CGRN 19

Dossier of regulations of the Attic deme of Skambonidai

Date :

ca. 460 BC

Justification: lettering and style (Lewis). As Lewis notes, the letters on side C seem a little bit older. It is unclear what exactly this entails for the constitution of the dossier on this stele, but see the Commentary below (lines C1-2).

Provenance

Athens . Found in a house by the Hephaisteon (so-called Theseion). Now in the British Museum (inv. no. 1).

Support

A stele, inscribed on three sides, A-C. The other side is broken and may also have been inscribed. The top is certainly preserved, while the bottom is broken. Depth here = short side where B is inscribed.

  • Height: 41 cm
  • Width: 24.6 cm
  • Depth: 12.3 cm

Layout

A: Stoichedon grid = 15. B: stoichedon 14. The dicolon (:) punctuation, or less regularly the tricolon (⋮) on side C, separate words or phrases but do not take up their own stoichoi.

Letters, A: 16.6-16.8 mm high; C: 17.2-20 mm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Lewis IG I³ 244. Note that we reprint only side A and C of the pillar; side B concerns the administration and oaths of the group.

Cf. also: Ziehen LGS II 9; Sokolowski LSCG 10; AIO , with another English translation and commentary.

Further bibliography: Mikalson 1975, for the various festivals; Humphreys 2004: 145-146; Parker 2005a: App. I; Wijma 2014: 104-109; Lebreton 2015.

Text


Face A


[......11.....]μεν ∶ [.]
[....8....] τ[ὸ] τέλος
[....7...]εν ∶ νέμεν δ-
[ὲ τὰ κρέα] μέχρι hελ-
5[ίο
..4..]ο[ς][ἐὰν] δὲ μὲ
[....7...]Ο[...][ε]θυ-
...5..][.]ο[...5..]μα
[.......13......]αι
[...6...][ἐ]ν [γ]ορᾶιἀ-
10[ποδό]σθ[αι]
[ἀπ]ο[μ]ισθ-
[ο̑σαι]
[...5..]τατάδε
[...5..][π]λὲν το̑ κομα-
[...]ο τόδε ∶ το̑ δεμά-
[ρχο]
̑ναι τὸ δέρμαδ-
15[.]οςhοποίαν δ’
[ἂν hαρμ]όττεσθαι δ-
[έει
θυσ]ίανδιδόνα-
Διπολ]ιείοις ∶ καὶ
[Παναθ]εναίοιςνέμ-
20[εν
ἐν] γορᾶι ∶ τε̑ι Σκ-
[αμβο]νιδο̑ν
hόσα δ
[..4..]ΑΣΕΣhεμίχον
[....7...]ΡΕΝ[.]ΟΜ[.]Ο
[..?..]

Face C


[...]μιακ[....7...]
[.]ον ⋮ τὸν δέ[μαρχον]
[κ]αὶ τὸς ⋮ [εροποι]-
ὸς
⋮ το̑ι Λεο̑ δρᾶν τ]-
5[έ]λεον
λε̑χ[σιν ...]
[ὀ]βολο̑ν[κάστοι]
Σκαμβονι[δο̑ν καὶ]
τὸς μετοίκ[ος λαχ]-
ε̑ν
ἐν ἀγορᾶ τε̑ι Σ]-
10[κ]αμβονιδο̑
..4..]
[.]οισιδρᾶν [τέλεο]-
[ν]
νέμεν δὲ ∶ ε[...5..]
[.]α[.]τα ∶ το̑ι ∶ σ[...5..]
[.]ο[..]ειονκα[..4..]
15[...]οντα ∶ ἐπι[..4..]
[..]εν ∶ Χσυνοι[κίοι]-
[ς]
[μ] πόλειτέ[λεον]
[τ][δ]κρέαἀπο[δόσ]-
θαι
ὀμά ∶ Ἐπιζε[φύρ]-
20[ο]ισι
ἐμ Πυθίο ..]
[.]ον ∶ τὰ δὲ κρέα [ἀπο]-
[δ]όσθαι
ὀμά[...5..]-
[.]οι[ς] κατὰ τ[αὐτά]
[..?..]

