CGRN 117

Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Lindos (concerning Helios)

Date :

ca. 300-200 BC

Justification: early to mid-Hellenistic lettering.

Provenance

Lindos , area of Netteia. Found in a field near the village of Apolloniaka. Now thought lost.

Support

Small stele of Lartian marble, apparently quite intact. No measurements known.

    Layout

    Letters: unknown height. Hiller von Gaertringen notes that the letters have been negligently inscribed, with several mistakes in lines 6-9.

    Bibliography

    Edition here based on Hiller von Gaertringen IG XII.1 892, with p. 207 and dr. The readings and interpretation of lines 6-7 are those of Sokolowski; lines 8-9 remain particularly unclear.

    Cf. also: Sokolowski LSCG 142.

    Further bibliography: Segre 1951; Carbon forthc.

    Text


    vacat
    Λάκων·
    Ὑακινθίου
    τετράδι ἐπὶ δέ-
    κα
    Ἁλίωι ἔριφον
    5λευκὸνπυρ-
    ρὸν
    · αὐ{Σ}τεῖ κα-
    ταχροῦνται
    ·
    θύεται ΠΑΤΡΕ-
    ΩΝΙΑΥΤΟΝ
    . vacat

    Translation

    Of the Lakoi (?). On the 14th of Hyakinthios, to Helios (5) a white or tawny kid; consumed on the spot. It is sacrificed by (unclear).

    Traduction

    Des Lakoi (?). Le 14 Hyakinthios, à Hélios un chevreau (5) blanc ou fauve; il est consommé sur place. Il est sacrifié par (texte obscur).

    Commentary

    The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. the closely parallel CGRN 62 and CGRN 63, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Lindos itself. See e.g. CGRN 115 for further examples from Lindos; e.g. CGRN 110 for others from Kamiros. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc.

    Though the context and precise findspot of the excerpt remain unknown, there are some elements within the text itself which may help to elucidate it. The excerpt is prefaced by a tribal or other identification: Λάκων. This group (nom. Lakoi?) is not otherwise known, but is very likely to be identified as one of the subcivic groups at Lindos. If the reading at the end of line 8 and the beginning of line 9 is taken at face value, it would identify this group as some sort of πάτρα. An excerpt of the calendar from Ialysos belongs to the deme of the Pontoreis and is prefaced by a similar identification: CGRN 154 (another probable excerpt from the calendar is now missing the identification of the relevant tribe at Lindos: CGRN 141). That being said, lines 8-9 remain obscure and may be hopelessly corrupt. As in the above cited text from Lindos, one might have expected a member of the patra to offer the sacrifices, but the forms πατρέων, or πατρεῶν (gen. pl.?) are unexpected (the usual form for a member of a πάτρα is πατριωτής, cf. e.g. Tit.Cam. 159a). The trace of an iota, together with the accusative αὐτόν (or: τ̣αὐτόν, the same man?) present an unsolvable problem. Accordingly, various editors have sought other interpretations of these corrupt lines; for instance, Hiller von Gaertringen additionally suggests θύ[ει Δι]ὶ Πατρ[ώι]ω[ι] τ̣αὐτόν, which takes us rather far away from the preserved readings and is still not a good match for the passive θύεται.

    Lines 5-6: Helios was a singularly important deity on Rhodes. The choice in the colour of the kid offered to Helios directly parallels the same option which is provided in the sacrifices to Helios at Kamiros: CGRN 110, line 4, though there more substantial oxen are offered at different times of the year. Here, the precise occasion of the 14th of Hyakinthios is unknown, but rather appropriately falls in the summertime. In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen), Hyakinthios was the 11th month (ca. June/July). The local context (a patra? see above) appropriately matches the smaller scale of the offering. Blackness is sometimes emphasised in certain sacrifices (cf. here CGRN 32, line 34, from Thorikos). Here, by contrast, the underlying notion of the colour choice seems the concern to offer an animal with a light and non-black appearance, which aptly echoes the brightness which is a quality of the Sun god.

    Lines 6-7: For sacrifices consumed "on the spot", cf. other excerpts from the sacrificial calendar on Rhodes, particularly CGRN 62 (Lindos), line 5 (the expression there is: αὐτεῖ καταχρεῖσθα[ι]).

    Publication

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

    All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

    Authors

    • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
    • Saskia Peels

    Project Director

    Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

    How To Cite

    CGRN 117, l. x-x.

    Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
    CGRN 117, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/117/).

    The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
    J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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    	    			<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 117</idno>: Excerpt from the <rs type="textType" key="sacrificial calendar">sacrificial calendar</rs> at Lindos (concerning Helios)</title>
    	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
    	    				<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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    					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
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    						<p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p>	
    						<p>All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/">http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/</ref> and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).</p>
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    			<supportDesc><support><p>Small <rs type="objectType">stele</rs> of Lartian marble, apparently quite intact.
    				No measurements known.</p>
    				<p><dimensions>
    				</dimensions></p>
    			</support>
    			</supportDesc>
    			<layoutDesc><layout><p>Letters: <height unit="mm">unknown</height>. Hiller von Gaertringen notes that the letters have been negligently inscribed, with several mistakes in lines 6-9.</p>
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    	<history>
    		<origin>
    			<p><origDate notBefore="-0300" notAfter="-0200">ca. 300-200 BC</origDate></p>
    			<p><desc>Justification: early to mid-Hellenistic lettering.</desc></p>
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    		<provenance><p><placeName type="ancientFindspot" key="Lindos" n="Aegean_Islands"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/589913" type="external">Lindos</ref></placeName>, area of Netteia. Found in a field near the village of Apolloniaka. Now thought lost.</p>  
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    				<div type="bibliography">
    					<head>Bibliography</head>
    					<p>Edition here based on Hiller von Gaertringen <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.1">IG XII.1</bibl> 892, with p. 207 and dr.
    					The readings and interpretation of lines 6-7 are those of Sokolowski; lines 8-9 remain particularly unclear.</p>
    				    <p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 142.</p>
    					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl></p>
    				</div>
    	    			<div type="edition">
    	    				<head>Text</head>
    	    				<ab>
    	    				<lb/><space extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
    	    					
