CGRN 92

Decree concerning the "Little" Panathenaia at Athens

Date :

ca. 335-330 BC

Justification: contextual comparison with fragment A, cf. the discussion in Rhodes - Osborne and Lambert; on the cutter's activities during this period, see Rhodes - Osborne, and Lambert with commentary. For a recent discussion of the missing date in fragment A, favouring the archon Euainetos in 335/4, see now Knoepfler, p. 187-192.

Provenance

Athens . Found in 1842 in the Propylaia of the Acropolis, near the Pillar of Agrippa; the stele was perhaps originally erected in the sacrificial area between the Propylaia and the Erechtheion (Knoepfler). Fragment B is now in the Epigraphical Museum in Athens (inv. no. 7153).

Support

Stele of Pentelic marble, broken on the lefthand side, as well as the top and bottom. Lewis (1959) has associated the fragment with another decree on the 'Lesser' Panathenaia. This is commonly accepted in the scholarship (see Knoepfler, pp. 156-157, for a recent discussion), even though the two fragments do not join. The fragment discussed below is usually referred to as "Fragment B"; the other, fragment A, is not included here.

Fragment B

  • Height: 32.6 cm
  • Width: 39 cm
  • Depth: 13 cm

Layout

Stoichedon 42, with slight variations in the regularity of the grid in lines 9-10 (though these lines still appear to have contained 42 letters).

Letters: 0.5-0.6 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Lambert IG II³ 447, fragment B (restored at line 26). Fragment A is not included here. We print only fairly secure or intelligible letter traces. Cf. IG II³ 447 for further description of lettertraces, and for a list of the ample bibliography on this inscription; see also now Knoepfler 2016 for a detailed treatment in French.

Other edition: Kirchner IG II² 334.

Cf. also: Ziehen LGS II 29; Woodhead Agora XVI 75; Sokolowski LSCG 33; Schwenk 17; SEG 48, 103; Rhodes - Osborne GHI 81; Knoepfler 2016; AIO , with another English translation and commentary.AIO , with another English translation and commentary.

Further bibliography: Deubner 1932: 24; Lewis 1959; Robert 1960; Mikalson 1975: 34; Langdon 1987; Rosivach 1991: 430-442; Rosivach 1994: 95-96; Brulé 1996: 41-45; Parker 1996; Ekroth 2008a: 278-279; Papazarkadas 2011: 51-59.

Text


Fragment B


[......1 line......]
[..?.. ὅπως ἂν εὐ]σ[εβ]ῶς κα-
[ὶ ...............29..............] κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν κ-
[........16........ π]αρεσκευ[ασμ]νη ὡς ἄριστα τῆι Ἀ-
5[θηνᾶι
καθ’ ἕκαστο]ν τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τοῦ δήμου τοῦ Ἀ-
[θηναίων
καὶ τἆλ]λα ὅσα δεῖ διοικῆται περὶ τὴν ἑορτὴ-
τὴν ἀγομένην τ]ῆι θεῶι καλῶς ὑπὸ τῶν ἱεροποιῶν εἰς
[τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον, ἐ]ψηφίσθαι τῶι δήμωι, τὰ μὲν ἄλλα καθά-
[περ
τῆι βουλῆι, θ]ύειν δὲ τοὺς ἱεροποιοὺς τὰς μὲν δύο
10 [.....10..... τῆ]ι Ἀθηνᾶι τῆι Ὑγιείαι καὶ τὴν ἐν τῶι ἀρ-
[χαίωι
νεῶι θυο]μένην καθάπερ πρότερον, καὶ νείμαντ-
[ας
τοῖς πρυτάν]εσιν πέντε μερίδας καὶ τοῖς ἐννέα ἄρ-
[χουσιν
...5..] καὶ ταμίαις τῆς θεοῦ μίαν καὶ τοῖς ἱερ-
[οποιοῖς
μίαν] καὶ τοῖς στ[ρα]τηγοῖς καὶ τοῖς ταξιάρχ-
15[οις
...5.. καὶ τ]οῖς πομπ[εῦσι]ν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τα-
[ῖς .....9....]ς κατὰ ⟨τὰ⟩ εἰω[θότα], τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα Ἀθηναίο-
[ις
μερίζειν· ἀ]πὸ δὲ τῶν τε[τταρ]άκοντα μνῶν καὶ τῆς μι-
[ᾶς
τῶν ἐκ τῆς μ]ισθώσεως τῆς Νέας βοωνήσαντες οἱ ἱερ-
[οποιοὶ
μετὰ τ]ῶν βοωνῶν, πέμψαντες τὴν πόμπην τῆι θε-
20[ῶι
θυόντων τα]ύτας τὰς βοῦς ἁπάσας ἐπὶ τῶι βωμῶι τῆς
[Ἀθηνᾶς τῶι με]γάλωι, μίαν δὲ ἐπὶ τῶι τῆς Νίκης, προκρί-
[ναντες
ἐκ τῶν] καλλιστευουσῶν βοῶν, καὶ θύσαντες τῆ-
Ἀθηνᾶι τῆι] Πολιάδι καὶ τῆι Ἀθηνᾶι τῆι Νίκηι ἁπασῶ-
τῶν βοῶν τῶ]ν ἀπὸ τῶν τετταράκοντα μνῶν καὶ μιᾶς ἑω-
25[νημένην
νε]μόντων τὰ κρέα τῶι δήμωι τῶι Ἀθηναίων ἐν
[Κεραμεικῶ]ι, καθάπερ ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις κρεανομίαις· π-
[ονέμειν
δὲ] τὰς μερίδας εἰς τὸν δῆμον ἕκαστον κατὰ [τ]-
[οὺς πέμπον]τας, ὁπόσους ἂν παρέχηιδῆμος ἕκαστος· [ε]-
[ἰς
δὲ τὰ μι]σθώματα τῆς πομπῆς καὶ τὸ μαγειρικὸν κα[ὶ]
30 [κόσμησιν] τοῦ βωμοῦ τοῦ μεγάλου καὶ τἆλλα ὅσα προσ[ή]-
[κει ...5..]εῖσθαι περὶ τὴν ἑορτὴν καὶ εἰς παννυχίδα
[δίδοναι] : 𐅄 : δραχμάς· τοὺς δὲ ἱεροποιοὺς τοὺς διοι[κ]-
[οῦντας
τ]Παναθήναια τὰ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ποεῖν τὴν πα[ν]-
[νυχίδα]
ὡς καλλίστην τῆι θεῶι καὶ τὴν πομπὴν πέμπε[ι]-
35
ἅμα ἡ]λίωι ἀνιόντι, ζημιοῦντας τὸν μὴ πειθαρχο[ῦντ]-
ταῖς ἐ]κ τῶν νόμων ζημίαι[ς]· ἑλέσθαι δὲ τὸν δῆμ[ον ...]
[.........18......... ἄ]ν[δ]ρας ἐξ Ἀθηναίων ἁπ[άντων.]
[..?..]