Translation

Face A

[...] the fulfilment [...] Distribute the meat until the sun [sets]. (5) But if not [...] examine [...] in the agora [sell (?)]. (10) Let out the contract [...] the following things [...] except the (?) [...] the following (?). The skin belongs to the demarch. [...] (15) Whatever is necessary to arrange the sacrifice, give for the Dipolieia and the Panathenaia. Distribute (portions of meat) (20) in the agora of Skambonidai. But how much [...] a half-chous [...]

Face C

[...] the de[march] and the hi[eropoioi are to sacrifice] (5) an adult animal, assigned by lot, to Leos [...] Each of the Skambonidai and the resident aliens are to receive [a portion weighing (x)] obols in the agora (10) of the Skambonidai. At the [...] sacrifice [an adult animal], and distribute (the meat) [...]. (15) At the Synoikia in the city, an adult animal; but sell the meat raw. At the Epizephyria (20) in the Pythion, [...]; but sell the meat raw. At the [...] according to the same [...]

Traduction

Face A

[...] l’accomplissement [...] faire le partage [des viandes] jusqu’au [coucher] du soleil. (5) S’il(s) ne [...] pas, qu’il(s) en soi(en)t sanctionné(s) [...] sur l’agora [...]. (10) Que l’on mette en adjudication [...] cela [...] à l’exception de [...] que la peau soit au démarque [...] (15) que l’on donne pour les Dipolieia et les Panathénées ce qu’exige le sacrifice. Faire le partage des viandes (20) sur l’agora des gens de Skambonidai [...] un demi-chous [...].

Face C

[...] que le dé[marque] et les hi[éropes accomplissent le sacrifice] (5) d’un animal adulte, choisi par tirage au sort, à Leos [...] oboles à chacun des gens de Skambonidai et que les métèques [obtiennent par le sort] sur l’agora des gens (10) de Skambonidai [...] accomplissent le sacrifice [d’un animal adulte] et répartir [...] (15) pour les Synoikia sur l’acropole un animal adulte; que les viandes soient vendues crues; pour les Epizephyria (20) dans le Pythion [...]; que les viandes soient vendues crues; [...] conformément aux mêmes [...].

(traduction d'après D. Ackermann)

Commentary

According to Sokolowski, the inscription is "une sorte de calendrier religieux du dème de Skambonidai". Lewis more cautiously presents it as a "lex", one of the documents and dossiers of demes and other groups. According to Humphreys (n. 37), the correct reading for side C, lines 1-2, may be [Θέ]σ̣μια : Σ̣[καμβονι|δο]ν, which would then suggest a heading for these inscriptions. This reading is now accepted by Wijma, with further discussion. If the readings are correct (they were not accepted by Lewis), then these lines would provide a very suitable heading for the regulations and assorted norms of a group. Note also that this reading could be supported by the fact that side C appears to have been inscribed at a somewhat earlier date. It might be then be the first inscription on the stele, which began a collection of θέσμια, issued by and relating to the deme of the Skambonidai (one of, if not the earliest such document at Athens).

The regulations, albeit fragmentary, appear to cover a variety of topics. Side B, not included here, is concerned with oaths to be sworn "to the three gods" (cf. Poll. Onom. 8.142) by officers of the deme and with the duties of the εὔθυνος, the public examiner of the group. For a perhaps similar juxtaposition of the εὔθυνος and oaths with deme sacrifices, cp. the prescriptions elaborated in the sacrificial calendar of Thorikos, CGRN 32, lines 57-65. Sides A and C appear to be concerned with the provision of sacrificial animals (esp. in C) and the distribution or selling of portions resulting from these sacrifices. Though these prescriptions refer to important civic festivals in which the deme participated, they do not appear to strictly respect the order of months in the Athenian calendar. Dipolieia - Panathenaia is the sequence on side A, which brings us from 16 Skirophorion (the last month of the Athenian year) to 28 Hekatombaion (in the first month; see Mikalson for these dates and further sources). This is a chronological but also somewhat unexpected sequence. On side C, the Synoikia are on 16 Hekatombaion (cf. again Mikalson), which one might have expected to occur between the two festivals in A if a rigid sequence of occasions were preserved. (If this side was inscribed earlier, perhaps this would obviate the problem.) Yet any sense of the organisation of the document is now difficult to recover given its fragmentary state.

