CGRN 1

Fragments of two texts relating to the sacrificial calendar of Corinth

Date :

Text A: ca. 585-570 BC
Text B: ca. 585-500 BC

Justification: lettering, cf. Jeffery LSAG, p. 114-132; see also Provenance and Commentary for the terminus ante quem of ca. 570 BC.

Provenance

Corinth, temple of Apollo . The fragments of the stone block (Text A) were found at the southeast (fr. a-b, 1898) and north (fr. c-d, 1970) of the temple on Temple Hill (see Iversen - Laing for full details), together with fill that contained the Late Geometric Temple's burned roof tiles (ca. 570 BC). The material is the same as the regular blocks of the 7th century BC temple itself (see further Commentary below). Fr. c-d in particular were founded heavily burned, as a result of the destruction of the temple. The two fragments of the lead tablet (Text B) were found in trench 5 on the eastern side of Temple Hill in 1975. All of the fragments are now in the Museum of Corinth; Text A: inv. no. I-1 and I-1970-4; Text B: inv. no. MF-1975-86.

Support

Two different but probably related inscriptions, Text A and Text B, on two different monuments or supports are included under this entry. For a fuller description of these texts than is possible here, cf. Iversen - Laing 2021.

Text A

Four different fragments of a block of pale brown poros, comprised of two joining pairs (fr. a-b and fr. c-d). Fr. a-b preserve the upper edge as well as two contiguous faces of the stele; fr. c-d form a very fragmentary section which is broken on all sides and is not reprised here.

Text B

Two joining fragments of a lead tablet.

Text A, fr. a-b

  • Height: 25 cm
  • Width: 19 cm
  • Depth: 10 cm

Text B

  • Height: 5.6 cm
  • Width: 5.9 cm
  • Depth: 0.1 cm

Layout

Both texts A and B are inscribed boustrophedon with Archaic Corinthian letters (e.g. three-bar iota; in Text A, line 3, the last letter is now identified as a san; in Text B, line 2, we notably find a Corinthian beta). On Text A, the letters were originally painted in a red colour, which was observable at the time of discovery but has now faded. The lines are divided by faint incised guidelines. On Text B, the lines are defined by guidelines as in the text on stone (A). There are traces of two nail holes to affix the tablet.

Letter measurements:

Text A: 3-6.3 cm high

Text B: 1.2-1.4 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based Iversen - Laing 2021: 119-126, nos. 1-2, with ph. We print only the two most significant parts of this sacrificial calendar. Text A: no. 1, fr. a-b, Face A; Text B: no. 2.

Text A:

Other editions: Fraenkel IG IV 1597; Meritt Corinth VIII.1 1; Dow 1942.

Cf. also Jeffery LSAG, p. 114-132, 404, pl. 20 no. 18, 440; Robertson 1982: 340-342; Bookidis - Stroud 2004: 409-410; Lupu NGSL, p. 65-66; Iversen 2017: esp. 130, 156.

Online record: cf. Jeffery's notes and photographs found on the Poinikastas  website, with ref. no. 131.18.

Text B:

Cf. also Iversen 2017: esp. 160 (e).

See also following preliminary mentions and illustrations: Robinson 1975: 61; Aupert 1976: 600-601, fig. 28; Jordan 1980: 228 n. 13; Bookidis - Stroud 2004: 409-410; Robertson 2010: 32-33.

Text

Text A
Φοινικ[αίο ..?..]
[..?.. τ]ρε̑ς χο-
ρος
[..?..]
[..?..]
Text B
[..?..]
ΡΙΑ+[..?..]
[..?.. Ἀθάναι Πολ]ίαδι β-
ο̑ν
[⁞] hε[..?..]
[..?..]vacat

Translation

Text A

(In the month) Phoinikaios [... (to unknown deity)], three piglets [...]

Text B

[...] to [Athena] Polias a bovine; [...]

Traduction

Texte A

(Au mois de) Phonikaios [... (à telle divinité)], trois porcelets [...]

