CGRN 223

Regulation concerning festivals from Arkadia

Date :

ca. 450 BC

Justification: alphabet, lettering and context (Heinrichs, proposing ca. 500 BC; Carbon - Clackson, ca. 475-450 BC, but cf. Dubois (2016), Minon, for a more precise date of ca. 450 BC, and see Rosamilia for arguments for after 450 BC given the use of obols as monetary units (cf. also commentary on line 13).

Provenance

Uncertain location in Arkadia  (on the basis of the dialect). For possible identifications, most prominently the Lykaion and Methydrion, see Commentary. The tablet appeared on the antiquities market in 2010, no doubt after being looted and illegally exported from Greece. The tablet is currently in a private collection.

Support

The text is incised on a somewhat corroded bronze tablet, now broken into 5 principal fragments, but also broken to the left (apparently substantially), to the right (seemingly less substantially), and to the bottom (though part of the end of the text is conserved in line 22). The tablet preserves what appears to be an intact straight edge above. For further details, see Heinrichs, p. 4-7, and the discussion in the Commentary below.

  • Height: 32.5 cm
  • Width: 46 cm
  • Depth: unknown thickness

Layout

Punctuation in the form of a tricolon (⁝) systematically demarcates phrases in the inscription. The only instance of extraneous punctuation occurs in line 6, where it is interposed in the word χ{⁝}ο̑ρον; empty space was then left to demarcate the conclusion of this phrase further in the same line. On the composition of the phrases in the document, see Commentary below.

Letters: unknown height.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Carbon - Clackson 2016, with phs., following the preliminary publication by Heinrichs 2015: 4-15, 26-63, App. 1., with drawing (p. 31) and photos. From the edition of Carbon and Clackson, the text has now further been modified in some details, which are for the most part discussed in the Commentary. We are particularly grateful to Sophie Minon, who generously provided acute remarks and valuable advice on this revision of the text.

Cf. also: Dubois REG 2016 BE no. 214; Dubois REG 2017 BE no. 229; Minon REG 2017 BE no. 230; Tentori Montalto 2018: 125-127; Papazarkadas SEG 65, 292.

Further bibliography: Jost 1985; Jost 1998; Nielsen 2002; Feyel 2006; Georgoudi 2007; Roy 2013; Nielsen 2015; Ampolo 2018; Pirenne-Delforge 2019; Rosamilia 2019.

Text


[..?..]
[..?.. τἀβδόμαι ἰσταμίνο (?) ..?..] τᾶι τρμιανβρὶ (?), ὄϝιν καλιστεύϝονσαν, τὰ κ[ρ]έα ἄϝεθλα θε̑ναιτἀλφεο̑ι χο̑[ρον ..?..]
[..?.. ἐν τοῖς (?)] Μαραθίδαιτς ὄϝις καλιστεύϝονσα, τᾶι τριανβρὶ κ᾽ ἄϝεθλααλ τὰ κρέα θ[ε̑ναι ..?..]
[..?..] βόε δύϝο, τᾶι παναγόρι τᾶι τριανβρ[ί] ⁝ τᾶι τριπαναγόρι, ἰν Κορυνιτίοι, το̑ι Ι[..?..]
[..?.. ὄϝι]ν ὄρενα ἰν (...) ⁝ τἀλφεο̑ι χ{⁝}ο̑ρον ν Ϝελϝειον vvv ἰν Ἀλέαν το̑ν Μαραθιδᾶ ..?..]
5[..?..]+ ὄϝις κεραῒς καλιστεύϝονσα, χο̑ρο δύϝο καλιστ⟨ε⟩ύϝοντε, ἃ θεμιστίαΤ[..?..]
[..?..]ΑΤΑΙ, κόρϝον, ἐνϝότοι ϝέτει, ἐξάγεν ἀσπίδα, ἀκόντιον, φοινικὶς, ξίφος, Κ[..?..]
[..?..]ΙΑΤΕΤΟΝΑΣΙΑἰν Κορυνίτιον τᾶι τριανβρὶ βο̑ν, τὀτινίοι ὄϝιν ὄρενα, ΤΑ[..?..]
[..?.. Ζα]πατέαι ϝιν ὄρενα, ἐνϝότοι ϝέτει τοίπερ ὉπλόδμιαΖαπατέαι το̑ι ΠΑ[..?..] s
[..?..]ΟΝἰν Κελεπρόδει το̑ι Κεραυνο̑ι ἰερόνιον, Ὀλυνπίαι⟨ι⟩ς {Τ} ⁝ ἰν Σπέλαι το̑ι [..?..]
10[..?.. ὄϝιν (?)] ὄρενα, ἐνϝότοι ϝέτει ὅτε περ Ὁπλόδμια ⁝ τᾶι παναγόρι τὰς ἑκοτὸν [..?..]
[..?.. ϝε]κατέραςΤΑΣΧΑΛΟΕΜΙΛΑΙΟΝΠΥΝΠΡΑΙ προστέθειον, τᾶν ϟεσϟάρον [..?..]
[..?..]ΟΙ ὄϝιν ὄρενα ⁝ το̑ι Θερέται κριὸντἀλφεο̑ι κριὸν, τρε̑ς αἶσαι το̑ννυ ⁝ [..?..]
[..?..]μεν χο̑ρο δύϝο, τᾶι ἰερέαι ὀϟελὸ δύο. vacat
[..?.. ἰν Γεν]έσϝανἰν Γενέσϝαν ὄϝιν, τἀγδόαι ἰσταμίνο, τὀρμᾶι ἄγαλμα, Π[..?..]
15[..?..]ϟΕΥΣΙ ⁝ το̑ι Διϝονύσοι, ἰν 《Ὑ》λασμο[ῖ]ς, αἴξ ὄρεν προτρύγιος ⁝ το̑ι ΚΕ[..?..]
[..?.. ἐνϝότοι ϝέτει τοίπερ Ὁπλό]δμιαἰν Καίταυ βοῦς, το̑ι ἁ τριανβρὶς, το̑ι δ᾽ ἀτέροι ϝέτε⟨ι⟩ ὄϝις [ρεν ..?..]
[..?..]Ν ἑμίτειαν, κερίονἰν Σμασι ὄϝις ὄρεν, τἀτέροι ϝἔτ[ει ..?..]
[..?.. ἰν Γ]ενέσϝαν ὄϝις ὄρενἰν Τετοναταν ὄϝις σκεπτόςἰν ΟΡ+[..?..]
[..?.. τἀ]τέροι ϝέτει, θυϝέα, ὀϟελόντὀρακλεῖ ὄϝιν ὄρεν ..?..]
20[..?..]+Σ, βοῦς ἄφετος, ὄϝιε δύϝο ὄρενε, κερίο δύϝο κὰς Ο[..?..]
[..?..]ΑΝΤΙ ὄϝις ὄρεν, Ὀλυνπίαι ὄϊςΚλετοράδε ταῦρον κὰς [..?.. vacat (?)]
[..?..] κάδικον, ἀσκὸν, ὄϝιν, τἀνϝόται ἰσταμίνο, ἰν ΧΑΝΧ[..?..]
[..?..]vacat

Translation

[… on the seventh day (of the month) (?) …], during the three-day (?) festival, a ewe reckoned most beautiful, the meat is to be placed as prizes. To Alpheios, a piglet [… among the (?)] Marathidai, a ewe reckoned most beautiful, during the three-day festival and as prizes the meat is to be placed […] a pair of oxen, during the assembly in the three-day festival. In the trieteric festival, at Korynition, to […] a male [sheep] at (omitted). To Alpheios, a piglet for Welweion (?). For Alea of the Marathidai [… (5) …] a ewe, horned, reckoned most beautiful, a pair of piglets reckoned most beautiful, what is religiously permitted. […] let a boy, in the ninth year, bring forth: a shield, a small javelin, red vestments, a sword, […] (unintelligible). For Korynition, during the three-day festival, an ox, during the annual festival (?), a male sheep, […] during (the) Zapatea a male sheep, in the ninth year, exactly when the Hoplodmia (take place). During (the) Zapatea to Pa[…]. At Keleprodos (?), to (Zeus) Keraunos, a sacred offering (?); at Olympia, a sheep. At Spela, to [… (10) …] a male [sheep?], in the ninth year, exactly when the Hoplodmia (take place). During the assembly, the hundred female […] each of the two (female) parties. (unintelligible) breastplate (?), of the four (female) […], a male sheep. To Theretas, a ram. To Alpheios, a ram, (make) three portions of these (i.e. the meat). […] a pair of piglets; to the priestess, two obols.

[… for] Geneswa. For Geneswa, a sheep, on the eighth day (of the month), to Hermes, a statue [… (15) …]. To Dionysus, at Hylasmoi, a male goat as a Protrygaia-offering. To Ke[… in the ninth year, exactly when] the Hoplodmia (take place). At (the plot/sanctuary) of Kaitas, an ox, in the (year when) the three-day festival (takes place), and in the other year, a [male] sheep [… of …] a half-hekton, a honey-comb. At Samata , a male sheep; in the other year [… for] Geneswa, a male sheep. For Tetonata (?) a sheep, examined. At Or[…] in the other year, aromatics for burning, an obol. To Heracles, a male sheep [… (20) …] an ox exempt from work, a pair of male sheep, two honeycombs and [… to …] a male sheep; at Olympia, a sheep. To Kleitor, a bull and […].

[...] a jar (or: measure), a wineskin, a sheep, on the ninth day (of the month), at Chanch[…].

Traduction

[… le septième jour (du mois) (?) …] lors de la fête de trois jours (?), une brebis qui l’emporte par sa beauté, que les viandes soient déposées comme prix. Pour Alphée, un porcelet [… chez les (?)] Marathidai, une brebis qui l’emporte par sa beauté, lors de la fête de trois jours, et que les viandes soient déposées comme prix […] deux bovins, lors du rassemblement de la fête de trois jours. Durant la fête triétérique, au Korynition, à [… un mouton] mâle à (omis). Pour Alphée, un porcelet pour Welweion (?). Pour Aléa des Marathidai [… (5) …], une brebis avec des cornes, qui l’emporte par sa beauté, deux porcelets qui l’emportent par leur beauté, ce qui est religieusement permis […] que le jeune homme, la neuvième année, exhibe un bouclier, un petit javelot, des pièces de vêtement rouges, une épée, […] (inintelligible). Pour Korynition, lors de la fête de trois jours, un bovin ; lors de la fête annuelle (?), un mouton mâle […] Durant (la) Zapatea, un mouton mâle, la neuvième année, quand (tombent) précisément les Hoplodmia. Durant (la) Zapatea, pour […]. À Keleprodos, pour le Keraunos une offrande sacrée (?) ; à Olympie, un ovin. À Spela, pour [… (10) … un mouton (?)] mâle, la neuvième année, quand (tombent) précisément les Hoplodmia. Lors du rassemblement, les cents (au féminin) […] de chacune des deux. (inintelligible) une cuirasse (?), des quatre (au féminin) […] un mouton mâle. Pour Theretas, un bélier. Pour Alphée, un bélier, (faire) trois portions de ces (viandes). […] deux porcelets, à la prêtresse, deux oboles.

[…] pour Geneswa. Pour Geneswa, un ovin, le huitième jour (du mois), pour Hermès, une statue, […15 …]. Pour Dionysos, à Hylasmoi, un caprin mâle en tant qu’offrande pour les Protrygaia. Pour le Ke[… la neuvième année, quand (tombent) précisément les] Hoplodmia. Au (sanctuaire) de Kaitas, un bovin, durant (l’année où tombe) la fête de trois jours ; et l’autre année, un mouton [mâle …] un hémiecte, un rayon de miel. Aux Samata, un mouton mâle ; l’autre année [… pour] Geneswa, un mouton mâle. Pour Tetonata (?), un mouton sélectionné. À Or[…] l’autre année, des offrandes à brûler, une obole. Pour Héraclès, un mouton mâle [… (20) …] un bovin qui n’est pas mis sous le joug, deux moutons mâles, deux rayons de miel et […] un mouton mâle ; à Olympie, un ovin. À Kleitor, un taureau et […].

[…] un récipient (ou unité de mesure), une outre, un ovin, le neuvième jour (du mois), à Chanch[…].