Translation

[So that] piously and [...] annually, and that [...] prepared in the best possible way for Athena (5) [every] year on behalf of the A[thenians], and so that all [other] things needed for the festival [which is celebrated] for the goddess are managed well by the hieropoioi [for all time to come], be it resolved by the people: in other respects (things should be done) as [proposed by the council], but the hieropoioi shall sacrifice the two (10) [... the one] to Athena Hygieia and the other in the old [temple], precisely as it was done before, and when they have distributed to the [prytaneis] five portions and to the nine [archons ...], and to the treasurers of the goddess one portion and to the hieropoioi and to the generals and the taxiarchs [...] and (15) to the Athenians who participate in the procession and to the [... (feminine)] as is customary, they are to [distribute] the rest of the meat to the Athenians. The hieropoioi when they have bought cows, together with the cattle buyers, with the 41 minai available from the lease of the Nea, and have conducted the procession for the goddess, should then (20) [sacrifice] all these cows on the great altar of [Athena], but one on the altar of Nike, having chosen it beforehand from the most beautiful cows, and when they have sacrificed to [Athena] Polias and Athena Nike, (25) they should distribute the meat from all the cows bought with the 41 minai to the Athenian people in the [Kerameikos (?)] precisely as at other meat distributions. And they shall [allocate] portions to each deme according to the number of participants in the procession that each deme provides. And for the contract costs of the procession and the butchers’ fee and (30) [adornment] of the great altar and the other things that are fitting to [...] concerning the festival and for an all-night celebration, they shall give 50 drachmae. And the hieropoioi who organise the annual Panathenaia are to make the all-night celebration as beautiful as possible for the goddess and to conduct the procession (35) starting at sunrise, punishing anyone who is not obedient to authority with the punishments provided by the laws [...] the people are to choose [...] men from all Athenians [...]

(translation adapted from S. Lambert, AIO )

Traduction

[Afin que] pieusement et [...] annuellement, et que [...] préparée de la meilleure manière possible pour Athéna (5) [chaque] année au nom des A[théniens], et que les [autres] choses nécessaires à la fête [célébrée] pour la déesse soient bien fournies par les hiéropes [à jamais], qu'il plaise au peuple que, le reste (devant être accompli) selon [ce que le conseil a proposé], les hiéropes accompliront les deux (10) [... l'un] pour Athéna Hygieia et l'autre dans l'ancien [temple], exactement comme avant. Après avoir distribué aux [prytan]es cinq portions, aux neuf ar[chontes ...], aux trésoriers de la déesse, une, aux hiér[opes], une, aux stratèges et aux taxiarques [...], (15) aux Athéniens qui processionnent et aux [... (nom féminin)] de la manière habituelle, [ils répartiront] le reste des viandes aux Athéniens. Après avoir acheté les bovins sur les 41 mines tirées de la location de Nea, en compagnie des acheteurs de bovins, que les hiér[opes], après avoir conduit la procession pour la déesse, (20) sacrifient toutes ces vaches sur le grand autel [d'Athéna], et une sur celui de Nikè, après l'avoir présélectionnée parmi les vaches les plus belles. Et, après avoir sacrifié à [Athéna] Polias et à Athéna Nikè, (25) de toutes les vaches achetées sur les 41 mines, qu'ils distribuent les viandes au peuple athénien au [Céramique (?)], conformément aux autres distributions de viande. Ils répartiront les portions à destination de chaque dème en fonction du nombre de participants à la procession que chaque dème fournit. Pour les frais d'adjudication de la procession ainsi que le coût de la bouc non castréherie et (30) [l'ornement] du grand autel, et les autres choses qu'il convient [...] touchant à la fête et à la veillée nocturne, [ils donneront] 50 drachmes. Les hiéropes qui organisent les Panathénées annuelles rendront la veillée nocturne aussi belle que possible pour la déesse et conduiront la procession (35) dès l'aube, en frappant des punitions prévues par les lois celui qui ne se soumettrait pas à l'autorité. Le peuple choisira [...] des hommes parmi tous les Athéniens [...]

Commentary

The text presented here is Fragment B of two texts that were connected by Lewis on the basis of content, script and style (though there is no formal match between the two stones). Both of these documents concern the financing and organisation of the annual (or the so-called "Little" Panathenaia, Παναθήναια τὰ Μικρά, cited in fr. B, lines 5-6) in 335-330 in Lycurgan Athens. For other documents of this period, when decrees evincing an interest in religious matters and in augmentation of existing worship are particularly numerous, see Parker, p. 242-253. The principal decree in Fragment B is concerned with the Panathenaia that was held annually (cf. line 33: [τ]Παναθήναια τὰ κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν). There remains some debate about whether this expression designates the festival held in the three years between two occurrences of the Great Panathenaia (which were organised every four years), or more properly, those elements of the festival that happened every year (κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν) and were particularly augmented every four years during this "Great" instalment (see now Knoepfler, p. 152-153 with nn. 22-23 for a summary, siding with the latter view). The other text, Fragment A, records the decision to lease out a land called the Νέα and to sell a tax, so that the resulting revenues may increase the splendidness of the festival and the income of the hieropoioi.

Our text, Fragment B is a decree, seemingly an amendment of a previous decision by the council (the Boule of Athens, lines 8-9), first describes two traditional sacrifices to Athena during the festival, one to Athena Hygieia, the other to Athena "in the ancient temple", and the ensuing distributions of meat (lines 9-17). The distribution of the meat is to be made to various officials according to their hierarchy of political importance, with different portions specified for each group, then to those Athenians who participated in the procession and to some other group "in the customary way", then to all other Athenian citizens. A further set of sacrifices is to be financed with the rent from the lease of the Nea, as described in Fragment A, and this is offered to Athena Polias and Nike (lines 17-28). Specifically, the majority of the cows should be sacrificed on the altar of Athena Polias, but one of the most beautiful cows is offered on the altar of Athene Nike. In the case of this new sacrifice, the meat is distributed to the Athenian people, without a hierarchical differentiation being made, but to each deme a portion is given that accords with the numbers of participants in the procession. At the end of the inscription, we find other brief guidelines concerning the further augmentation (lines 28-32) and the practical details of the organisation of the festival (lines 32-37); perhaps the now fragmentary inscription would have added further details below.

Can we quantify how the decisions recorded in this dossier would have contributed to increase the annual Panathenaia (for this decree is probably supplementary, and does not represent the total of the offerings made on this occasion)? The 41 minae of rent from the Nea used to fund the sacrifices to Athena Polias and Nike yield 4100 drachmae. Thus, with all due caution, if we approximate the price of cows and other oxen at ca. 90-100 drachmae in the second half of the fourth century BC at Athens (see Rosivach 1994), then there would perhaps have been enough money for ca. 40-50 additional cows each year; perhaps more if the price was lower, perhaps less if the cows were especially chosen for their beauty. In the large scale of Athenian festivals and with the economic hazards of inflation, however, it remains difficult to put this in perspective (note, e.g., that the Great Panathenaia, almost a century earlier, is known to have a had a budget of 5114 drachmae for a hekatomb, cf. IG II³ 375, line 7, 410/9 BC).