Texte B

[...] à [Athéna] Polias un bovin; [...]

Commentary

These are two fragmentary public documents relating to the sacrifical calendar of Corinth. It is not certain whether the two texts belong together, though their date, findspots, and content suggest at least a degree of parallelism. Whether taken together or individually, the texts probably constitute the earliest inscribed ritual norm in this collection (yet see the doubtful NGSL 6, from Tiryns, late 7th - early 6th century BC). Text A is certainly the earliest sacrificial calendar to have so far come to light: it was probably inscribed on part of the temple on Temple Hill or on a self-standing monument sheltered under this temple. The temple has been widely identified as that of Apollo (see Bookidis and Stroud). Despite its extremely fragmentary state, text A appears to begin with the first month of the Corinthian calendar, Phoinikaios (see below on line A1). This is followed by fragmentary traces involving a list of sacrificial animals. Text B is more or less contemporaneous and belongs to the same general context (see above on Date and Provenance). Though it does not securely contain the mention of a date, it has been identified as most probably belonging to a sacrifical calendar (so Iversen - Laing), given that it preserves one "deity-and-offering" pairing. Text B may perhaps be a sort of lead copy of the calendar, preserved in the archive of the temple, or it could have been nailed on stone or wood for public display. At any rate, the two texts taken together share the three most basic components of sacrificial calendars: a date, followed by a recipient or deity in the dative, and finally an offering in the nominative or (as here) in the accusative (cf. the discussion of Lupu NGSL, p. 65-68). A sacrificial verb could either be left implied or have been present in one of the many lacunae.

Text A

Line 1: This appears to be the first line of the whole text, or at least of a part of it, since it begins in the upper right corner of the block and is not preceded by a previous line. Phoinikaios is thus to be taken as the first month of the Corinthian calendar. The month-name is paralleled at Corinth VIII.1 2, line 1 (200-150 BC), as well as in Corinthian colonies (e.g. Bouthrotos; I.Magnesia 44, from Corcyra), and now by the recently deciphered Antikythera Mechanism, where one of the dials displays an Epirote calendar deriving from the Corinthian and beginning with this month, cf. SEG 56, 392. See Iversen (2017) for a full discussion of the evidence, arguing that Phoinikaios was the month in which the autumn equinox usually fell.

Lines 2-3: An offering consisting of three piglets appears to be mentioned here (for the accusative case and the lack of notation of the spurious diphthong, compare βο̑ν in text B). Though piglets are often found as a sacrifice, groups of piglets are seldom attested in ritual norms. In the calendar of the Marathonian Tetrapolis, three piglets in addition to a ram are sacrificed to Kore at a similar time of the year as the month Phoinikaios here (namely, during the month Metageitnion, August/September): CGRN 56, col. II, line 44; three also appear in the sacrificial calendar of Eleutherna, CGRN 210, Fragment B, line 4, where the context is fragmentary but may follow an offering to Demeter; the same group of animals is also specified for the purification of the theatre at Andania, CGRN 222, line 68, though this is a ritual of a different character. Though it is difficult to be certain, these parallels may suggest a possible connection with Demeter and/or Kore for the sacrificial offering preserved here near the beginning of the Corinthian calendar.

Text B

Line 1: Thinking of this text as part of sacrificial calendar, Iversen - Laing offer the following tentative restorations for this line: the month [Ἀγ]|ρ̣ια̣ν̣[ίο], the number three [τ]ρ̣ία̣ +[- - -], or the date of the 30th of the month, [τ]ρ̣ια̣κ̣[άδι].

