CGRN 20

Fragmentary sacrificial calendar of an unknown group in Athens

Date :

ca. 475-450 BC

Justification: lettering and style (Lewis).

Provenance

Athens . Found on the Acropolis. Now in the British Museum (inv. no. 73).

Support

Stele inscribed on 4 sides, A-D. Broken at the top and below, worn and damaged on some parts of the surfaces. A may have been the front face (so Lewis), but it is the most fragmentary; and all the sides are broken, so no certainty is possible.

  • Height: 21 cm
  • Width: 32 cm
  • Depth: 10 cm

Layout

Stoichedon 19 on the larger faces, A and C; stoichedon 6 on B and D. Stoichedon grid: 16 × 19.3 mm high.

Even letters on all sides: 1.5 cm high in lines A1-12; in lines A13-14 and B and C, 1.1 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Lewis IG I³ 246, but we do not include the altogether too fragmentary side A. For the restoration in C line 3, see Sokolowski.

Cf. also: von Prott LGS I 2, with p. 45; Sokolowski LSCG 2.

Further bibliography: Mikalson 1975, for the dates.

Text


Face B


[..?..]
[.] καὶ μ-
[λ]ιτος
τ-
[ρ]ιhεμι-
[κο]τύλ[ι]-
5[ον
..4..]
[.. ἔ]στο
[το̑] ἱερέ-
[ος]
Τριτ-
[ο]πατρε-
10[ῦσ]ι
τε̑ι
[..?..]

Face C


[..?..]
[..]ΕΣ[.]Ο[......12......]
hεμικοτύλ[ια] ΟΙ[.]Α[...]
[.]Ι [h]ιερεῖ ΓΕ[..]ΔΕ[.]ΝΙ[..]
[..] διδόνα.]
5[. Θαρ]γελι[ο̑ν]ο[ς] hκ[τ]ε h]-
ισταμέ[ν]ο
[..]Ι[...6...]-
εσι ∶ τέλεο ..]Ρ[.]ΤΕΣ ἕ-
μισυ
Ε το̑ι hέροι καὶ φρύ-
γανα
Πλυντερίοισι Ἀθε-
10[να]ίαι
οἶν. Σκιροφοριο̑ν-
[ος
..?..]
[..?..]

Face D


[..?..]
[.]hέρ[οι]-
ν
πυρο̑ν
δύο χοί-
νικε
τρ-
5ε̑ς
ὀβελ̣-
οί
hέρο-
ιν
ἐμ πε-
δίοι
τέ-
λεον
hε-
10κατρ[ο]-
...5..]
[..?..]

Translation

(Given the extremely fragmentary character of the text, no translation is attempted; see Commentary.)

Traduction

(En raison du caractère fragmentaire du texte, aucune tentative de traduction n'est proposée; voir Commentary.)

Commentary

Only three of the inscribed sides of this stele are fairly legible. The content of sides B and D is extremely fragmentary and difficult to evaluate. At least one of the sides, C, can be clearly interpreted as a form of calendar. It is unclear if the other broken sides were also calendrical, and the order in which these sides were presented can only be conjectured. As preserved, side C probably marks the conclusion of a calendar. Side C might thus mark the conclusion of the entire document, or at least of one of its constituent parts. The two extant months are indeed the last two in the Athenian calendar: Thargelion (month 11; cf. line C5) and Skirophorion (month 12; cf. line C10). Much of the entry for Thargelion is fragmentarily preserved on this side, as well as containing probably earlier sacrifices in C1-4; the entry for Skirophorion appears to begin where the stone breaks off. The rites presented on side C appear to be small and not very detailed, suggesting that the authority from which this document emanated was probably a subcivic group rather than the city of Athens (von Prott thought of a tribe, phratry or genos; Sokolowski suggested an association, because of the elusive mention of men in lines A6-7, not included here, but this seems less plausible given the date of the inscription). For a similar calendar of a genos or subcivic group inscribed on the acropolis during the Classical period, see here CGRN 21.

Lines B1-8: These lines seem to form the conclusion of an offering, notably involving honey. In B5-8, it is possible that the traces or the lacunae assigned the skin from a sacrificial animal to the priest, according to a standard formulation in ritual norms: [δέρμα] ἔστο | [το̑] ἱερέ|[ος] (cp. lines C2-3).

