CGRN 63

Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Lindos (concerning Zeus Amalos)

Date :

ca. 400 BC

Justification: lettering and dialect (Blinkenberg).

Provenance

Lindos . Found during excavations on the Acropolis, below and to the east of the monumental stairway.

Support

Small stele of Lartian marble, broken and worn in some areas, and especially at the right. The bottom is completely broken off. The top and left (and to some degree the right) sides are relatively intact.

  • Height: 18 cm
  • Width: 24.8 cm
  • Depth: 7 cm

Layout

Letters: 17 mm high; round letters: 12-13 mm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Blinkenberg Lindos II 26, with ph.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 89.

Further bibliography: Segre 1951; Winand 1990; Badoud 2015: 11-35; Peels 2016: 204 with n. 141; Iversen 2017: 192-197; Gabrielsen forthc.; Carbon forthc..

Text


vacat
ακιν[θίο]υ ἑνδε-
κάται
Διὶ Ἀμαλῶ[ι]
κάπρος ἑξάμην[ος]·
θύει ἰαροθύτας
5Αἰγήλιος· γυναιξὶ
ο⟨ὐ⟩κ ὁσία.
vacat

Translation

On the 11th of Hyakinthios: to Zeus Amalos, a six-month-old boar. The hierothytes, an Aigelian, sacrifices it. Not permitted to women.

Traduction

Le 11 Hyakinthios : à Zeus Amalos, un verrat âgé de six mois. Le hiérothyte, un Aigélien, le sacrifie. Non autorisé pour les femmes.

Commentary

This document appears to be one of the earliest excerpts from the sacrificial calendar of Rhodes or from the sacrificial calendar of Lindos itself (the synoikism of Rhodes is traditionally dated to 408 BC and this inscription's relationship with that event, if any, remains unclear). See CGRN 62 for a nearly contemporaneous parallel, with further discussion. For a discussion of excerpts from sacrificial calendars on the island of Rhodes, see Segre and Carbon. Cp. CGRN 115 for a later example of such excerpts, also mentioning the personnel known as hiarothytai as sacrificial agents at Lindos.

In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen) Hyakinthios was the 11th month (ca. June/July). The date of the sacrifice cited here is otherwise unattested on Rhodes, and the recipient, Zeus Amalos, is not well-known either. The best analogies for the epithet are: 1 - the month at Delphi known as Amalios, which presumes an unattested festival called the Amalia (but this is thought to fall in January/February, a completely different season from the summertime Rhodian Hyakinthios); 2 - mention of a similar festival performed in honour of Zeus by Hsch. s.v. Ἀμμαλῶ. The etymology of the epithet remains wholly unclear, however (but see below on line 3).

Line 3: The boar is qualified by what appears to be a minimum age requirement of six months. Van Straten (apud Peels) made the very appealing suggestion that a boar (sus scrofa) gradually loses its stripes during its youth. A six-month-old boar would therefore have had an altogether different appearance from the younger animal and could have been readily identified as such. Various religious motivations may be behind this prescription, such as indeed concerns about the colour and coat of the animal, or even a relation with a possible meaning of the epithet, since ἀμαλός can designate any 'young' or 'weak' animals. But there may also have been very practical reasons behind the age requirement, such as the desire to secure an older (and larger) animal which would therefore provide more meat.