Commentary

This is one of the most significant tablets containing lists of rituals to have come from Arkadia, informing us about many details concerning rituals which were performed during an important celebration in the region from at least the mid-fifth century BC (cf. also here later texts from Tegea in the fourth century BC, CGRN 65, and Lykosoura at the end of the third century BC, CGRN 126). The text is striking both by the range of places and sanctuaries mentioned, by the diversity of the deities convoked, and by the varied nomenclature and periodicity of the festivals. In terms of geographical range, Carbon - Clackson, Dubois (2016), and Minon, have all noted that many of the places mentioned seem to center around the area of south-western Arkadia. This is the area through which runs the river Alpheios, which is worshipped as a god across the document (lines 1, 4, and 12); Maratha (lines 2 and 4), identified twice here by an ethnic (Marathidas, plural Marathidai), lies precisely in this area, on the opposite bank of the river from Mount Lykaion; Alea (line 4), which might bring to mind the well-known sanctuary of (Athena) Alea at Tegea or the place called Alea in north-east Arkadia, is here distinguished as another place, almost certainly a sanctuary of the goddess, belonging to the Marathidai. However, the range intended was clearly wider: Korynition (lines 3 and 7) appears to mark the tomb of a hero on the road leading south from Mantinea to Tegea ; Kleitor, in northern Arkadia, is also mentioned (line 21; cf. also line 18 for another Arkadian city); and even more distant, a sacrifice at the panhellenic sanctuary of Olympia, far downstream on the Alpheios in Elis, is alluded to twice (lines 9 and 21). Many of the other apparent placenames either evoke sanctuaries (Welweion?, line 4; see below on Spela and Geneswa) or remain as yet considerably obscure (Keleprodos, line 9; Tetonata?, line 18; cf. also line 7). The simple fact that the inscription collects a variety of rituals at such a wide range of places into an unified document has already led to the suggestion that it should in some way be linked to the development of a central form of authority in Arkadia (see Carbon - Clackson). Though Minon further suggests that at least part of the dialect of the inscription may be attributed to a Mantinean writer (cf. notably on line 20 below), she develops this argument further in connection with the Lykaion (noting also fifth century coins with the effigy of Zeus Lykaios, which bear the legend Ἀρκαδικόν; cf. Jost 1985, 182-184). For earlier discussions of the development of the Arkadian league, see Roy, Nielsen 2002: 121–157, and 2015 (one of the earliest piece of evidence for a meeting of the league in the sanctuary of the Lykaion remains IG V.2 548, 4th c. BC). This is indeed very plausible, though, since no source of authority is apparent in the document, it remains implied and to be confirmed. Moreover, the context of the festival celebration, which can be situated on Mount Lykaion or Mount Thaumasion near Methydrion (see below), still calls for further elucidation.

It is clear that the inscription shares many commonalities with sacrificial calendars (see Carbon - Clackson for a more detailed analysis). A typical entry in the document contains, at a minimum, a location or a divine recipient, followed by an offering (usually a sacrificial animal: see e.g. line 12, το̑ι Θερέται κριόν). This can be complemented by the indication of a date during which the rituals are to be performed, but this is rarely a specific day, rather than an indication of the year or period (see below). Far from being inconsistent (so Dubois 2016, "l'application ne semble pas toujours cohérente"), punctuation clearly demarcates each of these entries in the text, though occasionally some rituals taking place at a specific location or for the same recipient can be strung together (see e.g. line 14; cf. also above on Layout).

On the structure of the document, as it is preserved, several aspects warrant attention. First, while we could make the hypothesis that further text was inscribed above the top edge of the tablet, perhaps on another tablet somehow affixed to the present one, this remains entirely speculative. In the absence of other evidence, the first preserved line must therefore be treated as the first line of the document. That being said, it is clear that much text may be missing to the left, where the tablet is broken. In particular, the necessary restoration of the enneateric periodicity of the festival called [Ὁπλό]δ̣μια in line 16 as ἐνϝότοι ϝέτει τοίπερ or ὅτε περ (compare lines 8 and 10) therefore requires that at least 21 letters were missing in this line (see below ad loc.). This would imply that probably many more letters are missing to the left. The extent of the lacuna to the right is more uncertain, since at the most 5 letters appear to be missing in lines 1-2 (cf. also line 16). This may suggest that the lacuna to the right is less important than the one on the left, but no certainty is possible. Second, since we probably have the first line and we certainly have the conclusion of the document—the tablet remaining uninscribed for ca. 12 lines below line 22—, we can enquire what sort of composition it may have had. Most conspicuously, line 13 concludes with empty space, clearly demarcating a section of the text. The text resumes in line 14 with one of two mentions of a specific date in the text, τἀγδόαι ἰσταμίνο, on the 8th day at the beginning of an unspecified month. The only other mention of a specific date in a month occurs at the very end of the text, in line 22, and this is the 9th of the month (τἀνϝόται ἰσταμίνο). The rubric for this date appears to have been briefer, comprising line 22 and perhaps the now lost beginning of line 23. The reasonable inference to be drawn from these observations is that the section running from lines 14-21 was concerned with the date of the 8th of the month, the short remainder of the text with the 9th of the same month. These remarks therefore raise the question of what date the preceding section of the text, lines 1-13, may have concerned. Since one of the ritual occasions mentioned specifically and repeatedly in the text is called a τριαμβρίς, or three-day celebration, Carbon - Clackson infer that the first section of the text concerned the 7th day of the month (see the suggested restoration in line 1). For a different view, arguing for a larger calendar of sacrifices over at least a few months (not mentioned in the extant text), see now Rosamilia.

The inscription, as we have it, therefore treats an elaborate three-day festival occasion. This festival was characterised not only by a diversity of rituals at different cult-sites and to different divine recipients, but also by the application of at least three forms of periodicity (annual, biennial, and enneateric). Implicitly, and apparently explicitly in line 7 (see ad loc.), sacrifices which were not assigned to a specific period can be said to have been annual (see e.g. on line 12). A major cycle of events was a biennial one: every other year was held the occasion called τριαμβρίς, literally a three-day celebration, while other rites could also be prescribed for the other year in this biennial cycle (this is most apparent on the 8th day of the month, cf. lines 16-17, το̑ι ἁ τριανβρίς—i.e. in the year when the festival is called τριανβρίς and lasts three days—, το̑ι δ ̓ ἀτέροι ϝἔτε⟨ι⟩; τἀτέροι ϝἔτ̣[ει]; note that Rosamilia instead sees here "solo un riferimento cronologico" concerning the year of the τριανβρίς). It is also apparent that the first part of this celebration, which we suggest was the 7th day of the month (see line 1), was the most elaborate. It included contests, with meat being set up as prizes for victors (lines 1-2). It is also on this particular occasion that an assembly or a fair, τᾶι παναγόρι (lines 3, 10), was held. Apparently, this could also (in different places in Arkadia?) be called the trieteric fair, τᾶι τριπαναγόρι (see line 3), lasting three days. The other conspicuous form of periodicity which could apply to this festival was an enneateric one, occurring every eight years, when it was called Hoplodmia (cf. lines 6, 8, 10, and 16).

In terms of the character, coherence and unity of the rituals, Carbon - Clackson have proposed to identify them as part of a widescale celebration of the birth of Zeus (even if the god remains for the most part implicit in the text, as the recipient of many of the offerings). The rituals collected in the first section of the document (lines 1-13), though of a very varied character, nevertheless reveal some trends. Those presented in line 6 (see below) appear to be definitional of the enneateric iteration of the festival called Hoplodmia, "Arming" or "Armouring", since they involve the ritual use of a panoply by a boy (see at line 6 for the diverse sources; cf. also the breastplate mentioned in line 11). This celebration was evidently concerned with celebrating the defense of Rhea by giants and other figures, either on Mount Lykaion or Mount Methydrion, depending on the tradition. For the myths of the birth of Zeus on the Lykaion, see Call. 1.10–54; Paus. 8.38.2-3; Jost 1985: 285-286. For the tradition concerning Mount Thaumasion at Methydrion, see Paus. 8.36.3, with Jost 1985: 244-245. The epithet Hoplosmios is already well attested for Zeus at Methydrion: cf. [Arist.] PA 673a19 and IG V.2 344, line 18, with Jost 1985: 214, 240–249, 277–278. A figure known as Hopladamos (Paus. 8.36.2–3; cp. 8.32.5 on his bones at Megalopolis) was the name of a giant who helped to defend Rhea. In connection with this idea of armouring and defense, it is also striking how martial figures are convoked by the rituals of this tablet: Ares or Enyalios in the guise of Theretas (line 12), but also later a figure called Kaitas (line 16). Zeus here appears as Keraunos both at an unknown place in Arkadia as well as at Olympia (line 9). A place or sanctuary called "the Cave" (Spela, line 9) is likely to be identified with the cave on the mountain where Rhea took shelter during the momentous event. Paus. 8.36.3 mentions such a cave (σπήλαιον) on the top of Mount Methydrion. This place called Spela could alternatively be connected with the cave of Pan known on Mount Lykaion (cf. Jost 1985: 180 and 459–460). Two entries in the festival calendar (line 8) also mention a specific occasion called Zapatea, at least one of them in the same periodicity as and contemporaneous with the Hoplodmia. This can likely be identified as the celebration of the "Complete Deception" that Rhea undertook to conceal the infant Zeus from Kronos. In the next section (lines 14-21), which we assign to the following day (the 8th day of the month), the first place or sanctuary mentioned is called Geneswa (cf. γενέσια; see also line 18), which is almost certainly to be identified as the birthplace of Zeus; here, Hermes is worshipped alongside an implicit Zeus, perhaps in his capacity as the herald of the newly born king of the gods; other Olympian gods were apparently also adduced (all sons of Zeus: Dionysus, line 15; Heracles, line 19), but the rituals clearly remained focussed on the implicit figure of Zeus (line 21). Finally, a shorter section (line 22, possibly 23) on the 9th day of the month concluded this festival in all of its periods. Both on the first day and on the next, sacrifices were also directed to Olympia (lines 9 and 21), paying homage to this location where the power of the king of the gods was expressed for all the Greeks to witness (for this vision of Olympia, see Pirenne-Delforge). For further discussion of the Arkadian myths concerning the birth of Zeus, see Jost 1998.

Line 1: The fragmentary inscription begins in mediis rebus, so that some uncertainty remains about the specific date on which these rituals and those in the following lines (until line 13) took place. We infer that the 7th day of the month was concerned (see above). The first fragmentary entry preserved does indicate a date, but the location or the recipient of the offering is now lost. For the date, the stone literally reads ΤΑΙ ΜΙΑΜΒΡΙ, which would tend to suggest an alternative one-day celebration (see Carbon - Clackson). Yet it is possible that this is to be corrected on the basis of the remainder of the inscription, which solely discusses a τριανβρίς (for the derivation of this word, see Carbon - Clackson and cf. Minon, who also notes Hsch. s.v. ἀμβρίζειν· θεραπεύειν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς, which would tend to reveal the root *ἀνβρίς). The offering consisted of a sheep which has been judged "most beautiful", and a female one as the participle indicates. For beauty contests for animals, see Georgoudi, and for the verb καλλιστεύω, see here CGRN 92, Athens, line 22, CGRN 156, Mykonos, lines 6, 12, 27. From this animal, meat is to be set up as prizes, which implies that contests were held on the occasion. For prizes of meat during agonistic contests, see here CGRN 147, Kos, lines 58-62 (cf. also the commentary of CGRN 105, excerpting and discussing lines 32-39 of LSCG 98, Keos). At the conclusion of the line, a new entry begins after the punctuation, preserving the offering of probably a single piglet for the rivergod Alpheios. The god receives the same offering in line 4, while in line 12 he receives a single ram. For the cult of the river Alpheios in Arkadia, see Jost 1985: 524-526.

Line 2: The line begins with a mention of an ethnic, the Marathidai, derived from the place Maratha (for which, see Paus. 8.28.1; Jost 1985: 210); cf. the genitive plural of the same ethnic in line 4. The explanation of the dative case is somewhat less straigthforward: the animal to be offered, again a ewe "reckoned most beautiful" (cf. line 1), was apparently to be sacrificed "among the Marathidai", at a local celebration in this community (less likely, to be given "to the Marathidai" for sacrifice). The occasion is the biennial three-day festival (τριαμβρίς), as is likely to be corrected also in line 1, and the meat is to be set up as prizes for a contest.

Line 3: The line begins with a fragmentary entry: a pair of oxen was to be offered to an unknown recipient and at an unknown place, during the biennial three-day festival, which is here qualified as a πανάγορις. This word not only appears to emphasise the festive character of the three-day occasion, but also to point to an assembly of people and/or a market fair. Pairs of animals (and offerings) are found elsewhere in the text (cf. lines 5, 13, and 20), but regrettably never in a context which is certain, so that it remains unclear if they were usually sacrificed to a single recipient or to multiple figures. After the punctuation, a new entry in the regulation begins with a sacrifice during the τριπανάγορις and at a place called Korynition; the name of the divine recipient is fragmentarily preserved at the end of the line, το̑ι̣ Ι̣[— —] and a specification of the offering would no doubt have followed. The τριπανάγορις seems to correspond to the three-day festival attested in the tablet and is paralleled by a similar celebration in the sanctuary of Alea at Tegea, cf. IG V.2 3 (III), ca. 390 BC, with the intuitions of Jost 1985: 383-384, concerning its period and duration. Korynition, which Carbon - Clackson were tempted to identify with the ethnic of the Arkadian site of Gortys (on which, see Jost 1985: 202-210), has been rightly doubted by Dubois (2017, expecting Κορτύνιος from the legends of coins) and now convincingly explained by Minon as the tomb of Areithoos described by Paus. 8.11.4 on the road leading south from Mantineia (ca. 6 km): κατὰ τοῦτο ἥ τε ὁδὸς μάλιστα στενὴ γίνεται καὶ τὸ μνῆμα Ἀρηιθόου λέγουσιν εἶναι, Κορυνήτου διὰ τὸ ὅπλον ἐπονομασθέντος. A heroic figure already mentioned in H. Il. 7.138 (δίου Ἀρηϊθόου, τὸν ἐπίκλησιν κορυνήτην), Areithoos bore a club, hence his epithet "Clubman" (see Jost 1985: 517-518 for a discussion). There is thus much attraction in following Minon's suggested restoration for the end of the line, το̑ι̣ Ἀ̣[ρειθόοι]. However, the final trace preserved is slight and perhaps appears too straight or vertical to have belonged to the diagonal hasta of an alpha in this script. In sum, offerings to the "Clubman" (Areithoos/Korynitos) were to be made at his tomb and sanctuary, the Korynition; other rituals prescribed at Korynition in line 7 appear to have had this figure as an implicit recipient (see below ad loc.).