Lines 8-11: These lines seem to introduce some kind of novel arrangement, as is evident from the phrase τὰ μὲν ἄλλα καθά[περ ..., θ]ύειν δὲ. Since τῆι βουλῆι is restored, we cannot be sure that a previous decision of the council was involved, though the layout of the document and Fragment A (cf. above) would suggest so. Alternatively, the gap in these lines may have contained some general reference to law, custom or tradition (νόμος, τὰ πάτρια, νόμιμα, or the like). It is unclear which part of the rules which follow has changed or been 'amended'. A related problem is the phrase καθάπερ πρότερον in line 11, since we do not know precisely what it refers to. One view may be that the elaborately hierarchical and detailed distribution of meat in lines 11-17 is an innovation or revision regarding these traditional sacrifices (so Knoepfler). Another view is that the novelty in this document is the whole of the second sacrifice detailed below in lines 17-26 (Rosivach 1991). Still further, one may view the financing of the second sacrifice from the revenues of the Nea as new. For discussion of these questions, cf. Rhodes - Osborne, p. 402-403. Note that these options are not mutually exclusive: they may all represent innovations and augmentations of traditional practice to a certain degree. Knoepfler (p. 158-161) discusses at length the restoration of the two sacrifices or sacrificial animals offered to Athena Hygieia and another to the same goddess—Athena—no doubt on the Acropolis, ingeniously suggesting [ἄρνας τὴν τε] ... as a supplement ((incidentally, [ἀμνάς] is an equally plausible restoration in the same sense; cp. the sacrifice to Athena at Erchia, CGRN 52, col. Β, lines 27-32). This would result in two lambs, one sacrificed for each goddess at a different place near the possible site of the stele, the area between the Propylaia and the Erectheion (see above on Provenance). Yet the precise syntax remains somewhat elusive (the use of the definitive article, τὰς μὲν δύο ..., is intriguing) and so the lacuna is not necessarily reducible to 5 letters only (it is given as 10 here as in Lambert). While attractive, since lambs could be offered as preliminary offerings to a major sacrifice and were indeed sacrificed (as were, more commonly, mature ewes) to Athena, Knoepfler's supplement would also entail that the numerous commensurate portions from only two lambs distributed to prominent officials (lines 11-17; see below) were rather small or lacking in meat; at least, this would surely be the case for the portions given to "the rest of the Athenians". Knoepfler also views as these portions as having only "une valeur symbolique" (p. 164), which is difficult to accept. The cult of Athena Hygieia was one of the early healing cults in Athens already attested before the arrival of the god Asclepius in 420/419. Her role was "essentially prophylactic, and directed to the health of the community as a whole, not of individuals" (Parker, p. 175). The final section of these lines has been restored in various ways, but the restoration τῶι ἀρ[χαίωι νεῶι] seems the most likely. In the fourth century, the Erechtheion was referred to as the "old temple"; cf. here the inscription of the Praxiergidai, CGRN 24 for further discussion, also for the idea that the foundations of this ancient temple were left standing on the Acropolis in next to the Erechtheion. The fact that this commemorative temple was located in the open air seems to "solve the problem" caused by reading ἐν τῶι ἀρ[χαίωι νεῶι] as indicating the performance of a sacrifice in the Erechtheion itself (an issue raised again by Knoepfler, p. 163-164). Other suggested restorations, each with their own problems, are: "in the old hieron", "on the Areios Pagos", "in the [sanctuary of] the Archegetis", "in the Arrephoreion" (an unattested expression suggested by Humphreys); cf. also Schwenk, p. 93, and also Brulé on this textual problem.

Lines 11-17: The meat measured in equitable "portions" and distributed among various groups is a traditional practice in Athens, cp. e.g. CGRN 19 (deme of Skambonidai), lines A9-11, C6-10. As in other distributions, two different mechanisms and ideas are at work. First, special honorands and participants in the cult are singled out, who receive one or more such portions. The rest of the meat is then to be distributed in an egalitarian way among "the Athenians" who partake in the procession and finally, any remaining meat, among the remainder of "the Athenians" (very probably, the male citizens of the city who could not attend the procession). As Ekroth describes, it is probable that these first portions, though equitable, would contain good amounts of meat. Other parts of the animal that were divided into equal portions were perhaps tougher, and this meat needed to hang for a few days and/or be cooked for a considerable time (for instance, in a stew). For continued speculation on the number of portions to be restored in the lacunae, see Knoepfler. Contrary to all previous interpretations of the text, Knoepfler hypothesises that the clause τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα forms a counterpart to the two or more sacrifices described previously (τὰς μὲν δύο...; see above on lines 8-11), and thus introduces the new sacrifices of cows funded from the Nea. We opt to maintain the previous, more natural reading, taking τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα following the earlier sacrifices; for a direct comparison, see here the calendar of Kos, CGRN 86 A, line 22, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα τᾶς πόλιο̣ς, which clearly relates to the sacrificial animal described immediately earlier (cp. also CGRN 147, line 60, from the same island). In the same line 16, Lambert, perhaps overcautiously, confines the widely accepted restoration [κανηφόροι]ς to his apparatus while noting its probability. See Brulé, p. 47-50, for good arguments about the involvement of these female cultic agents in the festival.

Line 17-26: For the second set of sacrifices described in the text, the hieropoioi buy cows with the revenues (41 minai) from the lease of the land called the Nea. Having conducted a procession, these cows are to be sacrificed on the great altar of Athena (ἐπὶ τῶι βωμῶι τῆς [Ἀθηνᾶς τῶι με]γάλωι), but one very beautiful cow is offered on the altar of Athena Nike; on beauty contests and the selection of sacrificial animals, see also here e.g. CGRN 186 (Ilion), line 27. As Lambert points out, after Athens' defeat at Chaironeia in 338 BC, the cult of Athena Nike became even more prominent. No consensus on the identity of the Nea has been reached. The amount of rent suggests it is a sizeable piece of land. According to Robert, we should understand νέα χώρα, "newly acquired territory", as Oropos, since this territory is considered to have been given to Athens by Philip of Macedon in 338/7 (the older view) or already in 336/5 by Alexander the Great (a newer view, see both Lambert and Knoepfler). For his part, Langdon argued that this land was a small island next to Lemnos, now the Keros or Charos Reef; for further discussion of this debate, cf. Rhodes - Osborne, p. 400-401. On the leasing of sacred and public lands as a means of revenue, cf. now Papazarkadas, with particular reference to the Nea.