    <lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="ethnic" key="Lakoi"><w lemma="Λάκοι">Λάκων</w></name>·
    	    				
    <lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Ὑακίνθιος">Ὑακινθίου</w></name>
    	    					
    <lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><w lemma="τετράς">τετράδι</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> <w lemma="δέκα">δέ
    	    					
    <lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/>κα</w> <name type="deity"><w lemma="ἥλιος">Ἁλίωι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><name type="gender"><w lemma="ἔριφος">ἔριφον</w></name></name></name>
    	    					
    <lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="colour1"><w lemma="λευκός">λευκὸν</w></name> ἢ <name type="colour1"><w lemma="πυρρός">πυρ
    	    					
    <lb xml:id="line_6" n="6" break="no"/>ρὸν</w></name>· <w lemma="αὐτεῖ">αὐ<surplus>Σ</surplus>τεῖ</w> <name type="meal"><w lemma="καταχράομαι">κα
    	    				
    <lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/>ταχροῦνται</w></name>·
    	
    <lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύεται</w></name> <orig>ΠΑΤΡΕ
    	    					
    <lb xml:id="line_9" n="9" break="no"/>ΩΝΙΑΥΤΟΝ</orig>. <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
    	
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    					<head>Translation</head>
    					<p>
    					Of the Lakoi (?). On the 14th of Hyakinthios, to Helios (5) a white or tawny kid; consumed on the spot. It is sacrificed by (unclear).
    					</p>
    				</div>
    				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
    					<head>Traduction</head>
    					<p>
    				Des Lakoi (?). Le 14 Hyakinthios, à Hélios un chevreau (5) blanc ou fauve; il est consommé sur place. Il est sacrifié par (texte obscur).
    					</p>
    				</div>
    					<div type="commentary">    
    						<head>Commentary</head>    
    
    						
    <p>The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. the closely parallel <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_63">CGRN 63</ref>, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Lindos itself. See e.g. <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> for further examples from Lindos; e.g. <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref> for others from Kamiros. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc.</p>
    						
    <p>Though the context and precise findspot of the excerpt remain unknown, there are some elements within the text itself which may help to elucidate it. The excerpt is prefaced by a tribal or other identification: Λάκων. This group (nom. Lakoi?) is not otherwise known, but is very likely to be identified as one of the subcivic groups at Lindos. If the reading at the end of line 8 and the beginning of line 9 is taken at face value, it would identify this group as some sort of πάτρα. An excerpt of the calendar from Ialysos belongs to the deme of the Pontoreis and is prefaced by a similar identification: <ref target="CGRN_154">CGRN 154</ref> (another probable excerpt from the calendar is now missing the identification of the relevant tribe at Lindos: <ref target="CGRN_141">CGRN 141</ref>). That being said, lines 8-9 remain obscure and may be hopelessly corrupt. As in the above cited text from Lindos, one might have expected a member of the <foreign>patra</foreign> to offer the sacrifices,
    but the forms πατρέων, or πατρεῶν (gen. pl.?) are unexpected (the usual form for a member of a πάτρα is πατριωτής, cf. e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 159a). The trace of an <foreign>iota</foreign>, together with the accusative αὐτόν (or: τ̣αὐτόν, the same man?) present an unsolvable problem. Accordingly, various editors have sought other interpretations of these corrupt lines; for instance, Hiller von Gaertringen additionally suggests θύ[ει Δι]ὶ Πατρ[ώι]ω[ι] τ̣αὐτόν, which takes us rather far away from the preserved readings and is still not a good match for the passive θύεται.</p>
    			
    <p>Lines 5-6: Helios was a singularly important deity on Rhodes. The choice in the colour of the kid offered to Helios directly parallels the same option which is provided in the sacrifices to Helios at Kamiros: <ref target="CGRN_110">CGRN 110</ref>, line 4, though there more substantial oxen are offered at different times of the year. Here, the precise occasion of the 14th of Hyakinthios is unknown, but rather appropriately falls in the summertime. In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen), Hyakinthios was the 11th month (ca. June/July).  The local context (a <foreign>patra</foreign>? see above) appropriately matches the smaller scale of the offering. Blackness is sometimes emphasised in certain sacrifices (cf. here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32/">CGRN 32</ref>, line 34, from Thorikos). Here, by contrast, the underlying notion of the colour choice seems the concern to offer an animal with a light and non-black appearance, which aptly echoes the brightness which is a quality of the Sun god.</p>
    	
    <p>Lines 6-7: For sacrifices consumed "on the spot", cf. other excerpts from the sacrificial calendar on Rhodes, particularly <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> (Lindos), line 5 (the expression there is: αὐτεῖ καταχρεῖσθα[ι]).
    							
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