Lines A3-6: This first extant section of the face prescribes a distribution of meat among the demesmen which is to take place "until the sun [viz. sets]". Sokolowski (following Crönert) suggests restoring [δύν]τος, which Lewis cautions; the most probable restoration is [δύσε]ος (Carbon; cf. LSJ s.v. δύσις). A penalty was perhaps imposed if this generous repartition was somehow faulty, perhaps also involving the euthynos of the deme.

Lines A9-11: Another repartition of meat is to take place simply "in the agora", perhaps that of the city, since the document elsewhere specifies if the "agora in the deme of Skambonidai" is meant. If the restoration is correct, this occasion also appears to involve the sale (ἀποδίδωμι) of meat, which is contrasted with the distribution pro bono publico implied by the verb νέμεν. This contrast between distributing portions (presumably cooked) and selling the meat raw is clearer on side C line 12, compared to lines 18-19 and 21-22. Cf. also lines C2-10 below for the vocabulary of sortition as a distribution mechanism.

Lines A13-14: The demarch, or chief official of the deme, is to receive the expensive skin of the animal as a prerogative from a certain sacrifice (now lost).

Lines A15-21: These lines appear to be a specific prescription that someone (certain officials of the deme?) are to ensure that all the necessary requirements are to be met for the deme's participation and contribution in the major civic festivals of the Dipolieia and the Panathenaia. The former was an important sacrifice for Zeus Polieus (also called the Bouphonia?), and could mark the end of the political and religious year at Athens as well as the start of the new year; see Mikalson and Parker s.v. for discussion of the sources concerning this festival; on Zeus Polieus, the Dipolieia and the Bouphonia at Athens, cf. now also Lebreton. The latter was of course the most significant festival of the Athenian polity; see also here CGRN 92 for the annual or "lesser" (rather than the penteteric) Panathenaia.

Lines C2-10: The deme of the Skambonidai naturally sacrifice to Leos, the eponymous hero of the tribe (Leontis) to which this deme belonged. The sacrifice is undertaken by the demarch and the sacrificial agents appointed by the deme, and the animal is chosen by lot (λε̑χσις). The resulting distribution of meat takes place in the agora of the deme, notably includes the resident aliens or metoikoi, and perhaps involved portions of a small weight (the obols mentioned in line 6). For further discussion of both the hero Leos and the group of metics prominent in the deme, see now Wijma, who underlines the fact that the Skambonidai and these metics receive the same portion. If the restoration is correct the verb used of this distribution (λαγχάνω) probably points to the idea that in this case these portions are assigned by lot, as indeed the animal sacrificed was also selected by this mechanism. An alternative would be to supply νέμεν, as we find elsewhere in the inscription, but this would also entail restoring a verb in earlier lines, involving the Skambonidai and the metics.

Lines C11-15: Another sacrificial occasion (or two) was mentioned in these fragmentary lines, along with a further distribution of meat.

Lines C16-19: The deme participates in the festival of the Synoikia, which commemorated Theseus' mythical unification of the Attic demes.

Lines C19-22: An unusual and obscure festival, the Epizephyra, is apparently mentioned in these lines. The restoration seems probable, though it might be questioned on the basis of the lack of an adjectival ending for the celebration (Epizephyria might have been expected). Probably another related occasion was mentioned in the concluding line C23, at which the same rules apply (κ̣ατὰ τ[αὐτά]).

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 19, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 19, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/19/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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		<p> A <rs type="objectType" key="stele">stele</rs>, inscribed on three sides, A-C. The other side is broken and may also have been inscribed. The top is certainly preserved, while the bottom is broken. Depth here = short side where B is inscribed. </p>
		
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		<height unit="cm">41</height>
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			<p>Letters, A: <height unit="mm">16.6-16.8</height>; C: <height unit="mm">17.2-20</height>.</p>

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							<p><desc>Justification: lettering and style (Lewis). As Lewis notes, the letters on side C seem a little bit older. It is unclear what exactly this entails for the constitution of the dossier on this stele, but see the Commentary below (lines C1-2).</desc></p>
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						<provenance><p><placeName type="ancientFindspot" key="Athens" n="Attica"><ref target="http://pleiades.stoa.org/places/579885/" type="external">Athens</ref></placeName>. Found in a house by the Hephaisteon (so-called Theseion). Now in the British Museum (inv. no. 1).</p></provenance> 
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	    			<head>Bibliography</head>
	    			
