CGRN 131

Sacrificial regulation for Aphrodite at Halasarna (Kos)

Date :

3rd or 2nd century BC

Justification: Hellenistic lettering (Bosnakis - Hallof - Rigsby).

Provenance

Kos . Found in a house at Kardamina, the site of the ancient deme of Halasarna.

Support

Marble stele, broken above and below.

  • Height: unknown
  • Width: 36 cm
  • Depth: unknown

Layout

Letters: 0.9 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Bosnakis - Hallof - Rigsby IG XII.4 303.

Other edition: Paton - Hicks PH 369.

Cf. also: Ziehen LGS II 138; Sokolowski LSCG 172; IG-online , with the Greek text and a translation in German.

Further bibliography: Parker 2001a; Parker 2002; Paul 2013a.

Text


[..?..]
[..?.. θυέτω ὁ]
[ἱ]ε[ρε]ὺς τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος ἐν τῶι μ[ηνὶ τῶι Πανά]-
μω
τᾶι] ἑβδόμαι αἶγα τᾶι Ἀφροδίτ[αι ἀπὸ δρα]-
χμᾶν
εἴκοσι καὶ τᾶι ἐνάται τοῦ α[ὐτοῦ μηνὸς]
5 αἶγα ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου καὶ σαλαΐδι ἀγ[ειρέτω]·
διαγραφόντω δὲ τοὶ ναποῖαι τῶ ἀεὶ πρι]-
αμένωι
τὰν ἱερωσύναν ἐν τῶι μην[ὶ ..?..]-
ωι καὶ ἄλλας δραχμὰς εἴκοσι ὥστε θύε τᾶι Ἀ]-
φροδίται
αἶγα· θυέτω δὲ καὶ ὁ ἱερεὺς το[ῦ Ἀπόλ]-
10λωνος
τᾶι εἰκάδι αἶγα ἀπὸ δραχμᾶν εἴ[κοσι]·
θυόντω δὲ καὶ τοὶ μεμισθωμένοι τὸς ἱερὸ κά]-
πος
καὶ τὸ βαλανεῖον ἕκαστος αὐτῶν ἔριφ[ον]
[ἀ]πὸ δραχμᾶν δεκαπέντε· [.]ιγ[..?..]
[τ]ὰς ἐν ἀκροπόλει [ν]οι[γ][τω ..?.. καὶ]
15 [κλ]αιέτω ὁμοίως· αἰ δέ κ ..?..]
[..?..]ο[.]λιων Γερα[στίου ..?..]
[..?..]

Translation

[...] The priest of Apollo should [sacrifice] on the 7th of the month [Panamos], a goat to Aphrodite, worth 20 drachmae, and on the ninth of the [same month], (5) a goat of the same price, and [make a collection for] (or with?) the lamenting woman. The neopoiai should pay to the one who at any time happens to buy the priesthood, in the month [...], another 20 dr., in order to sacrifice a goat to Aphrodite. The priest of Apollo (10) must also sacrifice on the 20th a goat worth 20 dr. Those renting the sacred gardens and the bath should each sacrifice a kid worth 15 dr. [...] those on the acropolis, one should open [... and] (15) close in the same way. If [...] Gera[stios...]

Traduction

[...] Que le prêtre d’Apollon [sacrifie] le 7 du mois [de Panamos] un caprin de 20 drachmes à Aphrodite et, le 9 du [même mois], (5) un caprin de même prix, et qu’il [fasse la collecte] pour (avec ?) la pleureuse. Que les néopes paient encore 20 dr. à l’acquéreur successivement en charge de la prêtrise au mois de [...] afin de sacrifier un caprin à Aphrodite. Que le prêtre d’Apollon (10) sacrifie encore le 20 un caprin de 20 dr. Que ceux qui ont loué les jardins sacrés et le bain sacrifient également un chevreau de 15 dr. chacun. [...] ouvre les [...] sur l’acropole [... et] (15) les ferme de la même manière. Si [...] de Gera[stios ...]