Lines 2-3: The epithet Polias is attested especially for Athena and the restoration of this goddess is difficult to doubt here. Apart from Athens (cf. SEG 14, 29), the goddess is also attested from the 6th century at Argos (LSS 27), as well as in the classical period in Delos (ID 15). Though the gender is unclear, the offering probably consists of a cow. The sacrifice of a cow to Athena Polias is paralleled at a later date: CGRN 92 (Athens), lines 19-24, and cf. also I.Priene 108 and p. 310, lines 264-265 (129-100 BC), 113 + p. 311, line 85 (84-81 BC). But this is not an exclusive sacrifice for the goddess; for example, at both CGRN 52 (Erchia), col. Δ, line 15, and CGRN 85 (Kos), lines 23-24, she is offered a female sheep. After this entry, Iversen - Laing print an empty space of one letter, where tetracolon interpuncts were previously observed and drawn; as presumed here, these have perhaps disappeared from the tablet. The letters ΗΕ- might then preserve the beginning of new entry in the regulation, though the traces are so slight that they do not invite conjecture. As examples, Iversen - Laing offer a deity like Hera, Hermes or Hekate, or a date, e.g. hε[νδεκάτει]. Given the empty space preserved below, the conclusion of the text (or part of the text) appears to have come a line later.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN1), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels
  • Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

Brief citation of the Greek text : CGRN 1, lines x-x.

Reference to the file as a critical study of the inscription : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels et Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, "CGRN 1: Fragments of two texts relating to the sacrificial calendar of Corinth", in Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on September 25, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/file/1/; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN1.

Full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following : Jan-Mathieu Carbon, Saskia Peels-Matthey, Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), 2017-, consulted on September 25, 2022. URL: http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be; DOI: https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN0.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<TEI xmlns="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0" xml:id="CGRN_1" xml:lang="en">
	<teiHeader>
		<fileDesc>
			<titleStmt>
				<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 1</idno>: Fragments of two texts relating to the <rs type="textType" key="sacrificial calendar">sacrificial calendar</rs> of Corinth</title>
				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
				<author>Saskia Peels</author>
			<author>Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge</author></titleStmt>
			<publicationStmt>
				<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
				<availability>
	<p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p><p>All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the DOI (<idno type="DOI">https://doi.org/10.54510/CGRN1</idno>), as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details on how to cite or click “Export Citation” to create a reference for this specific file).</p></availability>
			</publicationStmt>
<sourceDesc>
	<msDesc>
		<msIdentifier>
	<repository>n/a</repository>
		</msIdentifier>
		<physDesc>
			<objectDesc>
				<supportDesc>
	<support><p>Two different but probably related inscriptions, Text A and Text B, on two different monuments or supports are included under this entry. For a fuller description of these texts than is possible here, cf. <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen - Laing 2021">Iversen - Laing 2021</bibl>.</p>
			<p>Text A</p>
		<p>Four different fragments of a block of pale brown poros, comprised of two joining pairs (fr. a-b and fr. c-d). Fr. a-b preserve the upper edge as well as two contiguous faces of the stele; fr. c-d form a very fragmentary section which is broken on all sides and is not reprised here.</p>