Lines B8-10: We find here an offering to the Tritopateres, "Great-Grandfathers", on which see here CGRN 13 (Selinous), lines A9-16. The apparent dative article following the group of gods, τε̑ι, is puzzling.

Lines C5-9: This section of the calendar is concerned with a sacrifice on the 6th of Thargelion. The explicit mention of the month name makes it likely that the entry for Thargelion began here. The preceding but very fragmentary lines will thus have been concerned with offerings in Mounychion or an earlier month. The recipient of the sacrifice of an adult animal on the 6th of Thargelion is highly unclear, but appears to be a plural group (-εσι, line C8). The 6th of Thargelion is a date which involved sacrifices to Artemis, perhaps in close connection with the Thargelia in honour of Apollo on the next day (cf. Mikalson, p. 153). The remainder is also not straightforward but appears to involve the complementary supply of firewood for the sacrifices made to a Hero.

Lines C9-10: The Plynteria ("Washing") was a major civic festival taking place in Athens on the 25th of Thargelion (Mikalson, p. 160-161). The group inscribing this calendar apparently contributed to the civic festival, but rather modestly: only a single sheep (probably a ewe) was sacrificed to Athena. For the rites performed at the Plynteria, cf. here CGRN 24 and CGRN 32 (Thorikos), lines 52-53.

Side D: This side of the stele appears to be primarily concerned with sacrifices to Heroes. First, a pair of male Heroes receives two measures of barley grains, and three roasting spits are also to be furnished. Another pair of Heroes said to be located "in the plain" (ἐμ πεδίοι) each receive an adult animal as sacrifices. The identity of these recipients is completely unclear, though the mention of the plain might serve to indicate that the group inscribing the stele was primarily located somewhere in the periphery of the center of the city of Athens. In any case, the group in question was allowed to inscribe its rites and regulations on the acropolis like some other similar groups, cf. again CGRN 21, and to participate in celebrations taking place there.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 20, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 20, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/20/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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	    			<title><idno type="filename">CGRN 20</idno>: Fragmentary <rs type="textType" key="sacrificial calendar">sacrificial calendar</rs>  of an unknown group in Athens</title>
	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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					<authority>Collection of Greek Ritual Norms, F.R.S.-FNRS Project no. 2.4561.12, University of Liège.</authority>
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						<p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p>	
						<p>All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/">http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/</ref> and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).</p>
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		<p> <rs type="objectType" key="stele">Stele</rs> inscribed on 4 sides, A-D. Broken at the top and below, worn and damaged on some parts of the surfaces. A may have been the front face (so Lewis), but it is the most fragmentary; and all the sides are broken, so no certainty is possible.</p>
		
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		<height unit="cm">21</height>
		<width unit="cm">32</width>
		<depth unit="cm">10</depth>
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			<p>Stoichedon 19 on the larger faces, A and C; stoichedon 6 on B and D. Stoichedon grid: <height unit="mm">16 × 19.3</height>.</p>
			<p>Even letters on all sides: <height unit="cm">1.5</height> in lines A1-12; in lines A13-14 and B and C, <height unit="cm">1.1</height>.</p>
			
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							<p><origDate notBefore="-0475" notAfter="-0450">ca. 475-450 BC</origDate></p>
							
							<p><desc>Justification: lettering and style (Lewis).</desc></p>
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						<provenance><p><placeName type="ancientFindspot" key="Athens" n="Attica"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/579885/" type="external"> Athens</ref></placeName>. Found on the Acropolis. Now in the British Museum (inv. no. 73). </p>
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	    		<div type="bibliography">
	    			<head>Bibliography</head>
	    			
	    			<p>Edition here based on Lewis <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I³">IG I³</bibl> 246, but we do not include the altogether too fragmentary side A. For the restoration in C line 3, see Sokolowski.</p>
	    			<p>Cf. also: von Prott <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS I">LGS I</bibl> 2, with p. 45; Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 2.</p>
	    			<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Mikalson 1975">Mikalson 1975</bibl>, for the dates.</p>
</div>
	    			<div type="edition">
					<head>Text</head>
	    				
	<ab subtype="Face" n="B">Face B
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_B1" n="B1"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/> καὶ <name type="liquid"><w lemma="μέλι"><unclear>μέ</unclear>
	    						
	    						<lb xml:id="line_B2" n="B2" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">λ</supplied>ιτος</w></name> <w lemma="τριημικοτύλιον">τ
	    							