Commentary

This text concerns sacrifices to Aphrodite performed by the priest of Apollo in the deme of Halasarna on Kos, along with perhaps other obligations of this priest and other fragmentary prescriptions (lines 11-16). Indeed, the regulation also provides guidelines for sacrifices to be made by "the one buying the priesthood" (lines 5-6) and those "renting the sacred gardens and the bath" (lines 11-13). The final part of the inscription concerns "opening" and "closing" structures on the Acropolis (lines 14-16?; see also below), perhaps including the temple of Aphrodite at Halasarna.

The precise character of the document is open to debate. It has been classified among the sales of priesthood by Hallof and Bosnakis in the IG corpus, probably because of the mention of “the purchaser (πριάμενος) of the priesthood” (lines 5-6). However, no priesthood of Aphrodite is known from Halasarna, and the sacrifices are performed by the priest of Apollo, whose area of expertise we know to have extended far beyond the cult of the god: see CGRN 151. Nevertheless, Hallof and Bosnakis may be correct: the word πριάμενος here is likely to refer to the priest of Apollo, even though it is known that the priesthood was later (?) attributed by lot (IG XII.4 103, ca. 180 BC; cf. Paul, p. 205).

Lines 1-5: The prescriptions concerning the sacrifice of the 9th Panamos must be read jointly with lines 26-31 from the sale of the priesthood of Aphrodite Pandamos and Pontia on Kos (IG XII.4 302) and lines 12-14 from the cult calendar of the deme of Isthmos (IG XII.4 280). All three inscriptions concern a sacrifice to Aphrodite Pandamos performed simultaneously in the city of Kos and in two of the demes at least: Halasarna and Isthmos. We may infer that these sacrifices belonged to a wider celebration related to the unity of the polis after the synoecism of 366 BC, as suggested also by the epithet of the goddess, “of all the people”; see Parker 2002: 153-156 and Paul, p. 285-288. Aphrodite Pandamos and Aphrodite Pontia shared a precinct located near the harbor of the city, which included twin temples. On this cult, see IG XII.4 302 and CGRN 220, with Parker 2002; Paul, p. 79-91.

Line 5: The word σαλαΐς is explained by Hesychius as a synonym of κωκύτος, translated by the LSJ (s.v.) as “shrieking, wailing”, and recurs in one of the sales of the priesthood of Aphrodite Pandamos and Pontia on Kos, where it is associated with collections of money aimed at funding the sacrifice to Aphrodite Pandamos on the 9th Panamos (IG XII.4 302, lines 26-27: τοὺς δὲ ἀγερμοὺς τᾶν σαλαΐδων καὶ τἆλλα περὶ αὐτῶν). There, the word may plausibly designate ritual agents, specifically group of wailing or shrieking women who undertook the ritual of begging for money or goods. Here, at Halasarna, only one such woman is apparently envisaged, which the priest must probably assist.

Line 6: The naopoiai were a college of magistrates from the deme of Halasarna, who were, among other things, responsible for the management of sacred funds, the attribution of the priesthood of Apollo, the inscribing and setting up of stelae. Their area of expertise also extends beyond the religious life, as it includes the proposal of decrees. On their role, see Parker 2001a: 260 and Paul, p. 207-208.

Lines 11-13: It would appear that both a grove and a bath-house formed a part of the sacred properties envisaged by the regulation, and probably belonging to the sanctuary of Aphrodite. The habitual practice was the renting out of these assets in order to raise revenue for the cult, as explicitly evidenced in the sacrifice stipulated here; cp. here CGRN 70 (Oropos), line 11, and CGRN 124 (Pergamon), line 9.