	    			<p>Edition here based on Lewis <bibl type="abbr" n="IG I³">IG I³</bibl> 244. Note that we reprint only side A and C of the pillar; side B concerns the administration and oaths of the group.</p>
	    			
	    			<p>Cf. also: 
	    				Ziehen <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS II">LGS II</bibl> 9; 
	    				Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 10; <ref target="https://www.atticinscriptions.com/inscription/IGI3/244" type="external">AIO</ref>, with another English translation and commentary.</p>
	    			
	    			<p>Further bibliography: 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Mikalson 1975">Mikalson 1975</bibl>, for the various festivals; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Humphreys 2004">Humphreys 2004</bibl>: 145-146; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2005a">Parker 2005a</bibl>: App. I; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Wijma 2014">Wijma 2014</bibl>: 104-109; 
	    				<bibl type="author_date" n="Lebreton 2015">Lebreton 2015</bibl>.</p>
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					<head>Text</head>
	    				
	    				<ab subtype="face" n="A">Face A		
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A1" n="A1"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="11" unit="character"/>μεν <pc>∶</pc> <gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A2" n="A2"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="8" unit="character"/> <unclear>τ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ὸ</supplied> <w lemma="τέλος"><unclear>τ</unclear>έλος</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A3" n="A3"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/><unclear>ε</unclear>ν <pc>∶</pc> <name type="portion"><w lemma="νέμω">νέμεν</w></name> δ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A4" n="A4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ὲ τὰ</supplied> <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας"><supplied reason="lost">κρέα</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="μέχρι">μέχρι</w> <w lemma="ἥλιος">hελ
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_A5" n="A5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ίο</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/>ο<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἐάν"><supplied reason="lost">ἐὰν</supplied></w> δὲ <w lemma="μή">μὲ</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A6" n="A6"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/><orig>Ο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="title"><w lemma="εὔθυνος"><supplied reason="lost">ε</supplied><unclear>ὐ</unclear>θυ
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_A7" n="A7" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/> <pc>∶</pc> <gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/><orig>μα</orig>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A8" n="A8"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="13" unit="character"/><orig>αι</orig>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A9" n="A9"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character"/> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἐν"><supplied reason="lost">ἐ</supplied><unclear>ν</unclear></w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀγορά"><unclear>ἀ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">γ</supplied>ορᾶι</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἀποδίδωμι">ἀ
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_A10" n="A10" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ποδό</supplied>σθ<supplied reason="lost">αι</supplied></w> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἀπομισθόω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπ</supplied>ο<supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied>ισθ
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_A11" n="A11" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ο̑σαι</supplied></w> <pc>∶</pc> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/><orig>τα</orig> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ὅδε">τάδε</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A12" n="A12"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="πλήν"><supplied reason="lost">π</supplied>λὲν</w> το̑ <orig>κομα</orig>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A13" n="A13" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>ο</orig> <w lemma="ὅδε">τόδε</w> <pc>∶</pc> το̑ <name type="title"><name type="personnel"><w lemma="δήμαρχος">δεμά
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_A14" n="A14" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ρχο</supplied></w></name></name> <w lemma="εἰμί"><unclear>ἐ̑να</unclear>ι</w> τὸ <name type="portion"><w lemma="δέρμα">δέρμα</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <orig>δ</orig>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A15" n="A15" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ος</orig> ∶ <w lemma="ὁποῖος">hοποίαν</w> δ’
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A16" n="A16"/><supplied reason="lost">ἂν</supplied> <w lemma="ἁρμόζω"><supplied reason="lost">hαρμ</supplied>όττεσθαι</w> <w lemma="δεῖ">δ
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_A17" n="A17" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">έει</supplied></w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θυσία"><supplied reason="lost">θυσ</supplied>ίαν</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="δίδωμι">διδόνα
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_A18" n="A18" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w> <name type="festival"><w lemma="Διπολίεια"><supplied reason="lost">Διπολ</supplied>ιείοις</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> καὶ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A19" n="A19"/><name type="festival"><w lemma="Παναθήναια"><supplied reason="lost">Παναθ</supplied>εναίοις</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="portion"><w lemma="νέμω">νέμ
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_A20" n="A20" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">εν</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ἐν"><supplied reason="lost">ἐν</supplied></w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀγορά"><unclear>ἀ</unclear>γορᾶι</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> τε̑ι <name type="group"><w lemma="Σκαμβωνίδαι">Σκ
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_A21" n="A21" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">αμβο</supplied>νιδο̑ν</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ὅσος">hόσα</w> <unclear>δὲ</unclear>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A22" n="A22"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/><orig>ΑΣΕΣ</orig> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="unclear">hεμίχο<unclear>ν</unclear></w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_A23" n="A23"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/><orig>ΡΕΝ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>Ο<unclear>Μ</unclear><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>Ο</orig>
	    					