	    							<lb xml:id="line_B3" n="B3" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ρ</supplied>ιhεμι	
	    							
	    							<lb xml:id="line_B4" n="B4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κο</supplied>τύλ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
	    								
	    								<lb xml:id="line_B5" n="B5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ον</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_B6" n="B6"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/> <w lemma="εἰμί"><supplied reason="lost">ἔ</supplied>στο</w>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_B7" n="B7"/><supplied reason="lost">το̑</supplied> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἱερέ
	    						
	    						<lb xml:id="line_B8" n="B8" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied></w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="deity" key="Tritopateres"><w lemma="Τριτοπατρῆς">Τριτ
	    							
	    							<lb xml:id="line_B9" n="B9" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied><unclear>π</unclear>ατρε	 
	    							
	    							<lb xml:id="line_B10" n="B10" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ῦσ</supplied>ι</w></name> τε̑ι
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    				</ab>
	    				
	    				<ab subtype="fragment" n="C">Face C
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    					<lb xml:id="line_C1" n="C1"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>Ε<unclear>Σ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Ο</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="12" unit="character"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_C2" n="C2"/><w lemma="ἡμικοτύλιον">hεμικοτύλ<supplied reason="lost">ια</supplied></w> <orig>ΟΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>Α</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_C3" n="C3"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>Ι</orig> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς"><supplied reason="lost">h</supplied>ιερεῖ</w></name> <orig>ΓΕ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>ΔΕ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ΝΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_C4" n="C4"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/> <w lemma="δίδωμι">διδόν<unclear>α</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_C5" n="C5"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/> <name type="month"><w lemma="Θαργήλια"><supplied reason="lost">Θαρ</supplied>γελι<supplied reason="lost">ο̑ν</supplied><unclear>ο</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ἕκτος">h<unclear>έκ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied><unclear>ε</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <w lemma="ἵστημι"><supplied reason="lost">h</supplied>
	    						
	    						<lb xml:id="line_C6" n="C6" break="no"/>ισταμέ<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>ο</w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>Ι</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character"/>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_C7" n="C7" break="no"/>εσι <pc>∶</pc> <name type="animal" key="generic"><name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέλεο<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>Ρ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ΤΕΣ</orig> <w lemma="ἥμισυς">ἕ
	    						
	    						<lb xml:id="line_C8" n="C8" break="no"/>μισυ</w> <orig>Ε</orig> το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Hero"><w lemma="ἥρως">hέροι</w></name> καὶ <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="φρύγανον">φρύ
	    							
	    							<lb xml:id="line_C9" n="C9" break="no"/>γανα</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="festival"><w lemma="Πλυντήρια">Πλυντερίοισι</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Athena"><w lemma="Ἀθήνη">Ἀθε
	    								
	    								<lb xml:id="line_C10" n="C10" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">να</supplied>ίαι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="ὄϊς">οἶν</w></name>. <name type="month"><w lemma="Σκιροφοριών"><unclear>Σ</unclear>κιροφοριο̑ν
	    									
	    									<lb xml:id="line_C11" n="C11" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    				</ab>
	    				
	    				<ab subtype="fragment" n="D">Face D
	    					
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    					<lb xml:id="line_D1" n="D1"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="deity" key="Heroes"><w lemma="ἥρως">hέρ<supplied reason="lost">οι</supplied>
	    						
	    						<lb xml:id="line_D2" n="D2" break="no"/><unclear>ν</unclear></w></name> <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="πυρός">πυρο̑ν</w></name>
	    					
	    					<lb xml:id="line_D3" n="D3"/><w lemma="δύο">δύο</w> <w lemma="χοῖνιξ">χοί
	    						
	    					<lb xml:id="line_D4" n="D4" break="no"/>νικε</w> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρ
	    							
	    					<lb xml:id="line_D5" n="D5" break="no"/>ε̑ς</w> <name type="object"><w lemma="ὀβελός">ὀβελ̣
	    								
	    								<lb xml:id="line_D6" n="D6" break="no"/>οί</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="deity" key="Heroes"><w lemma="ἥρως">hέρο
	    									
	    									<lb xml:id="line_D7" n="D7" break="no"/>ιν</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐμ</w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="πεδίον">πε
	    										
	    										<lb xml:id="line_D8" n="D8" break="no"/>δίοι</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="animal" key="generic"><name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέ
	    											