Lines 14-15: These lines, although fragmentary, seem to refer to the prescription of opening and closing sacred buildings, such as those found in some sales of priesthood on the island (e.g. CGRN 188, lines 8-10). On the acropolis of Halasarna, see CGRN 151, line 21.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Stéphanie Paul
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 131, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 131, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/131/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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	    			<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    			<author>Stéphanie Paul</author>
	    			<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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	    			<head>Bibliography</head>
	    			
	    			<p> Edition here based on Bosnakis - Hallof - Rigsby <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 303. </p>
	    				<p> Other edition: Paton - Hicks <bibl type="abbr" n="PH">PH</bibl> 369. </p>
	    				<p> Cf. also:
	    					Ziehen <bibl type="abbr" n="LGS II">LGS II</bibl> 138; 
	    					Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSCG">LSCG</bibl> 172; <ref target="http://telota.bbaw.de/ig/IG%20XII%204,%201,%20303" type="external">IG-online</ref>, with the Greek text and a translation in German.  	
	    				</p>
	    				
	    				<p> Further bibliography: 	
	    					<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2001a">Parker 2001a</bibl>;
	    					<bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2002">Parker 2002</bibl>;
	    					<bibl type="author_date" n="Paul 2013a">Paul 2013a</bibl>.
	    				
	    				</p>
</div> 
	    			<div type="edition">
					<head>Text</head>
	    				
	    <ab>
	    	
	    	<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    	<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω"><supplied reason="lost">θυέτω</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">ὁ</supplied>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/> <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς"><supplied reason="lost">ἱ</supplied>ε<supplied reason="lost">ρε</supplied>ὺς</w></name> τοῦ <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="Ἀπόλλων">Ἀπόλλωνος</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τῶι <w lemma="μείς">μ<supplied reason="lost">ηνὶ</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">τῶι</supplied> <name type="month"><w lemma="Πάναμος"><supplied reason="lost">Πανά</supplied>  
	    		
	    	<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3" break="no"/>μω<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τᾶι</supplied> <w lemma="ἕβδομος">ἑβδόμαι</w> <name type="animal" key="goat"><w lemma="αἴξ">αἶγα</w></name> τᾶι <name type="deity" key="Aphrodite"><w lemma="Ἀφροδίτη">Ἀφροδίτ<supplied reason="lost">αι</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ἀπό"><supplied reason="lost">ἀπὸ</supplied></w> <w lemma="δραχμή"><supplied reason="lost">δρα</supplied>
	    			
	    			<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/>χμᾶν</w> <w lemma="εἴκοσι">εἴκοσι</w> καὶ τᾶι <w lemma="ἔνατος">ἐνάται</w> τοῦ <w lemma="αὐτός"><unclear>α</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ὐτοῦ</supplied></w> <name type="month"><w lemma="μείς"><supplied reason="lost">μηνὸς</supplied></w></name>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/> <name type="animal" key="goat"><w lemma="αἴξ">αἶγα</w></name> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τοῦ <w lemma="ἴσος">ἴσου</w> καὶ <name type="invocation"><name type="personnel"><w lemma="σαλαΐς">σαλαΐδι</w></name></name> <w lemma="ἀγείρω">ἀγ<supplied reason="lost">ειρέτω</supplied></w>·
	    		
	    		<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/> <w lemma="διαγράφω">διαγραφόντω</w> δὲ τοὶ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="νεωποίης">ναποῖαι</w></name> τῶ<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied> <w lemma="ἀεί"><supplied reason="lost">ἀεὶ</supplied></w> <w lemma="πρίαμαι"><supplied reason="lost">πρι</supplied>
	    			
	    			<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/>αμένωι</w> τὰν <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερωσύνη">ἱερωσύναν</w></name> ἐν τῶι <name type="month"><w lemma="μείς">μην<supplied reason="lost">ὶ</supplied></w></name> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8" break="no"/>ωι καὶ <w lemma="ἄλλος">ἄλλας</w> <w lemma="δραχμή">δραχμὰς</w> <w lemma="εἴκοσι">εἴκοσι</w> <w lemma="ὥστε">ὥστε</w> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύε<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w></name> <supplied reason="lost">τᾶι</supplied> <name type="deity" key="Aphrodite"><w lemma="Ἀφροδίτη"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀ</supplied>
	    		