			<p>Text B</p>
				<p>Two joining fragments of a <rs type="objectType">lead tablet</rs>.</p>
						<p>Text A, fr. a-b<dimensions>
											<height unit="cm">25</height>
											<width unit="cm">19</width>
											<depth unit="cm">10</depth>
										</dimensions></p>
						<p>Text B<dimensions>
											<height unit="cm">5.6</height>
											<width unit="cm">5.9</width>
											<depth unit="cm">0.1</depth>
										</dimensions>
									</p>
								</support>
							</supportDesc>
							<layoutDesc>
								<layout>
<p>Both texts A and B are inscribed boustrophedon with Archaic Corinthian letters (e.g. three-bar iota; in Text A, line 3, the last letter is now identified as a <foreign>san</foreign>; in Text B, line 2, we notably find a Corinthian beta). On Text A, the letters were originally painted in a red colour, which was observable at the time of discovery but has now faded. The lines are divided by faint incised guidelines. On Text B, the lines are defined by guidelines as in the text on stone (A). There are traces of two nail holes to affix the tablet. </p>
<p>Letter measurements:</p>
		<p>Text A: <height unit="cm">3-6.3</height></p> 
		<p>Text B: <height unit="cm">1.2-1.4</height>.</p>
								</layout>
							</layoutDesc>
						</objectDesc>
					</physDesc>
					<history>
						<origin>
			<p>Text A: <origDate notBefore="-0585" notAfter="-0570">ca. 585-570 BC</origDate></p>
<p><desc>Justification: lettering, cf. Jeffery <bibl type="abbr" n="LSAG">LSAG</bibl>, p. 114-132; see also Provenance and Commentary for the <foreign>terminus ante quem</foreign> of ca. 570 BC.</desc></p>
			<p>Text B: <origDate notBefore="-0585" notAfter="-0570">ca. 585-500 BC</origDate></p>
<p><desc>Justification: lettering which is "roughly contemporary" with text A "or a bit later" (Iversen - Laing, with a fuller discussion).</desc></p>
						</origin>
						<provenance><p><placeName key="Corinth" n="Peloponnese"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/570182/center-of-the-temple-of-apollo-at-corinth" type="external">Corinth, temple of Apollo</ref></placeName>. The fragments of the stone block (Text A) were found at the southeast (fr. a-b, 1898) and north (fr. c-d, 1970) of the temple on Temple Hill (see Iversen - Laing for full details), together with fill that contained the Late Geometric Temple's burned roof tiles (ca. 570 BC). The material is the same as the regular blocks of the 7th century BC temple itself (see further Commentary below). Fr. c-d in particular were founded heavily burned, as a result of the destruction of the temple. The two fragments of the lead tablet (Text B) were found in trench 5 on the eastern side of Temple Hill in 1975. All of the fragments are now in the Museum of Corinth; Text A: inv. no. I-1 and I-1970-4; Text B: inv. no. MF-1975-86.</p>
						</provenance>
					</history>
				</msDesc>
			</sourceDesc>
		</fileDesc>
		<encodingDesc>
			<p>Encoded for EpiDoc schema 8.17 on 01-01-2014 by J.M. Carbon.</p>
		</encodingDesc>
		<profileDesc>
			<langUsage>
				<language ident="eng">English</language>
				<language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
				<language ident="lat">Latin</language>
				<language ident="fre">French</language>
				<language ident="ger">German</language>
				<language ident="gre">Modern Greek</language>
				<language ident="ita">Italian</language>
			</langUsage>
			<textClass/>
		</profileDesc>
		<revisionDesc>
			<change>Last revised by JM Carbon on 24.3.2022.</change>
		</revisionDesc>
	</teiHeader>
	<facsimile>
		<graphic url="x"/>
	</facsimile>
	<text>
		<body>
			<div type="bibliography">
		<head>Bibliography</head>
				<p>Edition here based <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen - Laing 2021</bibl>: 119-126, nos. 1-2, with ph. We print only the two most significant parts of this sacrificial calendar. Text A: no. 1, fr. a-b, Face A; Text B: no. 2.</p>
				
