios, a lamb or a kid; and on the 6th of Agrianios, a bovine and two kids.</p>
    				
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    		<head>Traduction </head> 
    				
    <p>(Autel ?) d’Aphrodite : le 20 Karneios, un agneau ou un chevreau; et le 6 Agrianios, un bovin et deux chevreaux.</p>
    				
    			</div>
    			<div type="commentary"> 
    				<head>Commentary</head> <p/> 
    				
    
    <p>The text sets out the offerings to be made to Aphrodite on two specific occasions. The inscription is perhaps based on an extract from a sacrificial calendar: there are many such extracts to be found at different sites across the island of Rhodes, which were inscribed presumably as a reminder at the relevant cult-site; compare for example <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_63">CGRN 63</ref>, both from Lindos (the earliest such examples from Rhodes), and <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref> from Kamiros (on these texts, see Segre and Carbon). In the reconstruction of the Rhodian sacrificial calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here, Karneios was the third month (October/November) and Agrianios the tenth (May/June; for different views, see Iversen). </p>
    
    <p>Line 1: The genitive [Ἀφ]ροδίτας which begins the inscription probably designates the altar or cult place of the deity to be honoured (for similar inscriptions starting with a deity’s name in the genitive, see e.g. <ref target="CGRN_11">CGRN 11</ref>, Thalamai, <ref target="CGRN_58">CGRN 58</ref>, Thera, and <ref target="CGRN_153">CGRN 153</ref>, Kamiros). Regrettably, however, no further details about the block are known, and so any identification of the support must remain elusive. At any rate, the site on the terrace may have been a local sanctuary of the goddess in this area of the Rhodian Peraia, which was perhaps part of the territory of Tymnos (a deme of Kamiros, still in the Imperial period), though this remains debated (see Blümel, placing Kızılköy as perhaps belonging to the place called Hydai or Hydas). Little can be said about the characteristics of Aphrodite who was worshipped here without an epithet (for Aphrodite in Asia Minor, cf. e.g. <ref target="CGRN_233">CGRN 233</ref>, Aphrodisias; a sanctuary and priesthood of Aphrodite are also known in Rhodes, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="NSER">NSER</bibl> 12, etc.).</p>
    				
    <p>Lines 1-2: The sacrifice on the 20th of Karneios—a date otherwise unknown in the Rhodian calendar—allows for a choice between a lamb or a kid. This might suggest that, on this occasion, the emphasis lay on the young age of the sacrificial animal, rather than on its precise species. Sacrifices of goats to Aphrodite are common (see e.g. <ref target="CGRN_83">CGRN 83</ref>, Miletupolis, line 6, <ref target="CGRN_131">CGRN 131</ref>, Halasarna, line 3, and <ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref>, Phyxa, line 3). Sheep, however, are more rare: in our collection, this inscription is in fact the only occurrence of a sheep that could be sacrificed to Aphrodite. </p>  
    				
    <p>Lines 3-4: The sacrifice on the 6th of Agrianios specifies an ox and two kids. The sacrifice of multiple animals—whether or not of the same species—to a single deity at a particular occasion is relatively frequent, but nonetheless points to an occasion of a certain magnitude. However, the date is otherwise unknown and the (local? Rhodian?) importance of this celebration for Aphrodite cannot be evaluated. The combination of animals from the bovine and the caprine species is also relatively rare: see <ref target="CGRN_83">CGRN 83</ref>, line 11 (Apollo Karneios at Miletupolis); <bibl type="abbr" n="ID">ID</bibl> 440, line 60 (Poseidon on Delos). </p>  
    				
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