	    		<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9" break="no"/>φροδίται</w></name> <name type="animal" key="goat"><w lemma="αἴξ">αἶγα</w></name>· <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυέτω</w></name> δὲ καὶ ὁ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἱερεὺς</w></name> το<supplied reason="lost">ῦ</supplied> <name type="deity" key="Apollo"><w lemma="Ἀπόλλων"><supplied reason="lost">Ἀπόλ</supplied>
	    			
	    			<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10" break="no"/>λωνος</w></name> τᾶι <w lemma="εἰκάς">εἰκάδι</w> <name type="animal" key="goat"><w lemma="αἴξ">αἶγα</w></name> <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> <w lemma="δραχμή">δραχμᾶν</w> <w lemma="εἴκοσι">εἴ<supplied reason="lost">κοσι</supplied></w>·
	    	
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11"/> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θυόντω</w></name> δὲ καὶ τοὶ <w lemma="μισθόω">μεμισθωμένοι</w> τὸς <name type="quality"><w lemma="ἱερός">ἱερὸ<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied></w></name> <name type="locality"><w lemma="κῆπος"><supplied reason="lost">κά</supplied>
	    		
	    		<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12" break="no"/>πος</w></name> καὶ τὸ <name type="structure"><w lemma="βαλανεῖον">βαλανεῖον</w></name> <w lemma="ἕκαστος">ἕκαστος</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτῶν</w> <name type="animal" key="goat"><name type="age"><name type="gender"><w lemma="ἔριφος">ἔριφ<supplied reason="lost">ον</supplied></w></name></name></name>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13"/> <w lemma="ἀπό"><supplied reason="lost">ἀ</supplied>πὸ</w> <w lemma="δραχμή">δραχμᾶν</w> <w lemma="δεκαπέντε">δεκαπέντε</w>· <gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ιγ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/> <supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ὰς <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <name type="locality"><w lemma="ἀκρόπολις">ἀκροπόλει</w></name> <w lemma="ἀνοίγνυμι">ἀ<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>οι<supplied reason="lost">γ</supplied><unclear>έ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">τω</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15"/> <w lemma="κλείω"><supplied reason="lost">κλ</supplied><unclear>α</unclear>ιέτω</w> <w lemma="ὅμοιος">ὁμοίως</w>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἰ</w> δέ <w lemma="κα">κ<supplied reason="lost">α</supplied></w> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    	
	    	<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ο</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>λιων</orig> Γερ<unclear>α</unclear><supplied reason="lost">στίου</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
	    	<lb/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/> 
	    
	    	</ab>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
					<p>  [...] The priest of Apollo should [sacrifice] on the 7th of the month [Panamos], a goat to Aphrodite, worth 20 drachmae, and on the ninth of the [same month], (5) a goat of the same price, and [make a collection for] (or with?) the lamenting woman. The <foreign>neopoiai</foreign> should pay to the one who at any time happens to buy the priesthood, in the month [...], another 20 dr., in order to sacrifice a goat to Aphrodite. The priest of Apollo (10) must also sacrifice on the 20th a goat worth 20 dr. Those renting the sacred gardens and the bath should each sacrifice a kid worth 15 dr. [...] those on the acropolis, one should open [... and] (15) close in the same way. If [...] Gera[stios...]</p> 
				</div>
	    		
	    		<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
	    			<head>Traduction</head>
	    			<p> [...] Que le prêtre d’Apollon [sacrifie] le 7 du mois [de Panamos] un caprin de 20 drachmes à Aphrodite et, le 9 du [même mois], (5) un caprin de même prix, et qu’il [fasse la collecte] pour (avec ?) la pleureuse. Que les néopes paient encore 20 dr. à l’acquéreur successivement en charge de la prêtrise au mois de [...] afin de sacrifier un caprin à Aphrodite. Que le prêtre d’Apollon (10) sacrifie encore le 20 un caprin de 20 dr. Que ceux qui ont loué les jardins sacrés et le bain sacrifient également un chevreau de 15 dr. chacun. [...] ouvre les [...] sur l’acropole [... et] (15) les ferme de la même manière. Si [...] de Gera[stios ...]</p>
	    		</div>	
	    			