Line 4: At the beginning of the line, the sacrifice of a male sheep is stipulated, though perhaps the period and the recipient are missing in the preceding lacuna; following this, the cutter has begun to inscribe the location of the sacrifice or the sanctuary to which it was destined but omitted this after the preposition ἰν (ἐν). The male sheep is to be viewed as a castrated male, a wether, in contrast to the rams (κριός) found elsewhere in this text (for the form ὄρ(ρ)εν, see Carbon-Clackson; the distinction is not one that concerns the age of the animal, contrary to what Dubois 2016 suggests). The next entry preserves a sacrifice to Alpheios (see on line 1), but at a specific place, whose identification remains difficult (Welweion or perhaps Weaweion, probably a specific sanctuary?). The punctuation used for concluding the entry has been misplaced in the middle of a word (see Layout) but empty space has been left after this word to demarcate it from the following rubric. Since no timing is specified, the sacrifice to Alpheios will presumably have taken place on an annual basis. The final entry in this line concerns a ritual, at Alea of the Marathidai (we now read here το̑ν Μαραθιδᾶ[ν], following Dubois 2016, and not an accusative singular). This phrase is used to identify a place, no doubt a sanctuary of the goddess Alea in the area of Maratha (on which cf. line 2), thus distinguishing it from other places and sanctuaries of this name, e.g. Alea in north-eastern Arkadia (quite distant from Maratha) and the sanctuary of Alea known at Tegea. For the cult of Alea (sometimes identified with Athena), see Jost 1985: 368-385.

Line 5: This fragmentary entry only seems to preserve a list of offerings; all other details (recipient and/or place, timing) are now missing. The sacrifices in question were relatively elaborate: a ewe, again subject to an assessment of its physical characteristics and attractiveness (cf. on line 1), and also one said to be "horned", κεραΐς—this term must have emphasised the appearance of the animal (perhaps a particular subspecies) or more probably its mature age (Hsch. s.v. κερᾴδες uses the term to refer to ewes but misleadingly applies it to the appearance of the teeth); a pair of piglets, also evaluated for beauty, was to be offered; finally, another element concluded the series, apparently the phrase ἃ θεμιστία. This is taken by Carbon - Clackson to be a shorthand for (τὰ) ἃ θεμιστία, "the things which are religiously permitted", apparently a coda for referring to all the other customary necessities of the sacrifice; compare notably CGRN 92, Athens, line 16, where elements of the rituals go undescribed and are to be performed "as it is customary" (κατὰ ⟨τὰ⟩ εἰω[θότα]). Dubois (2017) partly supports this reading, but would prefer to contrast the preceding list with another, containing proscribed offerings, and thus suggests to read ἀθεμίστια [δὲ...]. This seems impossible given the punctuation and the letter trace which immediately follow, clearly marking the conclusion of the entry and beginning of a new one.

Line 6: The beginning of this fragmentary entry may preserve a divine name or a toponym in the dative. The timing of the ritual is specified as "in the ninth year". This precisely corresponds to the timing of the festival when it is called Hoplodmia (cf. lines 8, 10, and 16). It would appear that the ritual action prescribed in this line, using an accusative-infinitive construction, is definitional of this version of the festival taking place every eight years (enneateric = every eight years). A young boy (κόρϝον, i.e. κοῦρος) was to bring out (ἐξάγεν) several elements of armour and weaponry, which together comprise a panoply. The final element, of which only the first letter, kappa, is preserved, is generally agreed to have been a helmet (see Carbon - Clackson for possible restorations including κ[όρυν], κ[ράνον], and κ[υνέαν]; cf. also Tentori Montalto). The young male was presumably to take these items out of a temple or other structure as part of a ritual performance. For a wider discussion of this ritual in the context of armed processions in Greek religion, see now Ampolo. The action of dressing with or bearing arms formed a constitutive part of the Hoplodmia, which celebrated the defense of Rhea during the birth of Zeus; see above and below line 8 (for different views, Heinrichs and Dubois 2016).

Line 7: The conclusion of the first fragmentary entry in this line remains puzzling. For some possibilities, see Carbon - Clackson, thinking for instance of a toponym; Minon suggests reading τ̣ε τὀνάσια, but one wonders what may be the place of—unspecified—"profitable" things (*ὀνάσιος, -ον) in this ritual. A further series of rituals is to take place at Korynition, the tomb/shrine of Areithoos/Korynitos (cf. line 3). During the τριαμβρίς (biennial three-day festival), an ox is to be sacrificed (βο̑ν must either designate a cow or a castrated male, the latter in contrast with ταῦρος: see line 21). If τριπανάγορις and τριαμβρίς are indeed synonyms (see above), it is unclear just how this sacrifice may differ from the one prescribed in line 3; perhaps both were complementary. At any rate, the recipient of the sacrifice appears to be unspecified, though it may implicitly have been Areithoos/Korynitos. Carbon - Clackson were inclined to see in the expression τὀτινίοι a further divine recipient, who would then have been honoured at Korynition. The attractive suggestion of Dubois (2017) that one may be dealing with the contraction of το̑ι *ϝετινίοι, "in the annual (cycle)", seems perhaps more convincing (though note that this postulates a form such as *ἐτίνιος/ἐτήνιος, compare ἐτήσιος, which is not without its linguistic problems, notably the expected persistence of /w/ expressed by digamma). If correct, such a temporal indication would cast a different light on the matter: there would be both an annual and a biennial cycle to the rituals. In other words, a figure, such as Areithoos/Korynitos, would be presented with a special ox once every two years during the τριαμβρίς, and in any case with a wether every year on this day (for a similar though not identical phrasing, cf. line 16).

Line 8: The two entries fragmentarily preserved in this line might at first glance appear to concern another obscure placename known as Zapatea; however, the absence of the preposition ἰν, with the simple use of the dative case, is immediately noteworthy. A linguistic possibility, confirmed by Minon per ep., is that Zapatea is an Arkadian form of Διαπατέα (cf. διαπατάω and the variant ἀπατεύω; see already Carbon - Clackson, p. 130, for intuitions in this direction). If that is right, we would here have the name for a celebration, called "Complete Deception". The reference would be to the occasion on which Rhea undertook to conceal the infant Zeus from Kronos. This would tie particularly well with the celebration of the enneateric Hoplodmia mentioned in the inscription, with which the first occurence of Zapatea here is clearly contemporaneous. For the formulation of the simultaneity of the ritual with the enneateric period of the Hoplodmia, compare the phrase at CGRN 13, Selinous, line A1 (periodic sacrifices contemporaneous with the penteteric truce of the Olympic games). The festival of the Hoplodmia is widely attested in different forms across Arkadia (see above, in the introduction to this commentary, on Mount Thaumasion and Methydrion) as well as in Elis (for Hera, cf. schol. in Lyc. 614 and 857–858). Hoplodmia is also attested as the name of a tribe at Mantinea: cf. IG V.2 271, line 10, with Jost 1985: 129–130, who hypothesises that the name will have referred to a local sanctuary. In the second entry, the occasion called Zapatea seems to be followed by an expression referring to a male deity, το̑ι ΠΑ[--. A possibility for this figure, suggested by Carbon - Clackson, is Pan, known to have been worshipped in a cave on Mount Lykaion (see below line 9, and cf. Jost 1985: 180 and 459–460). Since the first entry preserves a sacrifice during the Zapatea in the cycle of the Hoplodmia, the next (following after the punctuation at the end of the line) must probably have dealt with an offering during another cycle (annual? the trieteric τριαμβρίς?).

Line 9: After the first traces concluding a fragmentary entry (probably with an offering or animal in the accusative singular) and the punctuation, a sacrifice is prescribed to Keraunos (i.e. Zeus Keraunos) at a place called Keleprodos (see Carbon - Clackson). For the cult of Zeus Keraunos at Mantinea, cf. IG V.2 288, and in Arkadia more broadly, cf. Jost 1985: 269-271. The offering made to the god is a ἰερόνιον, a distinctive term which Carbon - Clackson tentatively suggest may be a variant of ἱερεῖον or an unattested diminutive of ἱερόν. Minon, reacting to the view of Carbon - Clackson (who read a presumed adjective Ὀλυνπιαῖος as a temporal indication, so also Dubois 2016), proposes to read this line as: το̑ι Κεραυνο̑ι ἰερόνιον Ὀλυνπίαι ὄς τ᾽ ἰν Σπέλαι. Ὀλυνπίαι is indeed a common locative, which can appear without a preposition (ἰν). However, Μinon's suggested reading transgresses the conclusion of the entry at the punctuation placed before ἰν Σπέλαι. While now partly agreeing with her view, we therefore prefer to set this case in parallel with the expression found in line 21. Both must have referred to the sacrifice of a sheep at Olympia (see already the first suggestion of Clackson, cited by Dubois 2016). In sum, it would seem that sacrifices to (Zeus) Keraunos were prescribed both at an uncertain place in Arkadia (Keleprodos) and at Olympia itself. For a statue of Zeus with thunderbolts dedicated by the Arkadian Kynaitheis at Olympia, see Paus. 8.19.1; for an altar of Zeus Keraunios at Olympia, see Paus. 5.14.7. Since no period is specified, the two sacrifices will presumably have taken place on an annual basis. The fragmentary beginning of the next entry prescribed sacrifices at a place called Spela, literally "the cave" (from the new word *σπήλα, compare σπήλαιον etc., and see Carbon - Clackson, Dubois 2017). This was either followed by a temporal indication or by a male recipient for the offering(s): το̑ι [--]. For the identification of the cave (where Rhea took shelter during the birth of Zeus and which must have become a sanctuary), either on Mount Methydrion or the grotto of Pan on Mount Lykaion, see the introduction above.

Lines 10-11: The sacrifice of a male animal is here said to have fallen in the enneateric period of the Hoplodmia, but other details are missing. For the next entry following the punctuation, we find again the mention of the πανάγορις, which appears to be a designation for the assembly or fair held during the τριαμβρίς (specifically, on this first day; cf. line 3). Carbon - Clackson hesitatingly proposed that the unidentified female things or persons (τὰς ἑκοτόν) may have constituted a hecatomb on this occasion. Rosamilia, adducing Plb. 12.5.6-7 on Lokroi Epizephyrioi, argues that these hundred female things may have been οἰκίαι, thereby referring to a gentilicial group ("the hundred houses") involved in the rituals. In any case, we should note that the following line (line 11) appears to continue to consider at least some of these animals or agents: cf. ϝε]κ̣ατέρας and τᾶν ϟεσϟάρον (for the latter form, cf. Dubois 2016, Carbon - Clackson, and Tentori Montalto). Both formulations, apparently singling out half of the females, as well as something deriving from four of them, would be odd of humans or even groups, and perhaps more appropriate of animals. Line 11 nevertheless contains a series of letters which remain largely unintelligible (see Carbon - Clackson for discussion); one thing that is relatively clear is that a breastplate, προστήθειον (so already Heinrichs), was mentioned, perhaps as part of the accoutrements of a ritual (recall the panoply employed in line 6 and the significance of the Hoplodmia as a festival of "bearing arms"); Papazarkadas additionally and attractively suggests that this item may have been derived from a chest, ΤΑΣΧΑΛΟ = τᾶς χαλο̑ (?̑) (a Doric form from Attic-Ionic χηλός; cf. also Rosamilia, with a similar view, thinking perhaps of booty or produce removed from a chest serving as a θησαυρός).

Line 12: This line contains a series of three entries, of which the last two are not assigned to a specific period, and are thus likely to be annual. In the first fragmentary entry, the traces ]ΟΙ are likely to have belonged to a toponym or a divine male recipient of the wether. The next rubric concerns a sacrifice of a ram to Theretas, who was identified with Ares or Enyalios in Laconia (noting Paus. 3.19.8 and Hsch. s.v.; see Dubois 2016, underlining a connotation of "hunting"; Carbon - Clackson). Another sacrifice to the rivergod Alpheios (cf. lines 1 and 4), here of a ram, follows in the next entry, which is qualified by an apparently unique ritual manipulation: three portions (from the meat) of the animal were to be made, and presumably offered to the god in some way (see Carbon - Clackson for further discussion).

Line 13: This line appears to conclude a section of the text, since it ends with space left empty. In the argument of Carbon - Clackson, adopted here, lines 1-13 form a section concerning the seventh day of the month. The final fragmentary entry in this line contains the offering of a pair of piglets, preceded by the traces of what must be a thematic infinitive, perhaps [νέ]μεν ("distribute") or [τά]μεν ("cut") (see Carbon - Clackson and also Dubois 2017). The entry finished with the only specification of a priestly stipend in the text (but see on line 19). A pair of obols are to be given to the priestess, one for each piglet, which may suggest that the preceding sacrifice could have concerned a goddess who was served by this priestess. Though one may have thought of an Archaic-Classical monetary use for spits (ὀβελοί), a possibility raised by Carbon - Clackson, Rosamilia (esp. p. 380-383) admirably collects the evidence for the circulation of monetary obols in Arkadia already around ca. 460 BC. For the form ὀϟελός, attested in Arkadian as ὀδελός, see Dubois 2016, Clackson and Tentori Montalto.

