CGRN 47

Small rupestral calendrical regulation from Thera

Date :

ca. 400-375 BC.

Justification: lettering (Hiller von Gaertringen).

Provenance

Thera . Located on rocks to the right of the entrance of a church (unnamed), as identified by Hiller von Gaertringen. Current state of conservation unknown.

Support

Rupestral (rock-cut) inscription, partly effaced.

  • Height: n/a
  • Width: n/a
  • Depth: n/a

Layout

To our knowledge, the measurements of letters are unknown.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Hiller von Gaertringen IG XII.3 452, with add. p. 301 (cf. also IG XII.Suppl. p. 87).

Cf. also: Ziehen LGS II 127; Sokolowski LSCG 133.

Further bibliography: Buck 1910: 260 no. 108, with English transl.; Jaillard 2004.

Text


vacat
[..?..]ΓΕΝΗΤΟΝ
Ἀρταμιτίο τετάρται
πεδ’ ἰκάδα θυσέοντι
ἱαρόν, Ἀγορηΐοις δὲ
5[δε]ῖπνογ [κ]αὶ ἱα[ρ] πρὸ το̑ σαμήιο.
vacat

Translation

[...] on the 24th of Artamitios, they will sacrifice an offering. And during the Agoreia, a meal and offerings in front of the sign.

Traduction

[...] le 24 Artamitios, ils sacrifieront une offrande. Et durant les Agoreia, un repas et des offrandes devant le symbole.

Commentary

The precise context of this small regulation is relatively enigmatic. Though rock-cut, it explicitly refers to a σημεῖον (line 5). It is unclear if the latter word refers to a sign, perhaps a symbol of a deity (so Ziehen). One might think, for instance, of the symbols of Zeus Ktesios mentioned by Antikleides (Jacoby, FGrH 140 F 22, ap. Athen. 9.473b-c); yet these καδίσκοι where only located in the household (cf. Jaillard). Alternatively, the σημεῖον may have been a tomb. That hypothesis is not very likely, however, given the mention of what appears to be an important festival, the Agoraia, in line 4 (as correctly interpreted by Buck). Indeed, another rupestral (but metrical) inscription from Thera, IG XII.3 1324, also appears to mention this celebration: Ἀγλοτέλης πράτισ|τος Ἀγορᾶν hικάδι | Καρνῆια θέον δεί|πν[ι]ξεν hὀνιπαντίδα | καὶ Λακαρτο͂ς. More or less contemporaenously with our text, a certain Agloteles, claimed to be the first to have hosted a meal for the 'Karneian god', i.e. Apollo Karneios, "on the twentieth of the Agora(ia)". Since neither the Agora nor the Agoraia are a month, it may be that the Theran Agora or Agoraia took place on the 20th of the month Karneios (possible but not otherwise attested on Thera: the calendar is poorly evidenced). At any rate, this much seems clear: during the festival of the Agora/Agoraia, it was customary to offer a meal (δεῖπνογ) as well as other offerings, to Apollo Karneios but perhaps also to other gods. The "offerings" (ἱαρόν, line 4, ἱαρά, line 5) referred to here may have been animals, such as sheep (for ἱερά in the sense of sacrificial animals, cf. CGRN 38, Chios, lines A5-6, B6). What connection the festival had with the agora of the city or with market-business is unclear. It is likely that some useful information for clarifying the context of the present document would have been provided by the fragmentary line 1, which might have added a clarification about an individual, group or cult involved (cf. also Ziehen). The rites on the 24th of Artamitios (a spring month) are not otherwise attested on Thera. The regulation in its brevity and rupstral character matches other short and contemporaneous calendrical indications concerning festivals (IG I³ 1382: Eros on the north slope of the Acropolis, ca. 450-430 BC; SEG 59, 932: Andros, ca. 450-400 BC). To some extent, it also parallels the excerpts from the sacrificial calendar affixed at specific cult sites throughout the island of Rhodes starting around the end of the Classical period: cf. CGRN 62 and CGRN 63.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 47, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 47, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/47/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2017]).