	    					<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>	
	    				</ab>
	    				<ab subtype="face" n="C">Face C
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C1" n="C1"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>μια</orig> <pc>∶</pc> <orig><unclear>κ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C2" n="C2"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ον</orig> <pc>⋮</pc> τὸν <name type="personnel"><w lemma="δήμαρχος">δέ<supplied reason="lost">μαρχον</supplied></w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C3" n="C3"/><supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>αὶ τὸς <pc>⋮</pc> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">hι<supplied reason="lost">εροποι</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_C4" n="C4" break="no"/>ὸς</w></name> <pc>⋮</pc> το̑ι <name type="deity" key="Leos?"><w lemma="λεώς">Λεο̑<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="δράω"><supplied reason="lost">δρᾶν</supplied></w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος"><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_C5" n="C5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">έ</supplied>λεον</w></name></name> <pc>⋮</pc> <w lemma="λῆξις">λε̑χ<supplied reason="lost">σιν</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C6" n="C6"/><w lemma="ὀβολός"><supplied reason="lost">ὀ</supplied>βολο̑ν</w> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἕκαστος">hε<supplied reason="lost">κάστοι</supplied></w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C7" n="C7"/><name type="group"><w lemma="Σκαμβωνίδαι">Σκαμβονι<supplied reason="lost">δο̑ν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C8" n="C8"/><unclear>τ</unclear>ὸς <name type="person"><w lemma="μέτοικος">μετοί<unclear>κ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ος</supplied></w></name> <name type="portion"><w lemma="λαγχάνω"><supplied reason="lost">λαχ</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_C9" n="C9" break="no"/>ε̑ν</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀγορά">ἀγορᾶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τε̑ι</supplied> <name type="group"><w lemma="Σκαμβωνίδαι"><supplied reason="lost">Σ</supplied>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_C10" n="C10" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied>αμβονιδο̑<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C11" n="C11"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>οισ<unclear>ι</unclear> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="δράω">δρᾶν</w></name> <name type="animal" key="generic"><name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος"><supplied reason="lost">τέλεο</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_C12" n="C12" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="portion"><w lemma="νέμω">νέμεν</w></name> δὲ <pc>∶</pc> <orig>ε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C13" n="C13"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>α</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>τα</orig> <pc>∶</pc> το̑ι <pc>∶</pc> <orig>σ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C14" n="C14"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig>ειον</orig> <pc>∶</pc> <orig>κα</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C15" n="C15"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/>οντα <pc>∶</pc> ἐπι<gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C16" n="C16"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/>εν <pc>∶</pc> <name type="festival"><w lemma="συνοικία">Χσυνοι<supplied reason="lost">κίοι</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_C17" n="C17" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐ<supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied></w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="πόλις">πόλει</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="animal" key="generic"><name type="age"><w lemma="τέλειος">τέ<supplied reason="lost">λεον</supplied></w></name></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C18" n="C18"/><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ὰ <supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ὲ <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κρέα</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἀποδίδωμι">ἀπο<supplied reason="lost">δόσ</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_C19" n="C19" break="no"/>θαι</w> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="quality"><w lemma="ὠμός"/>ὀμά</name> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="festival"><w lemma="ἐπιζέφυρος">Ἐπιζε<supplied reason="lost">φύρ</supplied>
	    							
<lb xml:id="line_C20" n="C20" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>ισι</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐμ</w> <name type="structure"><name type="epithet" key="Pythios"><w lemma="Πύθιον">Πυθίο<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="2" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C21" n="C21"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>ον <pc>∶</pc> τὰ <add>δ</add>ὲ <name type="portion"><w lemma="κρέας">κρέα</w></name> <w lemma="ἀποδίδωμι"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπο</supplied>
	    						