Lines 5-6: Aigelios appears to be an ethnic deriving from an otherwise unknown subdivision of Lindos, perhaps a ktoina (see Winand, and Gabrielsen forthc.; a deme of this name is known on Kos). For further interdictions concerning female participation found in the sacrificial calendar of Rhodes, see CGRN 62. On the semantics and usage of ἡ ὁσία cf. Peels.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 63, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 63, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/63/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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					<head>Bibliography</head>
					<p>Edition here based on Blinkenberg <bibl type="abbr" n="Lindos II">Lindos II</bibl> 26, with ph.</p>
				    <p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 89.</p>
					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Winand 1990">Winand 1990</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud 2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>: 11-35; <bibl type="author_date" n="Peels 2016">Peels 2016</bibl>: 204 with n. 141; <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: 192-197; <bibl type="author_date" n="Gabrielsen forthc.">Gabrielsen forthc.</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl>.</p>
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	    				<head>Text</head>
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	    					<lb/> <space extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    				   					
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Ὑακίνθιος"><unclear>Ὑ</unclear>ακιν<supplied reason="lost">θίο</supplied><unclear>υ</unclear></w></name> <w lemma="ἑνδέκατος">ἑνδε
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" break="no"/>κάται</w> <name type="deity" key="Zeus"><w lemma="Ζεύς">Διὶ</w></name> <name type="epithet" key="Amalos"><w lemma="Ἀμάλος">Ἀμαλῶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><name type="animal" key="swine"><name type="gender"><w lemma="κάπρος">κάπρος</w></name></name> <name type="age"><w lemma="ἑξάμηνος">ἑξάμην<supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied></w></name>·
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύει</w></name> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροθύτης">ἰαροθύτας</w></name>
    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="ethnic" key="unclear"><w lemma="Αἰγήλιος">Αἰγήλιο<unclear>ς</unclear></w></name>· <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυναιξὶ</w></name>
	    					
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					On the 11th of Hyakinthios: to Zeus Amalos, a six-month-old boar. The <foreign>hierothytes</foreign>, an Aigelian, sacrifices it. Not permitted to women.
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					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>
					Le 11 Hyakinthios : à Zeus Amalos, un verrat âgé de six mois. Le hiérothyte, un Aigélien, le sacrifie. Non autorisé pour les femmes.
					</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    

						<p>This document appears to be one of the earliest excerpts from the sacrificial calendar of Rhodes or from the sacrificial calendar of Lindos itself (the synoikism of Rhodes is traditionally dated to 408 BC and this inscription's relationship with that event, if any, remains unclear). See  <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> for a nearly contemporaneous parallel, with further discussion. For a discussion of excerpts from sacrificial calendars on the island of Rhodes, see Segre and Carbon. Cp. <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> for a later example of such excerpts, also mentioning the personnel known as <foreign>hiarothytai</foreign> as sacrificial agents at Lindos.</p>

<p>In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen) Hyakinthios was the 11th month (ca. June/July). The date of the sacrifice cited here is otherwise unattested on Rhodes, and the recipient, Zeus Amalos, is not well-known either. The best analogies for the epithet are: 1 - the month at Delphi known as Amalios, which presumes an unattested festival called the Amalia (but this is thought to fall in January/February, a completely different season from the summertime Rhodian Hyakinthios); 2 - mention of a similar festival performed in honour of Zeus by Hsch. s.v. Ἀμμαλῶ. The etymology of the epithet remains wholly unclear, however (but see below on line 3).</p> 
							
						<p>Line 3: The boar is qualified by what appears to be a minimum age requirement of six months. Van Straten (apud Peels) made the very appealing suggestion that a boar (<foreign>sus scrofa</foreign>) gradually loses its stripes during its youth. A six-month-old boar would therefore have had an altogether different appearance from the younger animal and could have been readily identified as such. Various religious motivations may be behind this prescription, such as indeed concerns about the colour and coat of the animal, or even a relation with a possible meaning of the epithet, since ἀμαλός can designate any 'young' or 'weak' animals. But there may also have been very practical reasons behind the age requirement, such as the desire to secure an older (and larger) animal which would therefore provide more meat.</p>
	
						<p>Lines 5-6: Aigelios appears to be an ethnic deriving from an otherwise unknown subdivision of Lindos, perhaps a <foreign>ktoina</foreign> (see Winand, and Gabrielsen forthc.; a deme of this name is known on Kos). For further interdictions concerning female participation found in the sacrificial calendar of Rhodes, see <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref>. On the semantics and usage of ἡ ὁσία cf. Peels.
							
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