Lines 25-28: Exceptionally, the meat of the second set of sacrifices is to be distributed by deme, according to the number of participants ([πέμπον]τας) which each deme provides for the procession. No analogous cases are known; see Rhodes - Osborne, p. 401. Knoepfler (p. 175-187) interestingly questions the established restoration, seeking to reestablish Ussing's proposal [βουλευ]τὰς. This would entail a repartition of meats from the cows equal to the number of councilmen provided by each deme. In other words, only 500 portions would be given from at least 40-50 oxen, if not more. While noting Knoepfler's ingenious questioning of the widely accepted restoration [πέμπον]τας (usually requiring an object and perhaps rather oblique in the absolute sense of "escort" or "participant", but see already the present participle [τ]οῖς πομπ[εῦσι]ν in line 15), we find his interpretation to result in a difficult sense of μερίς, an equitable portion, such as could be eaten by a citizen: thus, only 10 portions awarded from each cow? Moreover, 500 portions would surely be too small a number, inadequate for distribution to the whole citizenry (cp. also Knoepfler's p. 194). The location of this distribution has plausibly been restored as the Kerameikos, an open space which could receive a large crowd without any problem, and which formed the starting point of the procession of the Panathenaia (Thuc. 6.57). The distribution would most probably not have taken place immediately after the sacrifice on the Acropolis; for a recent discussion, see also Knoepfler, p. 172-175.

Lines 28-32: An amount of 50 drachmae is to be set apart for the costs of contracts relating to the procession, the payment of the butchers, the adornment of the altar and whatever else is needed for the organisation of the festival and an all-night celebration. This pannychis (cf. Deubner) took place after the procession, known to have occurred the 28 of Hekatombaion (Eur. Heracl. 777ff.; on the date, see Mikalson).

Lines 32-37: The final fragmentary lines of the document apparently comprise a separate part or section, containing special instructions for the hieropoioi. They are to ensure that the festival is organised as elegantly as possible, that the procession starts at sunrise and that any wrongdoers are punished. An unknown number of citizens (lines 36-37) are to be selected by the Council for a purpose that is now lost. Knoepfler (p. 192-195) implausibly dissociates this measure from the remainder of the new regulations for the festival, while rightly calling it "ponctuelle" (ad hoc) given the aorist ἑλέσθαι.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 92, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 92, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/92/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2017]).

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                <language ident="eng">English</language>
                <language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
                <language ident="lat">Latin</language>
                <language ident="fre">French</language>
                <language ident="ger">German</language>
                <language ident="gre">Modern Greek</language>
                <language ident="ita">Italian</language>
            </langUsage>
            <textClass/>
        </profileDesc>
        <revisionDesc>
            <change>Revised by XX in 20XX.</change>     
        </revisionDesc>
    </teiHeader>
    <facsimile><graphic url="x"><desc/></graphic></facsimile> 
    <text>
        <body>	
            <div type="bibliography">
                <head>Bibliography</head>
                
                <p>Edition here based on Lambert <bibl type="abbr" n="IG II³">IG II³</bibl> 447, fragment B (restored at line 26). Fragment A is not included here. We print only fairly secure or intelligible letter traces. Cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG II³">IG II³</bibl> 447 for further description of lettertraces, and for a list of the ample bibliography on this inscription; see also now <bibl type="author_date" n="Knoepfler 2016">Knoepfler 2016</bibl> for a detailed treatment in French.</p>

                <p>Other edition: Kirchner <bibl type="abbr" n="IG II²">IG II²</bibl> 334.
                </p>
                
                <p>Cf. also:
                    Ziehen <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS II">LGS II</bibl> 29; Woodhead <bibl type="abbr" n="Agora XVI">Agora XVI</bibl> 75; Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 33; <bibl type="abbr" n="Schwenk">Schwenk</bibl> 17; <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 48, 103; Rhodes - Osborne <bibl type="abbr" n="GHI">GHI</bibl> 81; <bibl type="author_date" n="Knoepfler 2016">Knoepfler 2016</bibl>; <ref target="https://www.atticinscriptions.com/inscription/IGII31/447" type="external">AIO</ref>, with another English translation and commentary.<ref target="https://www.atticinscriptions.com/inscription/IGII31/447" type="external">AIO</ref>, with another English translation and commentary.
                </p>
                
                <p> Further bibliography:
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Deubner 1932">Deubner 1932</bibl>: 24;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Lewis 1959">Lewis 1959</bibl>;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Robert 1960">Robert 1960</bibl>;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Mikalson 1975">Mikalson 1975</bibl>: 34;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Langdon 1987">Langdon 1987</bibl>;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Rosivach 1994">Rosivach 1991</bibl>: 430-442;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Rosivach 1994">Rosivach 1994</bibl>: 95-96;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Brulé 1996">Brulé 1996</bibl>: 41-45;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 1996">Parker 1996</bibl>;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Ekroth 2008a">Ekroth 2008a</bibl>: 278-279;
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Papazarkadas 2011">Papazarkadas 2011</bibl>: 51-59.
                </p>	
            
            </div>
            <div type="edition">
                <head>Text</head>
                <ab subtype="Fragment" n="B">Fragment B
                    
                    
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="line"/>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ὅπως"><supplied reason="lost">ὅπως</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἄν"><supplied reason="lost">ἂν</supplied></w> <w lemma="εὐσεβής"><supplied reason="lost">εὐ</supplied>σ<supplied reason="lost">εβ</supplied>ῶς</w> κα
                    
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="29" unit="character"/> <w lemma="κατά"><unclear>κα</unclear>τ’</w> <w lemma="ἐνιαυτός">ἐνιαυτὸν</w> κ
                    
                    <lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="16" unit="character"/> <w lemma="παρασκευάζω"><supplied reason="lost">π</supplied><unclear>αρε</unclear>σκε<unclear>υ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ασμ</supplied><unclear>έ</unclear>νη</w> <w lemma="ὡς">ὡς</w> <w lemma="ἀγαθός">ἄριστα</w> τῆι <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη">Ἀ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θηνᾶι</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="κατά"><supplied reason="lost">καθ’</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἕκαστος"><supplied reason="lost">ἕκαστο</supplied>ν</w> τὸν <w lemma="ἐνιαυτός">ἐνιαυτὸν</w> <w lemma="ὑπέρ">ὑπὲρ</w> τοῦ <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δήμου</w> τοῦ <name type="ethnic" key="Athens"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θηναίων</supplied></w></name></name> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <w lemma="ἄλλος"><supplied reason="lost">τἆλ</supplied>λα</w> <w lemma="ὅσος">ὅσα</w> <w lemma="δεῖ">δεῖ</w> <w lemma="διοικέω">διοικῆται</w> <w lemma="περί">περὶ</w> τὴν <name type="festival"><w lemma="ἑορτή">ἑορτὴ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost"> τὴν</supplied> <w lemma="ἄγω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀγομένην</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ῆι <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name> <w lemma="καλός">καλῶς</w> <w lemma="ὑπό">ὑπὸ</w> τῶν <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">ἱεροποιῶν</w></name> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w>
                   
                 <lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/> <supplied reason="lost">τὸν</supplied> <w lemma="ἀεί"><supplied reason="lost">ἀεὶ</supplied></w> <w lemma="χρόνος"><supplied reason="lost">χρόνον</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ψηφίζω"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>ψηφίσθαι</w></name> τῶι <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δήμωι</w></name>, τὰ μὲν <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλα</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="καθάπερ">καθά
                    