Line 14: Two entries in this line were concerned with a sanctuary, or perhaps a celebration, called Geneswa. As Carbon - Clackson argued (noting also the Arkadian month Genesios), with further arguments by Dubois 2017 and Minon (supposing an original form *γένετυς), this must have designated a place or a commemoration of the birth of Zeus in Arkadia. The most likely recipient of the offering of a simple sheep, which apparently fell annually on the 8th of the month, must thus be Zeus himself. On this occasion, he was accompanied by Hermes, who received a statuette or figurine (ἄγαλμα), perhaps appropriately a herm; other details of this occasion may also have been specified (cf. the trace Π[--]).

Line 15: The fragmentary conclusion of an entry at the beginning of this line preserves the dative plural ending, probably belonging to a group of individuals (e.g. an ethnic, compare lines 2 and 4; see Carbon - Clackson for discussion). The fully preserved entry in the middle line informs us about a sacrifice to Dionysus at a place called Hylasmoi (presumably denoting a wooden area) consisting of a male goat. For the preponderance of goats as offerings to Dionysus, god of the τράγος, cf. e.g. CGRN 32, Thorikos, lines 33-35. Here, however, the offering is further qualified as προτρύγιος. As Carbon - Clackson explain, this adjective must make reference to the known epithet of Dionysus as Protrygaios and to his festival called Protrygaia. This designates the function of the god as a protector of grapes, in the context of an early harvest (προ-). Though not explicitly referring to a celebration of Protrygaia as a festival per se, the offering nevertheless provides a seasonal parameter for the rituals at hand (end of summer / very early autumn). An alternative view is that of Dubois (2016), who sees here a qualifier of the age of the animal, "né avant les vendanges" (also adopted by Rosamilia, which, with further discussion, leads him to conclude that the season of the calendar is spring or summer). The line concludes with a fragmentary indication το̑ι ΚΕ̣[..?..], which might point to another sacrifice to Keraunos (see line 9) though this remains uncertain.

Line 16: The line first preserves the conclusion of an entry specifying the enneateric period of the Hoplodmia (see Carbon - Clackson). The full phrase must have paralleled those found in lines 8 and 10, indicating that a substantial passage is missing in the lacuna to the left. The next entry preserves the specification of a sacrifice in (x) of Kaitas: this must have designated a plot of land or sanctuary belonging to this figure (so Carbon - Clackson, Dubois 2017). As Dubois 2017 attractively suggests, the otherwise unknown name Kaitas "pourrait être à δαίτης ce que καίνυμαι est à δαίνυμαι". Since καίνυμι can mean "to excel" but also "to be equipped" or "armed" (cf. LSJ s.v. I and II), the latter sense may indeed be particularly apt for a heroic figure invoked in this tablet (compare Areithoos/Korynitos above, lines 3 and 7, and, on the martial character of the rituals and divine figures in the tablet, see the introduction to the commentary). The sacrifices to this figure Kaitas appear to have alternated: in the year of the τριαμβρίς, Kaitas was offered an ox, in the other year, a wether (for a probably similar though not identicial phrasing, cf. line 7).

Line 17: The line first conserves the fragmentary conclusion of an entry in the list: this apparently specified a half-hekton (ἑμίτειαν, see Carbon - Clackson for a discussion of the form) of a certain substance, as well as a honeycomb; for honeycombs as sacrificial elements or complements, cf. here CGRN 53, Piraeus, and CGRN 87, Samos. The next entry preserves biennial sacrifices to an unspecified recipient at the place called Samata ("Signs" or perhaps "Tombs"; see Carbon - Clackson). Though the τριαμβρίς is not specified, it likely forms the point of reference here, as in the preceding line. During the main year of the festival, a wether was offered, while in the other year, another offering, now lost, was prescribed.

Line 18: Another sacrifice is prescribed at/for Geneswa (on which see above, line 14), with perhaps further details missing in the lacuna. The only fully preserved entry in this line regrettably begins with an apparent toponym or sanctuary which is difficult to decipher and interpret: Tetonata? Minon instead proposes that one might read τε τ(ὸν) Ὀνάταν or τε τὸν Ἄταν, noting that Ἄτης is said to be an epithet of Dionysus by the EM (one fails to see why the particle τε may have been deemed necessary, however). The sacrificial animal, a sheep, was qualified as σκεπτός (on the unique word, see Carbon - Clackson) and we can thus identify it as male (σκεπτός, -α, -ον, cf. LSJ s.v. σκεπτέον 2). This qualifier must imply that it had been the subject of a physical examination prior to the ritual; compare animals called κριτός, e.g. at CGRN 32, Thorikos; on the importance of the δοκιμασία of sacrificial animals, see Feyel and Georgoudi. Since no periodicity is specified, the sacrifice in question may be assumed to have been an annual one. The final fragmentary entry in the line preserves the beginning of what may be an Arkadian place name such as e.g. Oresthasion, since the third letter of this word might be identified with an epsilon (a less certain possibility is Orchomenos, usually Erchomenos in local dialect; see Carbon - Clackson).

Line 19: The first fragmentary entry in this line appears to contain the things to be offered in the other year of a biennial cycle. As in lines 16 and 17, this must designate the cycle of the τριαμβρίς, which occurred biennially and will doubtless have been mentioned in the preceding lacuna. The offerings in this other year of the cycle are modest: offerings for burning and an obol. For the first of these, it remains preferable, rather than to suppose a new word for a ritual agent (see Dubois 2016), to see here a form of θύεια or θύια, designating aromatic wood for burning (cf. also θύον; for θύα, cf. e.g. CGRN 41, line 2, and CGRN 66, line 3, both from Chios). The next entry was concerned with the sacrifice of a wether to Heracles, though further details concerning this occasion may now be missing.

Line 20: The line preserves only part of an entry and includes a detailed and apparently significant list of offerings: as preserved, this begins with an ox (of uncertain gender) that is qualified as ἄφετος, which designates that it was "free from work" and thus likely belonged to a sacred herd (on this unique word in the present collection, see further Carbon - Clackson). The ox is followed by a pair of wethers, a pair of honeycombs (cf. line 17), as well as probably another offering. Carbon - Clackson were tempted to read this last element as a κάσ(σ)ος, a thick garment or a skin, but Dubois (2017) seems to correctly affirm the reading of the Arkadian conjunction κάς (= καί) here. Since this is only known from Mantineia, it may lead one to suppose that the composer of the tablet was Mantinean (so Minon). Conjunctions are also found elsewhere in the text between the different dispositions, e.g. in line 2.

Line 21: As in line 9, we appear to have the juxtaposition of an offering of a male sheep to a divine figure and/or at a specific place (see Carbon - Clackson on the traces ]ΑΝΤΙ) and another at Olympia, consisting only of a sheep (for an earlier reading of the conclusion of this entry as Ὀλυνπιαίοις, implying a periodicity "during the Olympiaia", see Carbon - Clackson). As in line 9 also, the divine recipient is likely to have been Zeus. Since in both cases only a seemingly generic sheep was prescribed at Olympia, this may reflect the impossibility of knowing exactly what sort of animal will be available for purchase at Olympia. The next fragmentary entry preserves the offering of a bull sent to Kleitor in northern Arkadia along with another offering (reading the conjunction κάς as in line 20, following Dubois 2017). The divine recipient of the offering does not appear to have been specified but should have been Zeus; still other details could have been made more explicit in the following lacuna.

Line 22: Though the entry is fragmentary, it is assigned to the ninth day of the month and contains a list of offerings in an unusual order: first a type of jar or a measure contained by it (κάδδιχος; for which, see here CGRN 4, Olympia, commentary at lines 1-2, and CGRN 159, Messenia, line 10), a (presumably filled?) wineskin, and a sheep. These offerings were to be made at a toponym or sanctuary whose name is now only fragmentarily preserved; cf. Carbon - Clackson for further discussion.

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All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 223, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 223, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/223/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2021]).

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	    			<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 223</idno>:  <rs type="textType" key="sacrificial regulation">Regulation</rs> concerning festivals from Arkadia</title>
	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    				
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					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
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			<layoutDesc><layout><p>Punctuation in the form of a tricolon (⁝) systematically demarcates phrases in the inscription. The only instance of extraneous punctuation occurs in line 6, where it is interposed in the word χ{⁝}ο̑ρον; empty space was then left to demarcate the conclusion of this phrase further in the same line. On the composition of the phrases in the document, see Commentary below.</p>
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			<p><origDate notBefore="-0475" notAfter="-0425">ca. 450 BC</origDate></p>
			<p><desc>Justification: alphabet, lettering and context (Heinrichs, proposing ca. 500 BC;  Carbon - Clackson, ca. 475-450 BC, but cf. Dubois (2016), Minon, for a more precise date of ca. 450 BC, and see Rosamilia for arguments for after 450 BC given the use of obols as monetary units (cf. also commentary on line 13).</desc></p>
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	    			<language ident="eng">English</language>
	    			<language ident="grc">Ancient Greek</language>
	    			<language ident="lat">Latin</language>
	    			<language ident="fre">French</language>
	    			<language ident="ger">German</language>
	    			<language ident="gre">Modern Greek</language>
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				<div type="bibliography">
					<head>Bibliography</head>
					<p>Edition here based on <bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon - Clackson 2016">Carbon - Clackson 2016</bibl>, with phs., following the preliminary publication by <bibl type="author_date" n="Heinrichs 2015">Heinrichs 2015</bibl>: 4-15, 26-63, App. 1., with drawing (p. 31) and photos. From the edition of Carbon and Clackson, the text has now further been modified in some details, which are for the most part discussed in the Commentary. We are particularly grateful to Sophie Minon, who generously provided acute remarks and valuable advice on this revision of the text.</p>

<p>Cf. also: Dubois <title>REG</title> 2016 <bibl type="abbr" n="BE">BE</bibl> no. 214; Dubois <title>REG</title> 2017 <bibl type="abbr" n="BE">BE</bibl> no. 229; Minon <title>REG</title> 2017 <bibl type="abbr" n="BE">BE</bibl> no. 230; <bibl type="author_date" n="Tentori Montalto 2018">Tentori Montalto 2018</bibl>: 125-127; Papazarkadas <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 65, 292.</p>
					
<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Jost 1985">Jost 1985</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Jost 1998">Jost 1998</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Nielsen 2002">Nielsen 2002</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Feyel 2006">Feyel 2006</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Georgoudi 2007">Georgoudi 2007</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Roy 2013">Roy 2013</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Nielsen 2015">Nielsen 2015</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Ampolo 2018">Ampolo 2018</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Pirenne-Delforge 2019">Pirenne-Delforge 2019</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Rosamilia 2019">Rosamilia 2019</bibl>.</p>
				</div>
	    			<div type="edition">
	    				<head>Text</head>
	    				<ab>
	    					