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	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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			<p><origDate notBefore="-0400" notAfter="-0375">ca. 400-375 BC</origDate>.</p>
			<p><desc>Justification: lettering (Hiller von Gaertringen).</desc></p>
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					<head>Bibliography</head>
		<p>Edition here based on Hiller von Gaertringen <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.3">IG XII.3</bibl> 452, with add. p. 301 (cf. also <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.Suppl.">IG XII.Suppl.</bibl> p. 87).</p>
				    <p>Cf. also: Ziehen <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS II">LGS II</bibl> 127; Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 133.</p>
				<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Buck 1910">Buck 1910</bibl>: 260 no. 108, with English transl.; <bibl type="author_date" n="Jaillard 2004">Jaillard 2004</bibl>.</p>
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	    				<head>Text</head>
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	    				<lb/><space extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ΓΕ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="2" unit="character"/><orig>ΝΗ<unclear>ΤΟ</unclear>Ν</orig>	

	    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Ἀρτεμίσιος">Ἀρταμιτίο</w></name> <w lemma="τέταρτος">τετάρται</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><w lemma="μετά">πεδ’</w> <w lemma="εἰκάς">ἰκάδα</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυσέοντι</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱαρόν</w></name>, <name type="festival"><w lemma="ἀγοραῖος">Ἀγορηΐοις</w></name> δὲ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="meal"><w lemma="δεῖπνον"><supplied reason="lost">δε</supplied>ῖπνογ</w></name> <supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>αὶ <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱα<supplied reason="lost">ρ</supplied>ὰ</w></name> <w lemma="πρό">πρὸ</w> το̑ <name type="structure"><w lemma="σημεῖον">σαμήιο</w></name>.
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					<p>
					[...] on the 24th of Artamitios, they will sacrifice an offering. And during the Agoreia, a meal and offerings in front of the sign. 
					</p>
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					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>
					[...] le 24 Artamitios, ils sacrifieront une offrande. Et durant les Agoreia, un repas et des offrandes devant le symbole.
					</p>
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					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						<p>The precise context of this small regulation is relatively enigmatic. Though rock-cut, it explicitly refers to a σημεῖον (line 5). It is unclear if the latter word refers to a sign, perhaps a symbol of a deity (so Ziehen). One might think, for instance, of the symbols of Zeus Ktesios mentioned by Antikleides (Jacoby, <bibl type="abbr" n="FGrH">FGrH</bibl> 140 F 22, ap. Athen. 9.473b-c); yet these καδίσκοι where only located in the household (cf. Jaillard). Alternatively, the σημεῖον may have been a tomb. That hypothesis is not very likely, however, given the mention of what appears to be an important festival, the Agoraia, in line 4 (as correctly interpreted by Buck). Indeed, another rupestral (but metrical) inscription from Thera, <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.3">IG XII.3</bibl> 1324, also appears to mention this celebration: Ἀγλοτέλης πράτισ|τος Ἀγορᾶν hικάδι | Καρνῆια θέον δεί|πν[ι]ξεν hὀνιπαντίδα | καὶ Λακαρτο͂ς. More or less contemporaenously with our text, a certain Agloteles, claimed to be the first to have hosted a meal for the 'Karneian god', i.e. Apollo Karneios, "on the twentieth of the Agora(ia)". Since neither the Agora nor the Agoraia are a month, it may be that the Theran Agora or Agoraia took place on the 20th of the month Karneios (possible but not otherwise attested on Thera: the calendar is poorly evidenced). At any rate, this much seems clear: during the festival of the Agora/Agoraia, it was customary to offer a meal (δεῖπνογ) as well as other offerings, to Apollo Karneios but perhaps also to other gods. The "offerings" (ἱαρόν, line 4, ἱαρά, line 5) referred to here may have been animals, such as sheep (for ἱερά in the sense of sacrificial animals, cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_38/">CGRN 38</ref>, Chios, lines A5-6, B6). What connection the festival had with the agora of the city or with market-business is unclear. It is likely that some useful information for clarifying the context of the present document would have been provided by the fragmentary line 1, which might have added a clarification about an individual, group or cult involved (cf. also Ziehen). The rites on the 24th of Artamitios (a spring month) are not otherwise attested on Thera. The regulation in its brevity and rupstral character matches other short and contemporaneous calendrical indications concerning festivals (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG I³">IG I³</bibl> 1382: Eros on the north slope of the Acropolis, ca. 450-430 BC; <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 59, 932: Andros, ca. 450-400 BC). To some extent, it also parallels the excerpts from the sacrificial calendar affixed at specific cult sites throughout the island of Rhodes starting around the end of the Classical period: cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_62/">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_63/">CGRN 63</ref>.</p>
						
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