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">περ</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τῆι</supplied> <name type="group"><w lemma="βουλή"><supplied reason="lost">βουλῆι</supplied></w></name><supplied reason="lost">,</supplied> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θ</supplied>ύειν</w></name> δὲ τοὺς <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">ἱεροποιοὺς</w></name> τὰς μὲν <w lemma="δύο">δύο</w>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="10" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">τῆ</supplied><unclear>ι</unclear> <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη">Ἀθηνᾶι</w></name> τῆι <name type="epithet" key="Hygieia"><w lemma="ὑγίεια">Ὑγιείαι</w></name> καὶ τὴν ἐν τῶι <w lemma="ἀρχαῖος">ἀρ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">χαίωι</supplied></w> <name type="structure"><w lemma="ναός"><supplied reason="lost">νεῶι</supplied></w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θυο</supplied>μένην</w></name> <name type="authority"><w lemma="καθάπερ">καθάπερ</w></name> <w lemma="πρότερος">πρότερον</w>, καὶ <name type="portion"><w lemma="νέμω">νείμαντ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ας</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τοῖς</supplied> <name type="title"><w lemma="πρύτανις"><supplied reason="lost">πρυτάν</supplied>εσιν</w></name> <w lemma="πέντε">πέντε</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="μερίς">μερίδας</w></name> καὶ τοῖς <w lemma="ἐννέα">ἐννέα</w> <name type="title"><w lemma="ἄρχων">ἄρ
                    
    <lb xml:id="line_13" n="13" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">χουσιν</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/> <unclear>κ</unclear>αὶ <name type="title"><w lemma="ταμίας">ταμίαις</w></name> τῆς <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="θεός">θεοῦ</w></name> <w lemma="εἷς">μίαν</w> καὶ τοῖς <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">ἱερ
                    
        <lb xml:id="line_14" n="14" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">οποιοῖς</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="εἷς"><supplied reason="lost">μίαν</supplied></w> <unclear>κ</unclear>αὶ τοῖς <name type="title"><w lemma="στρατηγός">στ<supplied reason="lost">ρα</supplied>τηγοῖς</w></name> καὶ τοῖς <name type="title"><w lemma="ταξίαρχος">ταξιάρχ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">οις</supplied></w> </name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <name type="person"><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>οῖς <w lemma="πομπεύω">πομπ<supplied reason="lost">εῦσι</supplied>ν</w></name> τοῖς <name type="ethnic" key="Athens"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀθηναίοις</w></name> καὶ τα
                              
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ῖς</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="9" unit="character"/>ς <w lemma="κατά">κατὰ</w> <supplied reason="omitted">τὰ</supplied> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ἔθω">εἰω<supplied reason="lost">θότα</supplied></w></name>, <unclear>τ</unclear>ὰ δὲ <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλα</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κρέα</w></name> <name type="ethnic" key="Athens"><name type="group"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀθηναίο
                    
    <lb xml:id="line_17" n="17" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ις</supplied></w></name></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="μερίζω"><supplied reason="lost">μερίζειν</supplied></w></name><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <w lemma="ἀπό"><supplied reason="lost">ἀ</supplied>πὸ</w> δὲ τῶν <w lemma="τεσσαράκοντα">τε<supplied reason="lost">τταρ</supplied>άκοντα</w> <w lemma="μνᾶ">μνῶν</w> καὶ τῆς <w lemma="εἷς">μι
                    
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ᾶς</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τῶν</supplied> <w lemma="ἐκ"><supplied reason="lost">ἐκ</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τῆς</supplied> <w lemma="μίσθωσις"><supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied>ισθώσεως</w> τῆς <name type="locality"><w lemma="νέος">Νέας</w></name> <w lemma="βοωνέω">βοωνήσαντες</w> οἱ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">ἱερ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">οποιοὶ</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="μετά"><supplied reason="lost">μετὰ</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ῶν <name type="personnel"><w lemma="βοώνης">βοωνῶν</w></name>, <w lemma="πέμπω">πέμψαντες</w> τὴν <w lemma="πομπή">πόμπην</w> <name type="deity" key="Athena">τῆι <w lemma="θεός">θε
                    
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ῶι</supplied></w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θυόντων</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="οὗτος"><supplied reason="lost">τα</supplied>ύτας</w> τὰς <name type="animal" key="ox"><name type="gender"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦς</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἅπας">ἁπάσας</w> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τῶι <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βωμῶι</w></name> τῆς
                    
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21"/> <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀθηνᾶς</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τῶι</supplied> <w lemma="μέγας"><supplied reason="lost">με</supplied>γάλωι</w>, <w lemma="εἷς">μίαν</w> δὲ <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> τῶι τῆς <name type="deity" key="Nike"><w lemma="νίκη">Νίκης</w></name>, <w lemma="προκρίνω">προκρί
                    
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ναντες</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἐκ"><supplied reason="lost">ἐκ</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τῶν</supplied> <name type="quality"><w lemma="καλλιστεύω">καλλιστευουσῶν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῶν</w></name>, καὶ <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύσαντες</w></name> τῆ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_23" n="23" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied> <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀθηνᾶι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τῆι</supplied> <name type="epithet" key="Polias"><w lemma="Πολιάς">Πολιάδι</w></name> καὶ τῆι <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη">Ἀθηνᾶι</w></name> τῆι <name type="epithet" key="Nike"><w lemma="νίκη">Νίκηι</w></name> <w lemma="ἅπας">ἁπασῶ
                    
<lb xml:id="line_24" n="24" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τῶν</supplied> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς"><supplied reason="lost">βοῶν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τῶ</supplied>ν <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τῶν <w lemma="τεσσαράκοντα">τετταράκοντα</w> <w lemma="μνᾶ">μνῶν</w> καὶ <w lemma="εἷς">μιᾶς</w> <w lemma="ὠνέομαι">ἑω
                    