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <w lemma="ἕβδομος"><supplied reason="lost">τἀβδόμαι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἵστημι"><supplied reason="lost">ἰσταμίνο</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <unclear>τ</unclear>ᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριαμβρίς"><choice><corr>τρ</corr><sic><unclear>μ</unclear></sic></choice>ιανβρὶ</w></name> (?), <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιν</w></name> <name type="quality"><name type="gender"><w lemma="καλλιστεύω">καλιστεύϝονσαν</w></name></name>, τὰ <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κ<supplied reason="lost">ρ</supplied>έα</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="ἆθλον">ἄϝεθλα</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="τίθημι">θε̑ναι</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <name type="deity" key="Alpheios"><w lemma="Ἀλφειός">τἀλφεο̑ι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="swine"><name type="age"><w lemma="χοῖρος">χο̑<supplied reason="lost">ρον</supplied></w></name></name> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <supplied reason="lost">ἐν</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τοῖς</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <name type="ethnic" key="Maratha"><w lemma="Μαραθίδας"><unclear>Μ</unclear>αραθίδα<choice><corr>ι</corr><sic><unclear>τ</unclear></sic></choice>ς</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝις</w></name> <name type="quality"><name type="gender"><w lemma="καλλιστεύω">καλιστεύϝονσα</w></name></name>, τᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριαμβρίς">τριανβρὶ</w></name> κ᾽ <name type="portion"><w lemma="ἆθλον">ἄϝεθ<choice><corr>λα</corr><sic>αλ</sic></choice></w></name> τὰ <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κρέα</w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="τίθημι">θ<supplied reason="lost">ε̑ναι</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βόε</w></name> <w lemma="δύο">δύϝο</w>, τᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="πανήγυρις">παναγόρι</w></name> τᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριαμβρίς">τριανβρ<supplied reason="lost">ί</supplied></w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> τᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριπανάγορσις">τριπαναγόρι</w></name>, <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <name type="structure"><name type="deity" key="Korynitios"><w lemma="Κορυνίτιον">Κορυνιτίοι</w></name></name>, το̑<unclear>ι</unclear> <orig><unclear>Ι</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς"><supplied reason="lost">ὄϝι</supplied>ν</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρενα</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <gap reason="ellipsis"/>(...) <pc>⁝</pc> <name type="deity" key="Alpheios"><w lemma="Ἀλφειός">τἀλφεο̑ι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="swine"><name type="age"><w lemma="χοῖρος">χ<surplus>⁝</surplus>ο̑ρον</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἐν"><unclear>ἰ</unclear>ν</w> <name type="structure"><w lemma="unclear"><unclear>Ϝ</unclear>ε<unclear>λ</unclear>ϝ<unclear>ε</unclear>ι<unclear>ον</unclear></w></name> <space quantity="3" unit="character"/> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName type="Alea"><name type="deity" key="Alea"><w lemma="Ἀλέα">Ἀλέαν</w></name></placeName> το̑ν <name type="ethnic" key="Maratha"><w lemma="Μαραθίδας">Μαραθιδᾶ<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><gap reason="illegible" unit="character" quantity="1"/> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝι<unclear>ς</unclear></w></name> <name type="age"><w lemma="κεραΐς">κεραῒς</w></name> <name type="quality"><name type="gender"><w lemma="καλλιστεύω">καλιστεύϝονσα</w></name></name>, <name type="animal" key="swine"><name type="age"><w lemma="χοῖρος">χο̑ρο</w></name></name> <w lemma="δύο"><unclear>δ</unclear>ύϝο</w> <name type="quality"><w lemma="καλλιστεύω">καλιστ<supplied reason="omitted">ε</supplied>ύϝοντε</w></name>, ἃ <name type="authority"><w lemma="θεμίστιος">θεμιστία</w></name> ⁝ <orig>Τ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig><unclear>Α</unclear>ΤΑΙ</orig>, <name type="person"><w lemma="κοῦρος"><unclear>κ</unclear>όρϝον</w></name>, <w lemma="ἔνατος">ἐνϝότοι</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ϝέτει</w>, <w lemma="ἐξάγω">ἐξάγε<unclear>ν</unclear></w> <name type="object"><w lemma="ἀσπίς">ἀσπίδα</w></name>, <name type="object"><w lemma="ἀκόντιον">ἀκόντιον</w></name>, <name type="object"><w lemma="φοινικίς">φοινικὶς</w></name>, <name type="object"><w lemma="ξίφος">ξίφος</w></name>, <orig>Κ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig>ΙΑ<unclear>Τ</unclear>ΕΤΟΝΑΣΙΑ</orig> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <name type="deity" key="Korynitios"><name type="structure"><w lemma="Κορυνίτιον">Κορυνίτιον</w></name></name> τᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριαμβρίς">τριανβρὶ</w></name> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βο̑ν</w></name>, <w lemma="ἐτίνιος?">τὀτινίοι</w> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιν</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρενα</w></name>, <orig>ΤΑ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <name type="festival"><w lemma="Ζαπατέα"><supplied reason="lost">Ζα</supplied>πατέαι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς"><unclear>ὄ</unclear>ϝιν</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρενα</w></name>, <w lemma="ἔνατος">ἐνϝότοι</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ϝέτει</w> τοίπερ <name type="festival"><w lemma="Ὁπλόσμιος">Ὁπλόδμια</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <name type="festival"><w lemma="Ζαπατέα">Ζαπατέαι</w></name> το̑ι <orig>ΠΑ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					s
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig>ΟΝ</orig> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName key="Keleprodos"><w lemma="Κελεπρόδος">Κελεπρόδει</w></placeName> το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Zeus"><name type="epithet" key="Keraunos"><w lemma="κεραυνός">Κεραυνο̑ι</w></name></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><w lemma="ἱερώνιον">ἰερόνιον</w></name>, <placeName key="Olympia"><w lemma="Ὀλυμπία">Ὀλυνπίαι</w></placeName> ὄ<supplied reason="omitted">ι</supplied>ς <surplus>Τ</surplus> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName key="Spela"><w lemma="σπήλα">Σπέλαι</w></placeName> το̑ι <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς"><supplied reason="lost">ὄϝιν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">(?)</supplied> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρενα</w></name>, <w lemma="ἔνατος">ἐνϝότοι</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ϝέτει</w> <w lemma="ὅτε">ὅτε</w> περ <name type="festival"><w lemma="Ὁπλόσμιος">Ὁπλόδμια</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> τᾶι <name type="festival"><w lemma="πανήγυρις">παναγόρι</w></name> τὰς <w lemma="ἑκατόν">ἑκοτὸν</w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <w lemma="ἑκάτερος"><supplied reason="lost">ϝε</supplied><unclear>κ</unclear>ατέρας</w> <pc>⁝</pc> <orig>ΤΑΣΧΑΛΟΕΜΙΛΑΙΟΝΠΥΝΠΡΑΙ</orig> <name type="object"><w lemma="προστήθειον">προστέθειον</w></name>, τᾶν <w lemma="τέσσαρες">ϟεσϟάρο<unclear>ν</unclear></w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig>ΟΙ</orig> <name type="animal"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιν</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρενα</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Enyalios"><name type="deity" key="Ares"><name type="epithet" key="Theritas"><w lemma="Θηρίτας">Θερέται</w></name></name></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><name type="gender"><w lemma="κριός">κριὸν</w></name></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <name type="deity" key="Alpheios"><w lemma="Ἀλφειός">τἀλφεο̑ι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><name type="gender"><w lemma="κριός">κριὸν</w></name></name>, <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρε̑ς</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="αἶσα">αἶσαι</w></name> το̑ννυ <pc>⁝</pc>  <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig>μεν</orig> <name type="animal" key="swine"><name type="age"><w lemma="χοῖρος">χο̑ρο</w></name></name> <w lemma="δύο">δύϝο</w>, τᾶι <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱέρεια">ἰερέαι</w></name> <w lemma="ὀβελός">ὀϟελὸ</w> <w lemma="δύο">δύο</w>.	 <space quantity="1" unit="line"/>

<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <w lemma="ἐν"><supplied reason="lost">ἰν</supplied></w> <placeName key="Geneswa?"><name type="structure"><w lemma="γενέσιος"><supplied reason="lost">Γεν</supplied>έσϝα<unclear>ν</unclear></w></name></placeName> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName key="Geneswa?"><name type="structure"><w lemma="γενέσιος">Γενέσϝαν</w></name></placeName> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιν</w></name>, <w lemma="ὄγδοος">τἀγδόαι</w> <w lemma="ἵστημι">ἰσταμίνο</w>, <name type="deity" key="Hermes"><w lemma="Ἑρμῆς">τὀρμᾶι</w></name> <name type="object"><w lemma="ἄγαλμα">ἄγαλμα</w></name>, <orig>Π</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><unclear>ϟ</unclear>ΕΥΣΙ <pc>⁝</pc> το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Dionysus"><w lemma="Διόνυσος">Διϝονύσοι</w></name>, <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName key="Hylasmoi"><w lemma="ὑλασμός"><subst><del rend="corrected">Φ</del><add place="overstrike">Ὑ</add></subst>λασμο<supplied reason="lost">ῖ</supplied>ς</w></placeName>, <name type="animal" key="goat"><w lemma="αἴξ">αἴ<unclear>ξ</unclear></w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρεν</w></name> <name type="festival"><name type="quality"><w lemma="προτρύγαιος">προτρύγιος</w></name></name> <pc>⁝</pc> το̑ι <orig>Κ<unclear>Ε</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <w lemma="ἔνατος"><supplied reason="lost">ἐνϝότοι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἔτος"><supplied reason="lost">ϝέτει</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τοίπερ</supplied> <name type="festival"><w lemma="Ὁπλόσμιος"><supplied reason="lost">Ὁπλό</supplied><unclear>δ</unclear>μια</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <name type="structure"><name type="deity" key="Kaitas"><w lemma="Καίτας">Καίταυ</w></name></name> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦς</w></name>, το̑ι ἁ <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριαμβρίς">τριανβρὶς</w></name>, το̑ι δ᾽ <w lemma="ἕτερος">ἀτέροι</w> <w lemma="">ϝέτε<supplied reason="omitted">ι</supplied></w> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝις</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην"><unclear>ὄ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ρεν</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>

<lb xml:id="line_17" n="17"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig>Ν</orig> <w lemma="ἡμίτεια">ἑμίτειαν</w>, <name type="liquid"><w lemma="κηρίον">κερίον</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName key="Samata"><w lemma="σῆμα"><unclear>Σ</unclear>ά<unclear>μ</unclear>ασι</w></placeName> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝις</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρεν</w></name>, <w lemma="ἕτερος">τἀτέροι</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ϝἔ<unclear>τ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ει</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <w lemma="ἐν"><supplied reason="lost">ἰν</supplied></w> <placeName key="Geneswa?"><name type="structure"><w lemma="γενέσιος"><supplied reason="lost">Γ</supplied><unclear>ε</unclear>νέσϝαν</w></name></placeName> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝις</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="">ὄρεν</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <placeName key="Tetonata?"><name type="structure"><w lemma="unclear"><unclear>Τετ</unclear>ονα<unclear>τ</unclear>αν</w></name></placeName> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝις</w></name> <name type="quality"><w lemma="σκεπτός">σκεπτός</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <orig>ΟΡ</orig><gap reason="illegible" unit="character" quantity="1"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <w lemma="ἕτερος"><supplied reason="lost">τἀ</supplied>τέροι</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ϝέτει</w>, <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="θυία">θ<unclear>υ</unclear>ϝέα</w></name>, <w lemma="ὀβελός">ὀϟελόν</w> <pc>⁝</pc> <name type="deity" key="Heracles"><w lemma="Ἡρακλέης">τὀρακλεῖ</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιν</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρε<unclear>ν</unclear><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>Σ</orig>, <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦς</w></name> <name type="quality"><w lemma="ἄφετος">ἄφε<unclear>τ</unclear>ος</w></name>, <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιε</w></name> <w lemma="δύο">δύϝο</w> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρενε</w></name>, <name type="liquid"><w lemma="κηρίον">κερίο</w></name> <w lemma="δύο">δύϝο</w> κὰς <orig>Ο</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><orig>ΑΝΤΙ</orig> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝις</w></name> <name type="gender"><w lemma="ἄρσην">ὄρεν</w></name>, <placeName key="Olympia"><w lemma="Ὀλυμπία">Ὀλυνπίαι</w></placeName> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϊς</w></name> <pc>⁝</pc> <placeName key="Kleitor"><w lemma="Κλείτωρ">Κλετοράδε</w></placeName> <name type="animal" key="ox"><name type="gender"><w lemma="ταῦρος">ταῦρον</w></name></name> κὰ<unclear>ς</unclear> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <supplied reason="lost"><space unit="character" extent="unknown"/> (?)</supplied>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22"/><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/> <name type="object"><w lemma="κάδδιχος"><unclear>κ</unclear>άδικο<unclear>ν</unclear></w></name>, <name type="object"><w lemma="ἀσκός">ἀσ<unclear>κ</unclear>ὸν</w></name>, <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">ὄϝιν</w></name>, <w lemma="ἔνατος">τἀνϝόται</w> <w lemma="ἵστημι">ἰσταμίνο</w>, <w lemma="ἐν">ἰν</w> <orig>ΧΑΝΧ</orig><gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/>
	    							
<lb/> <gap reason="lost" unit="character" extent="unknown"/><space quantity="12" unit="line"/>	
	    		