<lb xml:id="line_C22" n="C22" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>όσθαι</w> <pc>∶</pc> <name type="quality"><w lemma="ὠμός">ὀμά</w></name> <pc>∶</pc> <gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_C23" n="C23" break="no"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/>οι<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied> <w lemma="κατά"><unclear>κ</unclear>ατὰ</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">τ<supplied reason="lost">αὐτά</supplied></w>
	    					
<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    					
	    				</ab>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
					<p>Face A</p> 
<p>[...] the fulfilment [...] Distribute the meat until the sun [sets]. (5) But if not [...] examine [...] in the agora [sell (?)]. (10) Let out the contract [...] the following things [...] except the (?) [...] the following (?). The skin belongs to the demarch. [...] (15) Whatever is necessary to arrange the sacrifice, give for the Dipolieia and the Panathenaia. Distribute (portions of meat) (20) in the agora of Skambonidai. But how much [...] a half-<foreign>chous</foreign> [...]</p>
					
					<p>Face C</p>
<p>[...] the de[march] and the <foreign>hi[eropoioi</foreign> are to sacrifice] (5) an adult animal, assigned by lot, to Leos [...] Each of the Skambonidai and the resident aliens are to receive [a portion weighing (x)] obols in the agora (10) of the Skambonidai. At the [...] sacrifice [an adult animal], and distribute (the meat) [...]. (15) At the Synoikia in the city, an adult animal; but sell the meat raw. At the Epizephyria (20) in the Pythion, [...]; but sell the meat raw. At the [...] according to the same [...]</p>
					</div>
	    		
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
					<p>Face A</p>
<p>[...] l’accomplissement [...] faire le partage [des viandes] jusqu’au [coucher] du soleil. (5) S’il(s) ne [...] pas, qu’il(s) en soi(en)t sanctionné(s) [...] sur l’agora [...]. (10) Que l’on mette en adjudication [...] cela [...] à l’exception de [...] que la peau soit au démarque [...] (15) que l’on donne pour les Dipolieia et les Panathénées ce qu’exige le sacrifice. Faire le partage des viandes (20) sur l’agora des gens de Skambonidai [...] un demi-<foreign>chous</foreign> [...].</p>
					
				<p>Face C</p> 
<p>[...] que le dé[marque] et les hi[éropes accomplissent le sacrifice] (5) d’un animal adulte, choisi par tirage au sort, à Leos [...] oboles à chacun des gens de Skambonidai et que les métèques [obtiennent par le sort] sur l’agora des gens (10) de Skambonidai [...] accomplissent le sacrifice [d’un animal adulte] et répartir [...] (15) pour les Synoikia sur l’acropole un animal adulte; que les viandes soient vendues crues; pour les Epizephyria (20) dans le Pythion [...]; que les viandes soient vendues crues; [...] conformément aux mêmes [...].</p>
					<p>(traduction d'après D. Ackermann)</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
						<p>According to Sokolowski, the inscription is "une sorte de calendrier religieux du dème de Skambonidai". Lewis more cautiously presents it as a "lex", one of the documents and dossiers of demes and other groups. According to Humphreys (n. 37), the correct reading for side C, lines 1-2, may be [Θέ]σ̣μια : Σ̣[καμβονι|δο]ν, which would then suggest a heading for these inscriptions. This reading is now accepted by Wijma, with further discussion. If the readings are correct (they were not accepted by Lewis), then these lines would provide a very suitable heading for the regulations and assorted norms of a group. Note also that this reading could be supported by the fact that side C appears to have been inscribed at a somewhat earlier date. It might be then be the first inscription on the stele, which began a collection of θέσμια, issued by and relating to the deme of the Skambonidai (one of, if not the earliest such document at Athens).</p>

<p>The regulations, albeit fragmentary, appear to cover a variety of topics. Side B, not included here, is concerned with oaths to be sworn "to the three gods" (cf. Poll. <title>Onom.</title> 8.142) by officers of the deme and with the duties of the εὔθυνος, the public examiner of the group. For a perhaps similar juxtaposition of the εὔθυνος and oaths with deme sacrifices, cp. the prescriptions elaborated in the sacrificial calendar of Thorikos, <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32/">CGRN 32</ref>, lines 57-65. Sides A and C appear to be concerned with the provision of sacrificial animals (esp. in C) and the distribution or selling of portions resulting from these sacrifices. Though these prescriptions refer to important civic festivals in which the deme participated, they do not appear to strictly respect the order of months in the Athenian calendar. Dipolieia - Panathenaia is the sequence on side A, which brings us from 16 Skirophorion (the last month of the Athenian year) to 28 Hekatombaion (in the first month; see Mikalson for these dates and further sources). This is a chronological but also somewhat unexpected sequence. On side C, the Synoikia are on 16 Hekatombaion (cf. again Mikalson), which one might have expected to occur between the two festivals in A if a rigid sequence of occasions were preserved. (If this side was inscribed earlier, perhaps this would obviate the problem.) Yet any sense of the organisation of the document is now difficult to recover given its fragmentary state.</p>
						