   <lb xml:id="line_25" n="25" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">νημένην</supplied></w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="νέμω"><supplied reason="lost">νε</supplied><unclear>μ</unclear>όντων</w></name> τὰ <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κρέα</w></name> τῶι <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δήμωι</w></name> τῶι <name type="ethnic"><name type="group"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀθηναίων</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_26" n="26"/><name type="locality"><w lemma="κεραμεικός"><supplied reason="lost">Κεραμεικῶ</supplied>ι</w></name>, <w lemma="καθάπερ">καθάπερ</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> ταῖς <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλαις</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρεανομία">κρεανομίαις</w></name>· <name type="portion"><w lemma="ἀπονέμω">ἀ<unclear>π</unclear>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_27" n="27" break="no"/> <supplied reason="lost">ονέμειν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">δὲ</supplied> τὰς <name type="portion"><w lemma="μερίς">μερίδας</w></name> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> τὸν <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δῆμον</w></name> <w lemma="ἕκαστος">ἕκαστον</w> <w lemma="κατά">κατὰ</w> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_28" n="28" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">οὺς</supplied> <w lemma="πέμπω"><supplied reason="lost">πέμπον</supplied>τας</w>, <w lemma="ὁπόσος">ὁπόσους</w> <w lemma="ἄν">ἂν</w> <w lemma="παρέχω">παρέχηι</w> ὁ <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δῆμος</w></name> <w lemma="ἕκαστος">ἕκαστος</w>· <w lemma="εἰς"><supplied reason="lost">ε</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_29" n="29" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ἰς</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">δὲ</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τὰ</supplied> <w lemma="μίσθωμα"><supplied reason="lost">μι</supplied>σθώματα</w> τῆς <w lemma="πομπή">πομπῆς</w> καὶ τὸ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="μαγειρικός">μαγειρικὸν</w></name> κα<supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_30" n="30"/> <name type="adornment"><w lemma="κόσμησις"><supplied reason="lost">κόσμησιν</supplied></w></name> τοῦ <name type="structure"><w lemma="βωμός">βωμοῦ</w></name> τοῦ <w lemma="μέγας">μεγάλου</w> καὶ <w lemma="ἄλλος">τἆλλα</w> <w lemma="ὅσος">ὅσα</w> προσ<supplied reason="lost">ή</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_31" n="31" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κει</supplied> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/>εῖσθαι <w lemma="περί">περὶ</w> τὴν <name type="festival"><w lemma="ἑορτή">ἑορτὴν</w></name> καὶ <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <name type="festival"><w lemma="παννυχίς">παννυχίδα</w></name>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_32" n="32"/> <w lemma="δίδωμι"><supplied reason="lost">δίδοναι</supplied></w> <pc>:</pc> <num value="50">U+10144</num> <pc>:</pc> <w lemma="δραχμή">δραχμάς</w>· τοὺς δὲ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">ἱεροποιοὺς</w></name> τοὺς <w lemma="διοικέω">διοι<supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>
                  
<lb xml:id="line_33" n="33" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">οῦντας</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ὰ <name type="festival"><w lemma="Παναθήναια">Παναθήναια</w></name> τὰ <w lemma="κατά">κατ’</w> <w lemma="ἐνιαυτός">ἐνιαυτὸν</w> <w lemma="ποιέω">ποεῖν</w> τὴν <name type="festival"><w lemma="παννυχίς">πα<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_34" n="34" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">νυχίδα</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ὡς">ὡς</w> <w lemma="καλός">καλλίστην</w> <name type="deity" key="Athena">τῆι <w lemma="θεός">θεῶι</w></name> καὶ τὴν <w lemma="πομπή">πομπὴν</w> <w lemma="πέμπω">πέμπε<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_35" n="35" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἅμα"><supplied reason="lost">ἅμα</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἥλιος"><supplied reason="lost">ἡ</supplied>λίωι</w> <w lemma="ἄνειμι">ἀνιόντι</w>, <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημιόω">ζημιοῦντας</w></name> τὸν <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="πειθαρχέω">πειθαρχο<supplied reason="lost">ῦντ</supplied>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_36" n="36" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">ταῖς</supplied> <w lemma="ἐκ"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied>κ</w> τῶν <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμων</w></name> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ζημία">ζημίαι<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name>· <w lemma="αἱρέω">ἑλέσθαι</w> δὲ τὸν <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δῆμ<supplied reason="lost">ον</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/>
                    
                    <lb xml:id="line_37" n="37"/> <gap reason="lost" quantity="18" unit="character"/> <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ"><supplied reason="lost">ἄ</supplied><unclear>ν</unclear><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied><unclear>ρα</unclear>ς</w></name> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐξ</w> <name type="group"><w lemma="Ἀθηναῖος">Ἀθηναίων</w></name> <w lemma="ἅπας">ἁπ<supplied reason="lost">άντων</supplied></w><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
                    
<lb xml:id="line_38" n="38"/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
                       
                </ab>	
                
            </div>
            <div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
                <head>Translation</head>
               <p>
                   [So that] piously and [...] annually, and that [...] prepared in the best possible way for Athena (5) [every] year on behalf of the A[thenians], and so that all [other] things needed for the festival [which is celebrated] for the goddess are managed well by the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> [for all time to come], be it resolved by the people: in other respects (things should be done) as [proposed by the council], but the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> shall sacrifice the two (10) [... the one] to Athena Hygieia and the other in the old [temple], precisely as it was done before, and when they have distributed to the [<foreign>prytan</foreign><foreign>eis</foreign>] five portions and to the nine [archons ...], and to the treasurers of the goddess one portion and to the <foreign>hier</foreign><foreign>opoioi</foreign> and to the generals and the taxiarchs [...] and (15) to the Athenians who participate in the procession and to the [... (feminine)] as is customary, they are to [distribute] the rest of the meat to the Athenians. The <foreign>hier</foreign><foreign>opoioi</foreign> when they have bought cows, together with the cattle buyers, with the 41 <foreign>minai</foreign> available from the lease of the Nea, and have conducted the procession for the goddess, should then (20) [sacrifice] all these cows on the great altar of [Athena], but one on the altar of Nike, having chosen it beforehand from the most beautiful cows, and when they have sacrificed to [Athena] Polias and Athena Nike, (25) they should distribute the meat from all the cows bought with the 41 <foreign>minai</foreign> to the Athenian people in the [Kerameikos (?)] precisely as at other meat distributions. And they shall [allocate] portions to each deme according to the number of participants in the procession that each deme provides. And for the contract costs of the procession and the butchers’ fee and (30) [adornment] of the great altar and the other things that are fitting to [...] concerning the festival and for an all-night celebration, they shall give 50 drachmae. And the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> who organise the annual Panathenaia are to make the all-night celebration as beautiful as possible for the goddess and to conduct the procession (35) starting at sunrise, punishing anyone who is not obedient to authority with the punishments provided by the laws [...] the people are to choose [...] men from all Athenians [...]</p>
                <p>(translation adapted from S. Lambert, <ref target="https://www.atticinscriptions.com/inscription/SokolowskiLSCG/33" type="external">AIO</ref>)</p>  
            </div>
            <div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
                <head>Traduction </head>
                <p>[Afin que] pieusement et [...] annuellement, et que [...] préparée de la meilleure manière possible pour Athéna (5) [chaque] année au nom des A[théniens], et que les [autres] choses nécessaires à la fête [célébrée] pour la déesse soient bien fournies par les hiéropes [à jamais], qu'il plaise au peuple que, le reste (devant être accompli) selon [ce que le conseil a proposé], les hiéropes accompliront les deux (10) [... l'un] pour Athéna Hygieia et l'autre dans l'ancien [temple], exactement comme avant. Après avoir distribué aux [prytan]es cinq portions, aux neuf ar[chontes ...], aux trésoriers de la déesse, une, aux hiér[opes], une, aux stratèges et aux taxiarques [...], (15) aux Athéniens qui processionnent et aux [... (nom féminin)] de la manière habituelle, [ils répartiront] le reste des viandes aux Athéniens. Après avoir acheté les bovins sur les 41 mines tirées de la location de Nea, en compagnie des acheteurs de bovins, que les hiér[opes], après avoir conduit la procession pour la déesse, (20) sacrifient toutes ces vaches sur le grand autel [d'Athéna], et une sur celui de Nikè, après l'avoir présélectionnée parmi les vaches les plus belles. Et, après avoir sacrifié à [Athéna] Polias et à Athéna Nikè, (25) de toutes les vaches achetées sur les 41 mines, qu'ils distribuent les viandes au peuple athénien au [Céramique (?)], conformément aux autres distributions de viande. Ils répartiront les portions à destination de chaque dème en fonction du nombre de participants à la procession que chaque dème fournit. Pour les frais d'adjudication de la procession ainsi que le coût de la bouc non castréherie et (30) [l'ornement] du grand autel, et les autres choses qu'il convient [...] touchant à la fête et à la veillée nocturne, [ils donneront] 50 drachmes. Les hiéropes qui organisent les Panathénées annuelles rendront la veillée nocturne aussi belle que possible pour la déesse et conduiront la procession (35) dès l'aube, en frappant des punitions prévues par les lois celui qui ne se soumettrait pas à l'autorité. Le peuple choisira [...] des hommes parmi tous les Athéniens [...]</p>
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            <div type="commentary">    
                <head>Commentary</head>    
<p>The text presented here is Fragment B of two texts that were connected by Lewis on the basis of content, script and style (though there is no formal match between the two stones). Both of these documents concern the financing and organisation of the annual (or the so-called "Little" Panathenaia, Παναθήναια τὰ Μικρά, cited in fr. B, lines 5-6) in 335-330 in Lycurgan Athens. For other documents of this period, when decrees evincing an interest in religious matters and in augmentation of existing worship are particularly numerous, see Parker, p. 242-253. The principal decree in Fragment B is concerned with the Panathenaia that was held annually (cf. line 33: <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ὰ <name type="festival"><w lemma="Παναθήναια">Παναθήναια</w></name> τὰ <w lemma="κατά">κατ’</w> <w lemma="ἐνιαυτός">ἐνιαυτὸν</w>). There remains some debate about whether this expression designates the festival held in the three years between two occurrences of the Great Panathenaia (which were organised every four years), or more properly, those elements of the festival that happened every year (κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν) and were particularly augmented every four years during this "Great" instalment (see now Knoepfler, p. 152-153 with nn. 22-23 for a summary, siding with the latter view). The other text, Fragment A, records the decision to lease out a land called the Νέα and to sell a tax, so that the resulting revenues may increase the splendidness of the festival and the income of the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign>.</p> 
                