	    				</ab>
	    			
	    			</div>
	    			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
<p>[… on the seventh day (of the month) (?) …], during the three-day (?) festival, a ewe reckoned most beautiful, the meat is to be placed as prizes. To Alpheios, a piglet [… among the (?)] Marathidai, a ewe reckoned most beautiful, during the three-day festival and as prizes the meat is to be placed […] a pair of oxen, during the assembly in the three-day festival. In the trieteric festival, at Korynition, to […] a male [sheep] at (omitted). To Alpheios, a piglet for Welweion (?). For Alea of the Marathidai [… (5) …] a ewe, horned, reckoned most beautiful, a pair of piglets reckoned most beautiful, what is religiously permitted. […] let a boy, in the ninth year, bring forth: a shield, a small javelin, red vestments, a sword, […] (unintelligible). For Korynition, during the three-day festival, an ox, during the annual festival (?), a male sheep, […] during (the) Zapatea a male sheep, in the ninth year, exactly when the Hoplodmia (take place). During (the) Zapatea to Pa[…]. At Keleprodos (?), to (Zeus)
Keraunos, a sacred offering (?); at Olympia, a sheep. At Spela, to [… (10) …] a male [sheep?], in the ninth year, exactly when the Hoplodmia (take place). During the assembly, the hundred female […] each of the two (female) parties. (unintelligible) breastplate (?), of the four (female) […], a male sheep. To Theretas, a ram. To Alpheios, a ram, (make) three portions of these (i.e. the meat). […] a pair of piglets; to the priestess, two obols.</p>
<p>[… for] Geneswa. For Geneswa, a sheep, on the eighth day (of the month), to Hermes, a statue [… (15) …]. To Dionysus, at Hylasmoi, a male goat as a Protrygaia-offering. To Ke[… in the ninth year, exactly when] the Hoplodmia (take place). At (the plot/sanctuary) of Kaitas, an ox, in the (year when) the three-day festival (takes place), and in the other year, a [male] sheep [… of …] a half-hekton, a honey-comb. At Samata , a male sheep; in the other year [… for] Geneswa, a male sheep. For Tetonata (?) a sheep, examined. At Or[…] in the other year, aromatics for burning, an obol. To Heracles, a male sheep [… (20) …] an ox exempt from work, a pair of male sheep, two honeycombs and [… to …] a male sheep; at Olympia, a sheep. To Kleitor, a bull and […].</p>
<p>[...] a jar (or: measure), a wineskin, a sheep, on the ninth day (of the month), at Chanch[…].</p> 
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction </head> 
<p>[… le septième jour (du mois) (?) …] lors de la fête de trois jours (?), une brebis qui l’emporte par sa beauté, que les viandes soient déposées comme prix. Pour Alphée, un porcelet [… chez les (?)] Marathidai, une brebis qui l’emporte par sa beauté, lors de la fête de trois jours, et que les viandes soient déposées comme prix […] deux bovins, lors du rassemblement de la fête de trois jours. Durant la fête triétérique, au Korynition, à [… un mouton] mâle à (omis). Pour Alphée, un porcelet pour Welweion (?). Pour Aléa des Marathidai [… (5) …], une brebis avec des cornes, qui l’emporte par sa beauté, deux porcelets qui l’emportent par leur beauté, ce qui est religieusement permis […] que le jeune homme, la neuvième année, exhibe un bouclier, un petit javelot, des pièces de vêtement rouges, une épée, […] (inintelligible). Pour Korynition, lors de la fête de trois jours, un bovin ; lors de la fête annuelle (?), un mouton mâle […] Durant (la) Zapatea, un mouton mâle, la neuvième année,
quand (tombent) précisément les Hoplodmia. Durant (la) Zapatea, pour […]. À Keleprodos, pour le Keraunos une offrande sacrée (?) ; à Olympie, un ovin. À Spela, pour [… (10) … un mouton (?)] mâle, la neuvième année, quand (tombent) précisément les Hoplodmia. Lors du rassemblement, les cents (au féminin) […] de chacune des deux. (inintelligible) une cuirasse (?), des quatre (au féminin) […] un mouton mâle. Pour Theretas, un bélier. Pour Alphée, un bélier, (faire) trois portions de ces (viandes). […] deux porcelets, à la prêtresse, deux oboles. </p>
<p> […] pour Geneswa. Pour Geneswa, un ovin, le huitième jour (du mois), pour Hermès, une statue, […15 …]. Pour Dionysos, à Hylasmoi, un caprin mâle en tant qu’offrande pour les Protrygaia. Pour le Ke[… la neuvième année, quand (tombent) précisément les] Hoplodmia. Au (sanctuaire) de Kaitas, un bovin, durant (l’année où tombe) la fête de trois jours ; et l’autre année, un mouton [mâle …] un hémiecte, un rayon de miel. Aux Samata, un mouton mâle ; l’autre année [… pour] Geneswa, un mouton mâle. Pour Tetonata (?), un mouton sélectionné. À Or[…] l’autre année, des offrandes à brûler, une obole. Pour Héraclès, un mouton mâle [… (20) …] un bovin qui n’est pas mis sous le joug, deux moutons mâles, deux rayons de miel et […] un mouton mâle ; à Olympie, un ovin. À Kleitor, un taureau et […].</p>
<p> […] un récipient (ou unité de mesure), une outre, un ovin, le neuvième jour (du mois), à Chanch[…].</p>

				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p>This is one of the most significant tablets containing lists of rituals to have come from Arkadia, informing us about many details concerning rituals which were performed during an important celebration in the region from at least the mid-fifth century BC (cf. also here later texts from Tegea in the fourth century BC, <ref target="CGRN_65">CGRN 65</ref>, and Lykosoura at the end of the third century BC, <ref target="CGRN_126">CGRN 126</ref>). The text is striking both by the range of places and sanctuaries mentioned, by the diversity of the deities convoked, and by the varied nomenclature and periodicity of the festivals. In terms of geographical range, Carbon - Clackson, Dubois (2016), and Minon, have all noted that many of the places mentioned seem to center around the area of south-western Arkadia. This is the area through which runs the river Alpheios, which is worshipped as a god across
the document (lines 1, 4, and 12); Maratha (lines 2 and 4), identified twice here by an ethnic (Marathidas, plural Marathidai), lies precisely in this area, on the opposite bank of the river from Mount Lykaion; Alea (line 4), which might bring to mind the well-known sanctuary of (Athena) Alea at Tegea or the place called Alea in north-east Arkadia, is here distinguished as another place, almost certainly a sanctuary of the goddess, belonging to the Marathidai. However, the range intended was clearly wider: Korynition (lines 3 and 7) appears to mark the tomb of a hero on the road leading south from Mantinea to Tegea ;  Kleitor, in northern Arkadia, is also mentioned (line 21; cf. also line 18 for another Arkadian city); and even more distant, a sacrifice at the panhellenic sanctuary of Olympia, far downstream on the Alpheios in Elis, is alluded to twice (lines 9 and 21). Many of the other apparent placenames either evoke sanctuaries (Welweion?, line 4; see below on Spela and Geneswa) or
remain as yet considerably obscure (Keleprodos, line 9; Tetonata?, line 18; cf. also line 7). The simple fact that the inscription collects a variety of rituals at such a wide range of places into an unified document has already led to the suggestion that it should in some way be linked to the development of a central form of authority in Arkadia (see Carbon - Clackson). Though Minon further suggests that at least part of the dialect of the inscription may be attributed to a Mantinean writer (cf. notably on line 20 below), she develops this argument further in connection with the Lykaion (noting also fifth century coins with the effigy of Zeus Lykaios, which bear the legend Ἀρκαδικόν; cf. Jost 1985, 182-184). For earlier discussions of the development of the Arkadian league, see Roy, Nielsen 2002: 121–157, and 2015 (one of the earliest piece of evidence for a meeting of the league in the sanctuary of the Lykaion remains <bibl type="abbr" n="IG V.2">IG V.2</bibl> 548, 4th c. BC). This
is indeed very plausible, though, since no source of authority is apparent in the document, it remains implied and to be confirmed. Moreover, the context of the festival celebration, which can be situated on Mount Lykaion or Mount Thaumasion near Methydrion (see below), still calls for further elucidation.</p>

<p> It is clear that the inscription shares many commonalities with sacrificial calendars (see Carbon - Clackson for a more detailed analysis). A typical entry in the document contains, at a minimum, a location or a divine recipient, followed by an offering (usually a sacrificial animal: see e.g. line 12, το̑ι Θερέται κριόν). This can be complemented by the indication of a date during which the rituals are to be performed, but this is rarely a specific day, rather than an indication of the year or period (see below). Far from being inconsistent (so Dubois 2016, "l'application ne semble pas toujours cohérente"), punctuation clearly demarcates each of these entries in the text, though occasionally some rituals taking place at a specific location or for the same recipient can be strung together (see e.g. line 14; cf. also above on Layout).</p>

<p>On the structure of the document, as it is preserved, several aspects warrant attention. First, while we could make the hypothesis that further text was inscribed above the top edge of the tablet, perhaps on another tablet somehow affixed to the present one, this remains entirely speculative. In the absence of other evidence, the first preserved line must therefore be treated as the first line of the document. That being said, it is clear that much text may be missing to the left, where the tablet is broken. In particular, the necessary restoration of the enneateric periodicity of the festival called [Ὁπλό]δ̣μια in line 16 as ἐνϝότοι ϝέτει τοίπερ or ὅτε περ (compare lines 8 and 10) therefore requires that at least 21 letters were missing in this line (see below ad loc.). This would imply that probably many more letters are missing to the left. The extent of the lacuna to the right is more uncertain, since at the most 5 letters appear to be missing in lines 1-2 (cf. also line
16). This may suggest that the lacuna to the right is less important than the one on the left, but no certainty is possible. Second, since we probably have the first line and we certainly have the conclusion of the document—the tablet remaining uninscribed for ca. 12 lines below line 22—, we can enquire what sort of composition it may have had. Most conspicuously, line 13 concludes with empty space, clearly demarcating a section of the text. The text resumes in line 14 with one of two mentions of a specific date in the text, τἀγδόαι ἰσταμίνο, on the 8th day at the beginning of an unspecified month. The only other mention of a specific date in a month occurs at the very end of the text, in line 22, and this is the 9th of the month (τἀνϝόται ἰσταμίνο). The rubric for this date appears to have been briefer, comprising line 22 and perhaps the now lost beginning of line 23. The reasonable inference to be drawn from these observations is that the section running from lines 14-21 was
concerned with the date of the 8th of the month, the short remainder of the text with the 9th of the same month. These remarks therefore raise the question of what date the preceding section of the text, lines 1-13, may have concerned. Since one of the ritual occasions mentioned specifically and repeatedly in the text is called a τριαμβρίς, or three-day celebration, Carbon - Clackson infer that the first section of the text concerned the 7th day of the month (see the suggested restoration in line 1). For a different view, arguing for a larger calendar of sacrifices over at least a few months (not mentioned in the extant text), see now Rosamilia.</p>

<p>The inscription, as we have it, therefore treats an elaborate three-day festival occasion. This festival was characterised not only by a diversity of rituals at different cult-sites and to different divine recipients, but also by the application of at least three forms of periodicity (annual, biennial, and enneateric). Implicitly, and apparently explicitly in line 7 (see ad loc.), sacrifices which were not assigned to a specific period can be said to have been annual (see e.g. on line 12). A major cycle of events was a biennial one: every other year was held the occasion called τριαμβρίς, literally a three-day celebration, while other rites could also be prescribed for the other year in this biennial cycle (this is most apparent on the 8th day of the month, cf. lines 16-17, το̑ι ἁ τριανβρίς—i.e. in the year when the festival is called τριανβρίς and lasts three days—, το̑ι δ ̓ ἀτέροι ϝἔτε<supplied reason="omitted">ι</supplied>; τἀτέροι ϝἔτ̣[ει]; note that Rosamilia instead sees here
"solo un riferimento cronologico" concerning the year of the τριανβρίς). It is also apparent that the first part of this celebration, which we suggest was the 7th day of the month (see line 1), was the most elaborate. It included contests, with meat being set up as prizes for victors (lines 1-2). It is also on this particular occasion that an assembly or a fair, τᾶι παναγόρι (lines 3, 10), was held. Apparently, this could also (in different places in Arkadia?) be called the trieteric fair, τᾶι τριπαναγόρι (see line 3), lasting three days. The other conspicuous form of periodicity which could apply to this festival was an enneateric one, occurring every eight years, when it was called Hoplodmia (cf. lines 6, 8, 10, and 16).</p>

<p>In terms of the character, coherence and unity of the rituals, Carbon - Clackson have proposed to identify them as part of a widescale celebration of the birth of Zeus (even if the god remains for the most part implicit in the text, as the recipient of many of the offerings). The rituals collected in the first section of the document (lines 1-13), though of a very varied character, nevertheless reveal some trends. Those presented in line 6 (see below) appear to be definitional of the enneateric iteration of the festival called Hoplodmia, "Arming" or "Armouring", since they involve the ritual use of a panoply by a boy (see at line 6 for the diverse sources; cf. also the breastplate mentioned in line 11). This celebration was evidently concerned with celebrating the defense of Rhea by giants and other figures, either on Mount Lykaion or Mount Methydrion, depending on the tradition. For the myths of the birth of Zeus on the Lykaion, see Call. 1.10–54; Paus. 8.38.2-3;  Jost 1985: 285-286. For the
tradition concerning Mount Thaumasion at Methydrion, see Paus. 8.36.3, with Jost 1985: 244-245. The epithet Hoplosmios is already well attested for Zeus at Methydrion: cf. [Arist.] <title>PA</title> 673a19 and <bibl type="abbr" n="IG V.2">IG V.2</bibl> 344, line 18, with Jost 1985: 214, 240–249, 277–278. A figure known as Hopladamos (Paus. 8.36.2–3; cp. 8.32.5 on his bones at Megalopolis) was the name of a giant who helped to defend Rhea. In connection with this idea of armouring and defense, it is also striking how martial figures are convoked by the rituals of this tablet: Ares or Enyalios in the guise of Theretas (line 12), but also later a figure called Kaitas (line 16). Zeus here appears as Keraunos both at an unknown place in Arkadia as well as at Olympia (line 9). A place or sanctuary called "the Cave" (Spela, line 9) is likely to be identified with the cave on the mountain where Rhea took shelter during the momentous event. Paus. 8.36.3 mentions such a cave (σπήλαιον) on the top of Mount
Methydrion. This place called Spela could alternatively be connected with the cave of Pan known on Mount Lykaion (cf. Jost 1985: 180 and 459–460). Two entries in the festival calendar (line 8) also mention a specific occasion called Zapatea, at least one of them in the same periodicity as and contemporaneous with the Hoplodmia. This can likely be identified as the celebration of the "Complete Deception" that Rhea undertook to conceal the infant Zeus from Kronos. In the next section (lines 14-21), which we assign to the following day (the 8th day of the month), the first place or sanctuary mentioned is called Geneswa (cf. γενέσια; see also line 18), which is almost certainly to be identified as the birthplace of Zeus; here, Hermes is worshipped alongside an implicit Zeus, perhaps in his capacity as the herald of the newly born king of the gods; other Olympian gods were apparently also adduced (all sons of Zeus: Dionysus, line 15; Heracles, line 19), but the rituals clearly remained focussed on the implicit figure of Zeus (line 21). Finally, a shorter section (line 22, possibly 23) on the 9th day of the month concluded this festival in all of its periods. Both on the first day and on the next, sacrifices were also directed to Olympia (lines 9 and 21), paying homage to this location where the power of the king of the gods was expressed for all the Greeks to witness (for this vision of Olympia, see Pirenne-Delforge). For further discussion of the Arkadian myths concerning the birth of Zeus, see Jost 1998.</p>