		<p>Text A: </p>
		<p>	Other editions: 
			Fraenkel <bibl type="abbr" n="IG IV">IG IV</bibl> 1597; 
			Meritt <bibl type="abbr" n="Corinth VIII.1">Corinth VIII.1</bibl> 1; 
			<bibl type="author_date" n="Dow 1942">Dow 1942</bibl>.</p>
				
		<p>Cf. also Jeffery <bibl type="abbr" n="LSAG">LSAG</bibl>, p. 114-132, 404, pl. 20 no. 18, 440; 
			<bibl type="author_date" n="Robertson 1982">Robertson 1982</bibl>: 340-342; 
			<bibl type="author_date" n="Bookidis - Stroud 2004">Bookidis - Stroud 2004</bibl>: 409-410; 
			Lupu <bibl type="abbr" n="NGSL">NGSL</bibl>, p. 65-66; 
			<bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: esp. 130, 156.</p>
				
		<p>Online record: cf. Jeffery's notes and photographs found on the <ref target="http://poinikastas.csad.ox.ac.uk/" type="external">Poinikastas</ref> website, with ref. no. 131.18.</p>

<p>Text B: </p>
				<p>Cf. also <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: esp. 160 (e).</p>
<p>See also following preliminary mentions and illustrations: 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Robinson 1975">Robinson 1975</bibl>: 61; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Aupert 1976">Aupert 1976</bibl>: 600-601, fig. 28; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Jordan 1980">Jordan 1980</bibl>: 228 n. 13; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Bookidis - Stroud 2004">Bookidis - Stroud 2004</bibl>: 409-410; 
	<bibl type="author_date" n="Robertson 2010">Robertson 2010</bibl>: 32-33.</p>
			</div>

			<div type="edition">

<ab subtype="text" n="A">Text A <lb xml:id="line_A1" n="A1" rend="right-to-left"/> <name type="month"><w lemma="Φοινικαῖος">Φοινι<unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">αίο</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
					
<lb xml:id="line_A2" n="A2" rend="left-to-right"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="τρεῖς"><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ρε̑ς</w> <name type="animal" key="swine"><name type="age"><w lemma="χοῖρος">χο 

<lb xml:id="line_A3" n="A3" rend="right-to-left" break="no"/>ί<unclear>ρ</unclear>ο<unclear>ς</unclear></w></name></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
					
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
				</ab>
				
<ab subtype="text" n="B">Text B
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>

<lb xml:id="line_B1" n="B1" rend="right-to-left"/><orig><unclear>Ρ</unclear>Ι<unclear>Α</unclear></orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="letter"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
					
<lb xml:id="line_B2" n="B2" rend="left-to-right"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀθάναι</supplied></w></name> <name type="epithet" key="Polias"><w lemma="Πολιάς"><supplied reason="lost">Πολ</supplied>ίαδι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">β 

<lb xml:id="line_B3" n="B3" rend="right-to-left" break="no"/>ο̑ν</w></name> <supplied reason="lost"><pc>⁞</pc></supplied> h<orig>ε</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

<lb xml:id="line_B4" n="B4" rend="left-to-right"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><space/>
				</ab>
			</div>
			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
				<head>Translation</head>
				<p>Text A</p>
				<p>(In the month) Phoinikaios [... (to unknown deity)], three piglets [...]</p>
				<p>Text B</p>
				<p>[...] to [Athena] Polias a bovine; [...]</p>
			</div>
			<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
				<head>Traduction</head>
				<p>Texte A</p>
				<p>(Au mois de) Phonikaios [... (à telle divinité)], trois porcelets [...] </p>
				<p>Texte B</p>
				<p>[...] à [Athéna] Polias un bovin; [...]</p>
			</div>
			<div type="commentary">
				<head>Commentary</head>
				
<p>These are two fragmentary public documents relating to the sacrifical calendar of Corinth. It is not certain whether the two texts belong together, though their date, findspots, and content suggest at least a degree of parallelism. Whether taken together or individually, the texts probably constitute the earliest inscribed ritual norm in this collection (yet see the doubtful <bibl type="abbr" n="NGSL">NGSL</bibl> 6, from Tiryns, late 7th - early 6th century BC). Text A is certainly the earliest sacrificial calendar to have so far come to light: it was probably inscribed on part of the temple on Temple Hill or on a self-standing monument sheltered under this temple. The temple has been widely identified as that of Apollo (see Bookidis and Stroud). Despite its extremely fragmentary state, text A appears to begin with the first month of the Corinthian calendar, Phoinikaios (see below on line A1). This is followed by fragmentary traces involving a list of sacrificial animals. Text B is more or less contemporaneous and belongs to the same general context (see above on Date and Provenance). Though it does not securely contain the mention of a date, it has been identified as most probably belonging to a sacrifical calendar (so Iversen - Laing), given that it preserves one "deity-and-offering" pairing. Text B may perhaps be a sort of lead copy of the calendar, preserved in the archive of the temple, or it could have been nailed on stone or wood for public display. At any rate, the two texts taken together share the three most basic components of sacrificial calendars: a date, followed by a recipient or deity in the dative, and finally an offering in the nominative or (as here) in the accusative (cf. the discussion of Lupu <bibl type="abbr" n="NGSL">NGSL</bibl>, p. 65-68). A sacrificial verb could either be left implied or have been present in one of the many lacunae.</p>