<p>Our text, Fragment B is a decree, seemingly an amendment of a previous decision by the council (the Boule of Athens, lines 8-9), first describes two traditional sacrifices to Athena during the festival, one to Athena Hygieia, the other to Athena "in the ancient temple", and the ensuing distributions of meat (lines 9-17). The distribution of the meat is to be made to various officials according to their hierarchy of political importance, with different portions specified for each group, then to those Athenians who participated in the procession and to some other group "in the customary way", then to all other Athenian citizens. A further set of sacrifices is to be financed with the rent from the lease of the Nea, as described in Fragment A, and this is offered to Athena Polias and Nike (lines 17-28). Specifically, the majority of the cows should be sacrificed on the altar of Athena Polias, but one of the most beautiful cows is offered on the altar of Athene Nike. In the case of this new sacrifice, the meat is distributed to the Athenian people, without a hierarchical differentiation being made, but to each deme a portion is given that accords with the numbers of participants in the procession. At the end of the inscription, we find other brief guidelines concerning the further augmentation (lines 28-32) and the practical details of the organisation of the festival (lines 32-37); perhaps the now fragmentary inscription would have added further details below.</p>
                
<p>Can we quantify how the decisions recorded in this dossier would have contributed to increase the annual Panathenaia (for this decree is probably supplementary, and does not represent the total of the offerings made on this occasion)? The 41 minae of rent from the Nea used to fund the sacrifices to Athena Polias and Nike yield 4100 drachmae. Thus, with all due caution, if we approximate the price of cows and other oxen at ca. 90-100 drachmae in the second half of the fourth century BC at Athens (see Rosivach 1994), then there would perhaps have been enough money for ca. 40-50 additional cows each year; perhaps more if the price was lower, perhaps less if the cows were especially chosen for their beauty. In the large scale of Athenian festivals and with the economic hazards of inflation, however, it remains difficult to put this in perspective (note, e.g., that the Great Panathenaia, almost a century earlier, is known to have a had a budget of 5114 drachmae for a hekatomb, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG II³">IG II³</bibl> 375, line 7, 410/9 BC).</p>
                
<p>Lines 8-11: These lines seem to introduce some kind of novel arrangement, as is evident from the phrase τὰ μὲν ἄλλα καθά[περ ..., θ]ύειν δὲ. Since τῆι βουλῆι is restored, we cannot be sure that a previous decision of the council was involved, though the layout of the document and Fragment A (cf. above) would suggest so. Alternatively, the gap in these lines may have contained some general reference to law, custom or tradition (νόμος, τὰ πάτρια, νόμιμα, or the like). It is unclear which part of the rules which follow has changed or been 'amended'. A related problem is the phrase καθάπερ πρότερον in line 11, since we do not know precisely what it refers to. One view may be that the elaborately hierarchical and detailed distribution of meat in lines 11-17 is an innovation or revision regarding these traditional sacrifices (so Knoepfler). Another view is that the novelty in this document is the whole of the second sacrifice detailed below in lines 17-26 (Rosivach 1991). Still further, one may view the financing of the second sacrifice from the revenues of the Nea as new. For discussion of these questions, cf. Rhodes - Osborne, p. 402-403. Note that these options are not mutually exclusive: they may all represent innovations and augmentations of traditional practice to a certain degree. Knoepfler (p. 158-161) discusses at length the restoration of the two sacrifices or sacrificial animals offered to Athena Hygieia and another to the same goddess—Athena—no doubt on the Acropolis, ingeniously suggesting [ἄρνας τὴν τε] ... as a supplement ((incidentally, [ἀμνάς] is an equally plausible restoration in the same sense; cp. the sacrifice to Athena at Erchia, <ref target="CGRN_52">CGRN 52</ref>, col. Β, lines 27-32). This would result in two lambs, one sacrificed for each goddess at a different place near the possible site of the stele, the area between the Propylaia and the Erectheion (see above on Provenance). Yet the precise syntax remains somewhat elusive (the use of the definitive article, τὰς μὲν δύο ..., is intriguing) and so the lacuna is not necessarily reducible to 5 letters only (it is given as 10 here as in Lambert). While attractive, since lambs could be offered as preliminary offerings to a major sacrifice and were indeed sacrificed (as were, more commonly, mature ewes) to Athena, Knoepfler's supplement would also entail that the numerous commensurate portions from only two lambs distributed to prominent officials (lines 11-17; see below) were rather small or lacking in meat; at least, this would surely be the case for the portions given to "the rest of the Athenians". Knoepfler also views as these portions as having only "une valeur symbolique" (p. 164), which is difficult to accept. The cult of Athena Hygieia was one of the early healing cults in Athens already attested before the arrival of the god Asclepius in 420/419. Her role was "essentially prophylactic, and directed to the health of the community as a whole, not of individuals" (Parker, p. 175). The final section of these lines has been restored in various ways, but the restoration τῶι ἀρ[χαίωι νεῶι] seems the most likely. In the fourth century, the Erechtheion was referred to as the "old temple"; cf. here the inscription of the Praxiergidai, <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_24/">CGRN 24</ref> for further discussion, also for the idea that the foundations of this ancient temple were left standing on the Acropolis in next to the Erechtheion. The fact that this commemorative temple was located in the open air seems to "solve the problem" caused by reading ἐν τῶι ἀρ[χαίωι νεῶι] as indicating the performance of a sacrifice in the Erechtheion itself (an issue raised again by Knoepfler, p. 163-164). Other suggested restorations, each with their own problems, are: "in the old <foreign>hieron</foreign>", "on the Areios Pagos", "in the [sanctuary of] the Archegetis", "in the Arrephoreion" (an unattested expression suggested by Humphreys); cf. also Schwenk, p. 93, and also Brulé on this textual problem.</p>