<p>Line 1: The fragmentary inscription begins <foreign>in mediis rebus</foreign>, so that some uncertainty remains about the specific date on which these rituals and those in the following lines (until line 13) took place. We infer that the 7th day of the month was concerned (see above). The first fragmentary entry preserved does indicate a date, but the location or the recipient of the offering is now lost. For the date, the stone literally reads ΤΑΙ ΜΙΑΜΒΡΙ, which would tend to suggest an alternative one-day celebration (see Carbon - Clackson). Yet it is possible that this is to be corrected on the basis of the remainder of the inscription, which solely discusses a τριανβρίς (for the derivation of this word, see Carbon - Clackson and cf. Minon, who also notes Hsch. s.v. ἀμβρίζειν· θεραπεύειν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς, which would tend to reveal the root *ἀνβρίς). The offering consisted of a sheep which has been judged "most beautiful", and a female one as the participle indicates. For beauty
contests for animals, see Georgoudi, and for the verb καλλιστεύω, see here <ref target="CGRN_92">CGRN 92</ref>, Athens, line 22, <ref target="CGRN_156">CGRN 156</ref>, Mykonos, lines 6, 12, 27. From this animal, meat is to be set up as prizes, which implies that contests were held on the occasion. For prizes of meat during agonistic contests, see here <ref target="CGRN_147">CGRN 147</ref>, Kos, lines 58-62 (cf. also the commentary of <ref target="CGRN_105">CGRN 105</ref>, excerpting and discussing lines 32-39 of <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 98, Keos). At the conclusion of the line, a new entry begins after the punctuation, preserving the offering of probably a single piglet for the rivergod Alpheios. The god receives the same offering in line 4, while in line 12 he receives a single ram. For the cult of the river Alpheios in Arkadia, see Jost 1985: 524-526.</p>

<p>Line 2: The line begins with a mention of an ethnic, the Marathidai, derived from the place Maratha (for which, see Paus. 8.28.1; Jost 1985: 210); cf. the genitive plural of the same ethnic in line 4. The explanation of the dative case is somewhat less straigthforward: the animal to be offered, again a ewe "reckoned most beautiful" (cf. line 1), was apparently to be sacrificed "among the Marathidai", at a local celebration in this community (less likely, to be given "to the Marathidai" for sacrifice). The occasion is the biennial three-day festival (τριαμβρίς), as is likely to be corrected also in line 1, and the meat is to be set up as prizes for a contest.</p>

<p>Line 3: The line begins with a fragmentary entry: a pair of oxen was to be offered to an unknown recipient and at an unknown place, during the biennial three-day festival, which is here qualified as a πανάγορις. This word not only appears to emphasise the festive character of the three-day occasion, but also to point to an assembly of people and/or a market fair. Pairs of animals (and offerings) are found elsewhere in the text (cf. lines 5, 13, and 20), but regrettably never in a context which is certain, so that it remains unclear if they were usually sacrificed to a single recipient or to multiple figures. After the punctuation, a new entry in the regulation begins with a sacrifice during the τριπανάγορις and at a place called Korynition; the name of the divine recipient is fragmentarily preserved at the end of the line, το̑ι̣ Ι̣[— —] and a specification of the offering would no doubt have followed. The τριπανάγορις seems to correspond to the three-day festival attested in
the tablet and is paralleled by a similar celebration in the sanctuary of Alea at Tegea, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG V.2">IG V.2</bibl> 3 (III), ca. 390 BC, with the intuitions of Jost 1985: 383-384, concerning its period and duration. Korynition, which Carbon - Clackson were tempted to identify with the ethnic of the Arkadian site of Gortys (on which, see Jost 1985: 202-210), has been rightly doubted by Dubois (2017, expecting Κορτύνιος from the legends of coins) and now convincingly explained by Minon as the tomb of Areithoos described by Paus. 8.11.4 on the road leading south from Mantineia (ca. 6 km): κατὰ τοῦτο ἥ τε ὁδὸς μάλιστα στενὴ γίνεται καὶ τὸ μνῆμα Ἀρηιθόου λέγουσιν εἶναι, Κορυνήτου διὰ τὸ ὅπλον ἐπονομασθέντος. A heroic figure already mentioned in H. <title>Il.</title> 7.138 (δίου Ἀρηϊθόου, τὸν ἐπίκλησιν κορυνήτην), Areithoos bore a club, hence his epithet "Clubman" (see Jost 1985: 517-518 for a discussion). There is thus much attraction in following Minon's suggested restoration for
the end of the line, το̑ι̣ Ἀ̣[ρειθόοι]. However, the final trace preserved is slight and perhaps appears too straight or vertical to have belonged to the diagonal hasta of an alpha in this script. In sum, offerings to the "Clubman" (Areithoos/Korynitos) were to be made at his tomb and sanctuary, the Korynition; other rituals prescribed at Korynition in line 7 appear to have had this figure as an implicit recipient (see below ad loc.).</p>

<p>Line 4: At the beginning of the line, the sacrifice of a male sheep is stipulated, though perhaps the period and the recipient are missing in the preceding lacuna; following this, the cutter has begun to inscribe the location of the sacrifice or the sanctuary to which it was destined but omitted this after the preposition ἰν (ἐν). The male sheep is to be viewed as a castrated male, a wether, in contrast to the rams (κριός) found elsewhere in this text (for the form ὄρ(ρ)εν, see Carbon-Clackson; the distinction is not one that concerns the age of the animal, contrary to what Dubois 2016 suggests). The next entry preserves a sacrifice to Alpheios (see on line 1), but at a specific place, whose identification remains difficult (Welweion or perhaps Weaweion, probably a specific sanctuary?). The punctuation used for concluding the entry has been misplaced in the middle of a word (see Layout) but empty space has been left after this word to demarcate it from the following rubric. Since no
timing is specified, the sacrifice to Alpheios will presumably have taken place on an annual basis. The final entry in this line concerns a ritual, at Alea of the Marathidai (we now read here το̑ν Μαραθιδᾶ[ν], following Dubois 2016, and not an accusative singular). This phrase is used to identify a place, no doubt a sanctuary of the goddess Alea in the area of Maratha (on which cf. line 2), thus distinguishing it from other places and sanctuaries of this name, e.g. Alea in north-eastern Arkadia (quite distant from Maratha) and the sanctuary of Alea known at Tegea. For the cult of Alea (sometimes identified with Athena), see Jost 1985: 368-385.</p>

<p>Line 5: This fragmentary entry only seems to preserve a list of offerings; all other details (recipient and/or place, timing) are now missing. The sacrifices in question were relatively elaborate: a ewe, again subject to an assessment of its physical characteristics and attractiveness (cf. on line 1), and also one said to be "horned", κεραΐς—this term must have emphasised the appearance of the animal (perhaps a particular subspecies) or more probably its mature age (Hsch. s.v. κερᾴδες uses the term to refer to ewes but misleadingly applies it to the appearance of the teeth); a pair of piglets, also evaluated for beauty, was to be offered; finally, another element concluded the series, apparently the phrase ἃ θεμιστία. This is taken by Carbon - Clackson to be a shorthand for (τὰ) ἃ θεμιστία, "the things which are religiously permitted", apparently a coda for referring to all the other customary necessities of the sacrifice; compare notably <ref target="CGRN_92">CGRN 92</ref>, Athens,
line 16, where elements of the rituals go undescribed and are to be performed "as it is customary" (κατὰ ⟨τὰ⟩ εἰω[θότα]). Dubois (2017) partly supports this reading, but would
prefer to contrast the preceding list with another, containing proscribed offerings, and thus suggests to read ἀθεμίστια [δὲ...]. This seems impossible given the punctuation and the letter trace which immediately follow, clearly marking the conclusion of the entry and beginning of a new one.</p>

<p>Line 6: The beginning of this fragmentary entry may preserve a divine name or a toponym in the dative. The timing of the ritual is specified as "in the ninth year". This precisely corresponds to the timing of the festival when it is called Hoplodmia (cf. lines 8, 10, and 16). It would appear that the ritual action prescribed in this line, using an accusative-infinitive construction, is definitional of this version of the festival taking place every eight years (enneateric = every eight years). A young boy (κόρϝον, i.e. κοῦρος) was to bring out (ἐξάγεν) several elements of armour and weaponry, which together comprise a panoply. The final element, of which only the first letter, kappa, is preserved, is generally agreed to have been a helmet (see Carbon - Clackson for possible restorations including κ[όρυν], κ[ράνον], and κ[υνέαν]; cf. also Tentori Montalto). The young male was presumably to take these items out of a temple or other structure as part of a ritual performance. For a wider discussion of
this ritual in the context of armed processions in Greek religion, see now Ampolo. The action of dressing with or bearing arms formed a constitutive part of the Hoplodmia, which celebrated the defense of Rhea during the birth of Zeus; see above and below line 8 (for different views, Heinrichs and Dubois 2016).</p>

<p>Line 7: The conclusion of the first fragmentary entry in this line remains puzzling. For some possibilities, see Carbon - Clackson, thinking for instance of a toponym; Minon suggests reading τ̣ε τὀνάσια, but one wonders what may be the place of—unspecified—"profitable" things (*ὀνάσιος, -ον) in this ritual. A further series of rituals is to take place at Korynition, the tomb/shrine of Areithoos/Korynitos (cf. line 3). During the τριαμβρίς (biennial three-day festival), an ox is to be sacrificed (βο̑ν must either designate a cow or a castrated male, the latter in contrast with ταῦρος: see line 21). If τριπανάγορις and τριαμβρίς are indeed synonyms (see above), it is unclear just how this sacrifice may differ from the one prescribed in line 3; perhaps both were complementary. At any rate, the recipient of the sacrifice appears to be unspecified, though it may implicitly have been Areithoos/Korynitos. Carbon - Clackson were inclined to see in the expression τὀτινίοι a further divine
recipient, who would then have been honoured at Korynition. The attractive suggestion of Dubois (2017) that one may be dealing with the contraction of το̑ι *ϝετινίοι, "in the annual (cycle)", seems perhaps more convincing (though note that this postulates a form such as *ἐτίνιος/ἐτήνιος, compare ἐτήσιος, which is not without its linguistic problems, notably the expected persistence of /w/ expressed by digamma). If correct, such a temporal indication would cast a different light on the matter: there would be both an annual and a biennial cycle to the rituals. In other words, a figure, such as Areithoos/Korynitos, would be presented with a special ox once every two years during the τριαμβρίς, and in any case with a wether every year on this day (for a similar though not identical phrasing, cf. line 16).</p>
						
<p>Line 8: The two entries fragmentarily preserved in this line might at first glance appear to concern another obscure placename known as Zapatea; however, the absence of the preposition ἰν, with the simple use of the dative case, is immediately noteworthy. A linguistic possibility, confirmed by Minon per ep., is that Zapatea is an Arkadian form of Διαπατέα (cf. διαπατάω and the variant ἀπατεύω; see already Carbon - Clackson, p. 130, for intuitions in this direction). If that is right, we would here have the  name for a celebration, called "Complete Deception". The reference would be to the occasion on which Rhea undertook to conceal the infant Zeus from Kronos. This would tie particularly well with the celebration of the enneateric Hoplodmia mentioned in the inscription, with which the first occurence of Zapatea here is clearly contemporaneous. For the formulation of the simultaneity of the ritual with the enneateric period of the Hoplodmia, compare the phrase at <ref target="CGRN_13">CGRN 13</ref>, Selinous, line A1 (periodic sacrifices contemporaneous with the penteteric truce of the Olympic games). The festival of the Hoplodmia is widely attested in different forms across Arkadia (see above, in the introduction to this commentary, on Mount Thaumasion and Methydrion) as well as in Elis (for Hera, cf. schol. in Lyc. 614 and 857–858). Hoplodmia is also attested as the name of a tribe at Mantinea: cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG V.2">IG V.2</bibl> 271, line 10, with Jost 1985: 129–130, who hypothesises that the name will have referred to a local sanctuary. In the second entry, the occasion called Zapatea seems to be followed by an expression referring to a male deity, το̑ι ΠΑ[--. A possibility for this figure, suggested by Carbon - Clackson, is Pan, known to have been worshipped in a cave on Mount Lykaion (see below line 9, and cf. Jost 1985: 180 and 459–460). Since the first entry preserves a sacrifice during the Zapatea in the cycle of the Hoplodmia, the next (following after the punctuation at the end of the line) must probably have dealt with an offering during another cycle (annual? the trieteric τριαμβρίς?).</p>