	    											<lb xml:id="line_D9" n="D9" break="no"/>λεον</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἑκάτερος">hε
	    												
	    												<lb xml:id="line_D10" n="D10" break="no"/><unclear>κατέρ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>
	    												
	    												<lb xml:id="line_D11" n="D11" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/>
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    					
	    
	    	</ab>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
					<p>(Given the extremely fragmentary character of the text, no translation is attempted; see Commentary.)</p>
					</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>	(En raison du caractère fragmentaire du texte, aucune tentative de traduction n'est proposée; voir Commentary.)</p>

				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p> Only three of the inscribed sides of this stele are fairly legible. The content of sides B and D is extremely fragmentary and difficult to evaluate. At least one of the sides, C, can be clearly interpreted as a form of calendar. It is unclear if the other broken sides were also calendrical, and the order in which these sides were presented can only be conjectured. As preserved, side C probably marks the conclusion of a calendar. Side C might thus mark the conclusion of the entire document, or at least of one of its constituent parts. The two extant months are indeed the last two in the Athenian calendar: Thargelion (month 11; cf. line C5) and Skirophorion (month 12; cf. line C10). Much of the entry for Thargelion is fragmentarily preserved on this side, as well as containing probably earlier sacrifices in C1-4; the entry for Skirophorion appears to begin where the stone breaks off. The rites presented on side C appear to be small and not very detailed, suggesting that the authority from which this document emanated was probably a subcivic group rather than the city of Athens (von Prott thought of a tribe, phratry or <foreign>genos</foreign>; Sokolowski suggested an association, because of the elusive mention of men in lines A6-7, not included here, but this seems less plausible given the date of the inscription). For a similar calendar of a <foreign>genos</foreign> or subcivic group inscribed on the acropolis during the Classical period, see here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_21/">CGRN 21</ref>.</p>
						
<p> Lines B1-8: These lines seem to form the conclusion of an offering, notably involving honey. In B5-8, it is possible that the traces or the lacunae assigned the skin from a sacrificial animal to the priest, according to a standard formulation in ritual norms: [δέρμα] ἔστο | <supplied reason="lost">το̑</supplied> ἱερέ|<supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied> (cp. lines C2-3).</p>
						
<p> Lines B8-10: We find here an offering to the Tritopateres, "Great-Grandfathers", on which see here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_13/">CGRN 13</ref> (Selinous), lines A9-16. The apparent dative article following the group of gods, τε̑ι, is puzzling.</p>
			
<p> Lines C5-9: This section of the calendar is concerned with a sacrifice on the 6th of Thargelion. The explicit mention of the month name makes it likely that the entry for Thargelion began here. The preceding but very fragmentary lines will thus have been concerned with offerings in Mounychion or an earlier month. The recipient of the sacrifice of an adult animal on the 6th of Thargelion is highly unclear, but appears to be a plural group (-εσι, line C8). The 6th of Thargelion is a date which involved sacrifices to Artemis, perhaps in close connection with the Thargelia in honour of Apollo on the next day (cf. Mikalson, p. 153). The remainder is also not straightforward but appears to involve the complementary supply of firewood for the sacrifices made to a Hero.</p>
						
<p> Lines C9-10: The Plynteria ("Washing") was a major civic festival taking place in Athens on the 25th of Thargelion (Mikalson, p. 160-161). The group inscribing this calendar apparently contributed to the civic festival, but rather modestly: only a single sheep (probably a ewe) was sacrificed to Athena. For the rites performed at the Plynteria, cf. here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_24/">CGRN 24</ref> and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32/">CGRN 32</ref> (Thorikos), lines 52-53.</p>
						
<p>Side D: This side of the stele appears to be primarily concerned with sacrifices to Heroes. First, a pair of male Heroes receives two measures of barley grains, and three roasting spits are also to be furnished. Another pair of Heroes said to be located "in the plain" (ἐμ πεδίοι) each receive an adult animal as sacrifices. The identity of these recipients is completely unclear, though the mention of the plain might serve to indicate that the group inscribing the stele was primarily located somewhere in the periphery of the center of the city of Athens. In any case, the group in question was allowed to inscribe its rites and regulations on the acropolis like some other similar groups, cf. again <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_21/">CGRN 21</ref>, and to participate in celebrations taking place there. </p>	


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