<p> Lines A3-6: This first extant section of the face prescribes a distribution of meat among the demesmen which is to take place "until the sun [viz. sets]". Sokolowski (following Crönert) suggests restoring [δύν]τος, which Lewis cautions; the most probable restoration is [δύσε]ος (Carbon; cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. δύσις). A penalty was perhaps imposed if this generous repartition was somehow faulty, perhaps also involving the <foreign>euthynos</foreign> of the deme.</p>
							
<p> Lines A9-11: Another repartition of meat is to take place simply "in the agora", perhaps that of the city, since the document elsewhere specifies if the "agora in the deme of Skambonidai" is meant. If the restoration is correct, this occasion also appears to involve the sale (ἀποδίδωμι) of meat, which is contrasted with the distribution <foreign>pro bono publico</foreign> implied by the verb νέμεν. This contrast between distributing portions (presumably cooked) and selling the meat raw is clearer on side C line 12, compared to lines 18-19 and 21-22. Cf. also lines C2-10 below for the vocabulary of sortition as a distribution mechanism.</p>
						
<p> Lines A13-14: The demarch, or chief official of the deme, is to receive the expensive skin of the animal as a prerogative from a certain sacrifice (now lost).</p>
						
<p> Lines A15-21: These lines appear to be a specific prescription that someone (certain officials of the deme?) are to ensure that all the necessary requirements are to be met for the deme's participation and contribution in the major civic festivals of the Dipolieia and the Panathenaia. The former was an important sacrifice for Zeus Polieus (also called the Bouphonia?), and could mark the end of the political and religious year at Athens as well as the start of the new year; see Mikalson and Parker s.v. for discussion of the sources concerning this festival; on Zeus Polieus, the Dipolieia and the Bouphonia at Athens, cf. now also Lebreton. The latter was of course the most significant festival of the Athenian polity; see also here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_92">CGRN 92</ref> for the annual or "lesser" (rather than the penteteric) Panathenaia.</p>
						
<p> Lines C2-10: The deme of the Skambonidai naturally sacrifice to Leos, the eponymous hero of the tribe (Leontis) to which this deme belonged. The sacrifice is undertaken by the demarch and the sacrificial agents appointed by the deme, and the animal is chosen by lot (λε̑χσις). The resulting distribution of meat takes place in the agora of the deme, notably includes the resident aliens or <foreign>metoikoi</foreign>, and perhaps involved portions of a small weight (the obols mentioned in line 6). For further discussion of both the hero Leos and the group of metics prominent in the deme, see now Wijma, who underlines the fact that the Skambonidai and these metics receive the same portion. If the restoration is correct  the verb used of this distribution (λαγχάνω) probably points to the idea that in this case these portions are assigned by lot, as indeed the animal sacrificed was also selected by this mechanism. An alternative would be to supply νέμεν, as we find elsewhere in the inscription, but this would also entail restoring a verb in earlier lines, involving the Skambonidai and the metics.</p>
						
<p> Lines C11-15: Another sacrificial occasion (or two) was mentioned in these fragmentary lines, along with a further distribution of meat.</p>
						
<p> Lines C16-19: The deme participates in the festival of the Synoikia, which commemorated Theseus' mythical unification of the Attic demes.</p>
	
<p>Lines C19-22: An unusual and obscure festival, the Epizephyra, is apparently mentioned in these lines. The restoration seems probable, though it might be questioned on the basis of the lack of an adjectival ending for the celebration (Epizephyria might have been expected). Probably another related occasion was mentioned in the concluding line C23, at which the same rules apply (κ̣ατὰ τ[αὐτά]).</p>	

					</div>
			</body>
    	</text>
	</TEI>