<p>Line 9: After the first traces concluding a fragmentary entry (probably with an offering or animal in the accusative singular) and the punctuation, a sacrifice is prescribed to Keraunos (i.e. Zeus Keraunos) at a place called Keleprodos (see Carbon - Clackson). For the cult of Zeus Keraunos at Mantinea, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG V.2">IG V.2</bibl> 288, and in Arkadia more broadly, cf. Jost 1985: 269-271. The offering made to the god is a ἰερόνιον, a distinctive term which Carbon - Clackson tentatively suggest may be a variant of ἱερεῖον or an unattested diminutive of ἱερόν. Minon, reacting to the view of Carbon - Clackson (who read a presumed adjective Ὀλυνπιαῖος as a temporal indication, so also Dubois 2016), proposes to read this line as: το̑ι Κεραυνο̑ι ἰερόνιον Ὀλυνπίαι ὄς τ᾽ ἰν Σπέλαι. Ὀλυνπίαι is indeed a common locative, which can appear without a preposition (ἰν). However, Μinon's suggested reading transgresses the conclusion of the entry at the punctuation placed before ἰν Σπέλαι.
While now partly agreeing with her view, we therefore prefer to set this case in parallel with the expression found in line 21. Both must have referred to the sacrifice of a sheep at Olympia (see already the first suggestion of Clackson, cited by Dubois 2016). In sum, it would seem that sacrifices to (Zeus) Keraunos were prescribed both at an uncertain place in Arkadia (Keleprodos) and at Olympia itself. For a statue of Zeus with thunderbolts dedicated by the Arkadian Kynaitheis at Olympia, see Paus. 8.19.1; for an altar of Zeus Keraunios at Olympia, see Paus. 5.14.7. Since no period is specified, the two sacrifices will presumably have taken place on an annual basis. The fragmentary beginning of the next entry prescribed sacrifices at a place called Spela, literally "the cave" (from the new word *σπήλα, compare σπήλαιον etc., and see Carbon - Clackson, Dubois 2017). This was either followed by a temporal indication or by a male recipient for the offering(s): το̑ι [--]. For the
identification of the cave (where Rhea took shelter during the birth of Zeus and which must have become a sanctuary), either on Mount Methydrion or the grotto of Pan on Mount Lykaion, see the introduction above.</p>
						
<p>Lines 10-11: The sacrifice of a male animal is here said to have fallen in the enneateric period of the Hoplodmia, but other details are missing. For the next entry following the punctuation, we find again the mention of the πανάγορις, which appears to be a designation for the assembly or fair held during the τριαμβρίς (specifically, on this first day; cf. line 3). Carbon - Clackson hesitatingly proposed that the unidentified female things or persons (τὰς ἑκοτόν) may have constituted a hecatomb on this occasion. Rosamilia, adducing Plb. 12.5.6-7 on Lokroi Epizephyrioi, argues that these hundred female things may have been οἰκίαι, thereby referring to a gentilicial group ("the hundred houses") involved in the rituals. In any case, we should note that the following line (line 11) appears to continue to consider at least some of these animals or agents: cf. ϝε]κ̣ατέρας and τᾶν ϟεσϟάρον (for the latter form, cf. Dubois 2016, Carbon - Clackson, and Tentori Montalto). Both formulations, apparently singling out half of the females, as well as something
deriving from four of them, would be odd of humans or even groups, and perhaps more appropriate of animals. Line 11 nevertheless contains a series of letters which remain largely unintelligible (see Carbon - Clackson for discussion); one thing that is relatively clear is that a breastplate, προστήθειον (so already Heinrichs), was mentioned, perhaps as part of the accoutrements of a ritual (recall the panoply employed in line 6 and the significance of the Hoplodmia as a festival of "bearing arms"); Papazarkadas additionally and attractively suggests that this item may have been derived from a chest, ΤΑΣΧΑΛΟ = τᾶς χαλο̑ (?̑) (a Doric form from Attic-Ionic χηλός; cf. also Rosamilia, with a similar view, thinking perhaps of booty or produce removed from a chest serving as a θησαυρός).</p>

<p>Line 12: This line contains a series of three entries, of which the last two are not assigned to a specific period, and are thus likely to be annual. In the first fragmentary entry, the traces ]ΟΙ are likely to have belonged to a toponym or a divine male recipient of the wether. The next rubric concerns a sacrifice of a ram to Theretas, who was identified with Ares or Enyalios in Laconia (noting Paus. 3.19.8 and Hsch. s.v.; see Dubois 2016, underlining a connotation of "hunting"; Carbon - Clackson). Another sacrifice to the rivergod Alpheios (cf. lines 1 and 4), here of a ram, follows in the next entry, which is qualified by an apparently unique ritual manipulation: three portions (from the meat) of the animal were to be made, and presumably offered to the god in some way (see Carbon - Clackson for further discussion).</p>

<p>Line 13: This line appears to conclude a section of the text, since it ends with space left empty. In the argument of Carbon - Clackson, adopted here, lines 1-13 form a section concerning the seventh day of the month. The final fragmentary entry in this line contains the offering of a pair of piglets, preceded by the traces of what must be a thematic infinitive, perhaps [νέ]μεν ("distribute") or [τά]μεν ("cut") (see Carbon - Clackson and also Dubois 2017). The entry finished with the only specification of a priestly stipend in the text (but see on line 19). A pair of obols are to be given to the priestess, one for each piglet, which may suggest that the preceding sacrifice could have concerned a goddess who was served by this priestess. Though one may have thought of an Archaic-Classical monetary use for spits (ὀβελοί), a possibility raised by Carbon - Clackson, Rosamilia (esp. p. 380-383) admirably collects the evidence for the circulation of monetary obols in Arkadia already around ca. 460 BC. For the form ὀϟελός, attested in Arkadian as ὀδελός, see Dubois 2016, Clackson and Tentori Montalto.</p>

<p>Line 14: Two entries in this line were concerned with a sanctuary, or perhaps a celebration, called Geneswa. As Carbon - Clackson argued (noting also the Arkadian month Genesios), with further arguments by Dubois 2017 and Minon (supposing an original form *γένετυς), this must have designated a place or a commemoration of the birth of Zeus in Arkadia. The most likely recipient of the offering of a simple sheep, which apparently fell annually on the 8th of the month, must thus be Zeus himself. On this occasion, he was accompanied by Hermes, who received a statuette or figurine (ἄγαλμα), perhaps appropriately a herm; other details of this occasion may also have been specified (cf. the trace Π[--]).</p>

<p>Line 15: The fragmentary conclusion of an entry at the beginning of this line preserves the dative plural ending, probably belonging to a group of individuals (e.g. an ethnic, compare lines 2 and 4; see Carbon - Clackson for discussion). The fully preserved entry in the middle line informs us about a sacrifice to Dionysus at a place called Hylasmoi (presumably denoting a wooden area) consisting of a male goat. For the preponderance of goats as offerings to Dionysus, god of the τράγος, cf. e.g. <ref target="CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref>, Thorikos, lines 33-35. Here, however, the offering is further qualified as προτρύγιος. As Carbon - Clackson explain, this adjective must make reference to the known epithet of Dionysus as Protrygaios and to his festival called Protrygaia. This designates the function of the god as a protector of grapes, in the context of an early harvest (προ-). Though not explicitly referring to a celebration of Protrygaia as a festival per se, the
offering nevertheless provides a seasonal parameter for the rituals at hand (end of summer / very early autumn). An alternative view is that of Dubois (2016), who sees here a qualifier of the age of the animal, "né avant les vendanges" (also adopted by Rosamilia, which, with further discussion, leads him to conclude that the season of the calendar is spring or summer). The line concludes with a fragmentary indication το̑ι ΚΕ̣[..?..], which might point to another sacrifice to Keraunos (see line 9) though this remains uncertain.</p>

<p>Line 16: The line first preserves the conclusion of an entry specifying the enneateric period of the Hoplodmia (see Carbon - Clackson). The full phrase must have paralleled those found in lines 8 and 10, indicating that a substantial passage is missing in the lacuna to the left. The next entry preserves the specification of a sacrifice in (x) of Kaitas: this must have designated a plot of land or sanctuary belonging to this figure (so Carbon - Clackson, Dubois 2017). As Dubois 2017 attractively suggests, the otherwise unknown name Kaitas "pourrait être à δαίτης ce que καίνυμαι est à δαίνυμαι". Since καίνυμι can mean "to excel" but also "to be equipped" or "armed" (cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. I and II), the latter sense may indeed be particularly apt for a heroic figure invoked in this tablet (compare Areithoos/Korynitos above, lines 3 and 7, and, on the martial character of the rituals and divine figures in the tablet, see the introduction to the commentary). The
sacrifices to this figure Kaitas appear to have alternated: in the year of the τριαμβρίς, Kaitas was offered an ox, in the other year, a wether (for a probably similar though not identicial phrasing, cf. line 7).</p>

<p>Line 17: The line first conserves the fragmentary conclusion of an entry in the list: this apparently specified a half-<foreign>hekton</foreign> (ἑμίτειαν, see Carbon - Clackson for a discussion of the form) of a certain substance, as well as a honeycomb; for honeycombs as sacrificial elements or complements, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_53">CGRN 53</ref>, Piraeus, and <ref target="CGRN_87">CGRN 87</ref>, Samos. The next entry preserves biennial sacrifices to an unspecified recipient at the place called Samata ("Signs" or perhaps "Tombs"; see Carbon - Clackson). Though the τριαμβρίς is not specified, it likely forms the point of reference here, as in the preceding line. During the main year of the festival, a wether was offered, while in the other year, another offering, now lost, was prescribed.</p>

<p>Line 18: Another sacrifice is prescribed at/for Geneswa (on which see above, line 14), with perhaps further details missing in the lacuna. The only fully preserved entry in this line regrettably begins with an apparent toponym or sanctuary which is difficult to decipher and interpret: Tetonata? 
Minon instead proposes that one might read τε τ(ὸν) Ὀνάταν or τε τὸν Ἄταν, noting that Ἄτης is said to be an epithet of Dionysus by the <title>EM</title> (one fails to see why the particle τε may have been deemed necessary, however). The sacrificial animal, a sheep, was qualified as σκεπτός (on the unique word, see Carbon - Clackson) and we can thus identify it as male (σκεπτός, -α, -ον, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. σκεπτέον 2). This qualifier must imply that it had been the subject of a physical examination prior to the ritual; compare animals called κριτός, e.g. at <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32">CGRN 32</ref>, Thorikos; on the importance of the δοκιμασία of sacrificial animals, see Feyel and Georgoudi. Since no periodicity is specified, the sacrifice in question may be assumed to have been an annual one. The final fragmentary entry in the line preserves the beginning of what may be an Arkadian place name such as e.g. Oresthasion, since the third
letter of this word might be identified with an epsilon (a less certain possibility is Orchomenos, usually Erchomenos in local dialect; see Carbon - Clackson).</p>

<p>Line 19: The first fragmentary entry in this line appears to contain the things to be offered in the other year of a biennial cycle. As in lines 16 and 17, this must designate the cycle of the τριαμβρίς, which occurred biennially and will doubtless have been mentioned in the preceding lacuna. The offerings in this other year of the cycle are modest: offerings for burning and an obol. For the first of these, it remains preferable, rather than to suppose a new word for a ritual agent (see Dubois 2016), to see here a form of θύεια or θύια, designating aromatic wood for burning (cf. also θύον; for θύα, cf. e.g. <ref target="CGRN_41">CGRN 41</ref>, line 2, and <ref target="CGRN_66">CGRN 66</ref>, line 3, both from Chios). The next entry was concerned with the sacrifice of a wether to Heracles, though further details concerning this occasion may now be missing.</p>

<p>Line 20: The line preserves only part of an entry and includes a detailed and apparently significant list of offerings: as preserved, this begins with an ox (of uncertain gender) that is qualified as ἄφετος, which designates that it was "free from work" and thus likely belonged to a sacred herd (on this unique word in the present collection, see further Carbon - Clackson). The ox is followed by a pair of wethers, a pair of honeycombs (cf. line 17), as well as probably another offering. Carbon - Clackson were tempted to read this last element as a κάσ(σ)ος, a thick garment or a skin, but Dubois (2017) seems to correctly affirm the reading of the Arkadian conjunction κάς (= καί) here. Since this is only known from Mantineia, it may lead one to suppose that the composer of the tablet was Mantinean (so Minon). Conjunctions are also found elsewhere in the text between the different dispositions, e.g. in line 2.</p>

<p>Line 21: As in line 9, we appear to have the juxtaposition of an offering of a male sheep to a divine figure and/or at a specific place (see Carbon - Clackson on the traces ]ΑΝΤΙ) and another at Olympia, consisting only of a sheep (for an earlier reading of the conclusion of this entry as Ὀλυνπιαίοις, implying a periodicity "during the Olympiaia", see Carbon - Clackson). As in line 9 also, the divine recipient is likely to have been Zeus. Since in both cases only a seemingly generic sheep was prescribed at Olympia, this may reflect the impossibility of knowing exactly what sort of animal will be available for purchase at Olympia. The next fragmentary entry preserves the offering of a bull sent to Kleitor in northern Arkadia along with another offering (reading the conjunction κάς as in line 20, following Dubois 2017). The divine recipient of the offering does not appear to have been specified but should have been Zeus; still other details could have been made more explicit in the following lacuna.</p>

<p>Line 22: Though the entry is fragmentary, it is assigned to the ninth day of the month and contains a list of offerings in an unusual order: first a type of jar or a measure contained by it (κάδδιχος; for which, see here <ref target="CGRN_4">CGRN 4</ref>, Olympia, commentary at lines 1-2, and <ref target="CGRN_159">CGRN 159</ref>, Messenia, line 10), a (presumably filled?) wineskin, and a sheep. These offerings were to be made at a toponym or sanctuary whose name is now only fragmentarily preserved; cf. Carbon - Clackson for further discussion.</p>
					</div>
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