                <p>Lines 11-17: The meat measured in equitable "portions" and distributed among various groups is a traditional practice in Athens, cp. e.g. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_19/">CGRN 19</ref> (deme of Skambonidai), lines A9-11, C6-10. As in other distributions, two different mechanisms and ideas are at work. First, special honorands and participants in the cult are singled out, who receive one or more such portions. The rest of the meat is then to be distributed in an egalitarian way among "the Athenians" who partake in the procession and finally, any remaining meat, among the remainder of "the Athenians" (very probably, the male citizens of the city who could not attend the procession). As Ekroth describes, it is probable that these first portions, though equitable, would contain good amounts of meat. Other parts of the animal that were divided into equal portions were perhaps tougher, and this meat needed to hang for a few days and/or be cooked for a considerable time (for instance, in a stew). For continued speculation on the number of portions to be restored in the lacunae, see Knoepfler. Contrary to all previous interpretations of the text, Knoepfler hypothesises that the clause τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα forms a counterpart to the two or more sacrifices described previously (τὰς μὲν δύο...; see above on lines 8-11), and thus introduces the new sacrifices of cows funded from the Nea. We opt to maintain the previous, more natural reading, taking τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα following the earlier sacrifices; for a direct comparison, see here the calendar of Kos, <ref target="CGRN_86">CGRN 86</ref> A, line 22, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα τᾶς πόλιο̣ς, which clearly relates to the sacrificial animal described immediately earlier (cp. also <ref target="CGRN_147">CGRN 147</ref>, line 60, from the same island). In the same line 16, Lambert, perhaps overcautiously, confines the widely accepted restoration [κανηφόροι]ς to his apparatus while noting its probability. See Brulé, p. 47-50, for good arguments about the involvement of these female cultic agents in the festival.</p>
                    
<p> Line 17-26: For the second set of sacrifices described in the text, the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> buy cows with the revenues (41 <foreign>minai</foreign>) from the lease of the land called the Nea. Having conducted a procession, these cows are to be sacrificed on the great altar of Athena (ἐπὶ τῶι βωμῶι τῆς [Ἀθηνᾶς τῶι με]γάλωι), but one very beautiful cow is offered on the altar of Athena Nike; on beauty contests and the selection of sacrificial animals, see also here e.g. <ref target="CGRN_186">CGRN 186</ref> (Ilion), line 27. As Lambert points out, after Athens' defeat at Chaironeia in 338 BC, the cult of Athena Nike became even more prominent. No consensus on the identity of the Nea has been reached. The amount of rent suggests it is a sizeable piece of land. According to Robert, we should understand νέα χώρα, "newly acquired territory", as Oropos, since this territory is considered to have been given to Athens by Philip of Macedon in 338/7 (the older view) or already in 336/5 by Alexander the Great (a newer view, see both Lambert and Knoepfler). For his part, Langdon argued that this land was a small island next to Lemnos, now the Keros or Charos Reef; for further discussion of this debate, cf. Rhodes - Osborne, p. 400-401. On the leasing of sacred and public lands as a means of revenue, cf. now Papazarkadas, with particular reference to the Nea.</p>
                    
<p> Lines 25-28: Exceptionally, the meat of the second set of sacrifices is to be distributed by deme, according to the number of participants ([πέμπον]τας) which each deme provides for the procession. No analogous cases are known; see Rhodes - Osborne, p. 401. Knoepfler (p. 175-187) interestingly questions the established restoration, seeking to reestablish Ussing's proposal [βουλευ]τὰς. This would entail a repartition of meats from the cows equal to the number of councilmen provided by each deme. In other words, only 500 portions would be given from at least 40-50 oxen, if not more. While noting Knoepfler's ingenious questioning of the widely accepted restoration [πέμπον]τας (usually requiring an object and perhaps rather oblique in the absolute sense of "escort" or "participant", but see already the present participle [τ]οῖς πομπ[εῦσι]ν in line 15), we find his interpretation to result in a difficult sense of μερίς, an equitable portion, such as could be eaten by a citizen: thus, only 10 portions awarded from each cow? Moreover, 500 portions would surely be too small a number, inadequate for distribution to the whole citizenry (cp. also Knoepfler's p. 194). The location of this distribution has plausibly been restored as the Kerameikos, an open space which could receive a large crowd without any problem, and which formed the starting point of the procession of the Panathenaia (Thuc. 6.57). The distribution would most probably not have taken place immediately after the sacrifice on the Acropolis; for a recent discussion, see also Knoepfler, p. 172-175.</p>              
                    
<p>Lines 28-32: An amount of 50 drachmae is to be set apart for the costs of contracts relating to the procession, the payment of the butchers, the adornment of the altar and whatever else is needed for the organisation of the festival and an all-night celebration. This pannychis (cf. Deubner) took place after the procession, known to have occurred the 28 of Hekatombaion (Eur. <title>Heracl.</title> 777ff.; on the date, see Mikalson).</p>
                    
<p> Lines 32-37: The final fragmentary lines of the document apparently comprise a separate part or section, containing special instructions for the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign>. They are to ensure that the festival is organised as elegantly as possible, that the procession starts at sunrise and that any wrongdoers are punished. An unknown number of citizens (lines 36-37) are to be selected by the Council for a purpose that is now lost. Knoepfler (p. 192-195) implausibly dissociates this measure from the remainder of the new regulations for the festival, while rightly calling it "ponctuelle" (ad hoc) given the aorist ἑλέσθαι.
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