<p>Text A</p>
<p>Line 1: This appears to be the first line of the whole text, or at least of a part of it, since it begins in the upper right corner of the block and is not preceded by a previous line. Phoinikaios is thus to be taken as the first month of the Corinthian calendar. The month-name is paralleled at <bibl type="abbr" n="Corinth VIII.1">Corinth VIII.1</bibl> 2, line 1 (200-150 BC), as well as in Corinthian colonies (e.g. Bouthrotos; <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Magnesia">I.Magnesia</bibl> 44, from Corcyra), and now by the recently deciphered Antikythera Mechanism, where one of the dials displays an Epirote calendar deriving from the Corinthian and beginning with this month, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 56, 392. See Iversen (2017) for a full discussion of the evidence, arguing that Phoinikaios was the month in which the autumn equinox usually fell.</p>
				
<p>Lines 2-3: An offering consisting of three piglets appears to be mentioned here (for the accusative case and the lack of notation of the spurious diphthong, compare βο̑ν in text B). Though piglets are often found as a sacrifice, groups of piglets are seldom attested in ritual norms. In the calendar of the Marathonian Tetrapolis, three piglets in addition to a ram are sacrificed to Kore at a similar time of the year as the month Phoinikaios here (namely, during the month Metageitnion, August/September): <ref target="CGRN_56">CGRN 56</ref>, col. II, line 44; three also appear in the sacrificial calendar of Eleutherna, <ref target="CGRN_210">CGRN 210</ref>, Fragment B, line 4, where the context is fragmentary but may follow an offering to Demeter; the same group of animals is also specified for the purification of the theatre at Andania, <ref target="CGRN_222">CGRN 222</ref>, line 68, though this is a ritual of a different character. Though it is difficult to be certain, these parallels may suggest a possible connection with Demeter and/or Kore for the sacrificial offering preserved here near the beginning of the Corinthian calendar.</p>

<p>Text B</p>				
<p>Line 1: Thinking of this text as part of sacrificial calendar, Iversen - Laing offer the following tentative restorations for this line: the month [Ἀγ]|ρ̣ια̣ν̣[ίο], the number three [τ]ρ̣ία̣ +[- - -], or the date of the 30th of the month, [τ]ρ̣ια̣κ̣[άδι].</p>
				
<p>Lines 2-3: The epithet Polias is attested especially for Athena and the restoration of this goddess is difficult to doubt here. Apart from Athens (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 14, 29), the goddess is also attested from the 6th century at Argos (<bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 27), as well as in the classical period in Delos (<bibl type="abbr" n="ID">ID</bibl> 15). Though the gender is unclear, the offering probably consists of a cow. The sacrifice of a cow to Athena Polias is paralleled at a later date: <ref target="CGRN_92">CGRN 92</ref> (Athens), lines 19-24, and cf. also <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Priene">I.Priene</bibl> 108 and p. 310, lines 264-265 (129-100 BC), 113 + p. 311, line 85 (84-81 BC). But this is not an exclusive sacrifice for the goddess; for example, at both <ref target="CGRN_52">CGRN 52</ref> (Erchia), col. Δ, line 15, and <ref target="CGRN_85">CGRN 85</ref> (Kos), lines 23-24, she is offered a female sheep. After this entry, Iversen - Laing print an empty space of one letter, where tetracolon interpuncts were previously observed and drawn; as presumed here, these have perhaps disappeared from the tablet. The letters ΗΕ- might then preserve the beginning of new entry in the regulation, though the traces are so slight that they do not invite conjecture. As examples, Iversen - Laing offer a deity like Hera, Hermes or Hekate, or a date, e.g. hε[νδεκάτει]. Given the empty space preserved below, the conclusion of the text (or part of the text) appears to have come a line later.</p>
				
			</div>
		</body>
	</text>
</TEI>