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p> This text concerns sacrifices to Aphrodite performed by the priest of Apollo in the deme of Halasarna on Kos, along with perhaps other obligations of this priest and other fragmentary prescriptions (lines 11-16). Indeed, the regulation also provides guidelines for sacrifices to be made by "the one buying the priesthood" (lines 5-6) and those "renting the sacred gardens and the bath" (lines 11-13). The final part of the inscription concerns "opening" and "closing" structures on the Acropolis (lines 14-16?; see also below), perhaps including the temple of Aphrodite at Halasarna. </p>
						
<p> The precise character of the document is open to debate. It has been classified among the sales of priesthood by Hallof and Bosnakis in the <title>IG</title> corpus, probably because of the mention of “the purchaser (πριάμενος) of the priesthood” (lines 5-6). However, no priesthood of Aphrodite is known from Halasarna, and the sacrifices are performed by the priest of Apollo, whose area of expertise we know to have extended far beyond the cult of the god: see <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_151/">CGRN 151</ref>. Nevertheless, Hallof and Bosnakis may be correct: the word πριάμενος here is likely to refer to the priest of Apollo, even though it is known that the priesthood was later (?) attributed by lot (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 103, ca. 180 BC; cf. Paul, p. 205).</p>
						
<p> Lines 1-5: The prescriptions concerning the sacrifice of the 9th Panamos must be read jointly with lines 26-31 from the sale of the priesthood of Aphrodite Pandamos and Pontia on Kos (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 302) and lines 12-14 from the cult calendar of the deme of Isthmos (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 280). All three inscriptions concern a sacrifice to Aphrodite Pandamos performed simultaneously in the city of Kos and in two of the demes at least: Halasarna and Isthmos. We may infer that these sacrifices belonged to a wider celebration related to the unity of the polis after the  synoecism of 366 BC, as suggested also by the epithet of the goddess, “of all the people”; see Parker 2002: 153-156 and Paul, p. 285-288. Aphrodite Pandamos and Aphrodite Pontia shared a precinct located near the harbor of the city, which included twin temples. On this cult, see <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 302 and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_220/">CGRN 220</ref>, with Parker 2002; Paul, p. 79-91.</p>
		
<p>  Line 5: The word σαλαΐς is explained by Hesychius as a synonym of κωκύτος, translated by the <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> (s.v.) as “shrieking, wailing”, and recurs in one of the sales of the priesthood of Aphrodite Pandamos and Pontia on Kos, where it is associated with collections of money aimed at funding the sacrifice to Aphrodite Pandamos on the 9th Panamos (<bibl type="abbr" n="IG XII.4">IG XII.4</bibl> 302, lines 26-27: τοὺς δὲ ἀγερμοὺς τᾶν σαλαΐδων καὶ τἆλλα περὶ αὐτῶν). There, the word may plausibly designate ritual agents, specifically group of wailing or shrieking women who undertook the ritual of begging for money or goods. Here, at Halasarna, only one such woman is apparently envisaged, which the priest must probably assist.</p>
						
<p>  Line 6: The <foreign>naopoiai</foreign> were a college of magistrates from the deme of Halasarna, who were, among other things, responsible for the management of sacred funds, the attribution of the priesthood of Apollo, the inscribing and setting up of stelae. Their area of expertise also extends beyond the religious life, as it includes the proposal of decrees. On their role, see Parker 2001a: 260 and Paul, p. 207-208.</p>
										
<p> Lines 11-13: It would appear that both a grove and a bath-house formed a part of the sacred properties envisaged by the regulation, and probably belonging to the sanctuary of Aphrodite. The habitual practice was the renting out of these assets in order to raise revenue for the cult, as explicitly evidenced in the sacrifice stipulated here; cp. here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_70/">CGRN 70</ref> (Oropos), line 11, and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_124/">CGRN 124</ref> (Pergamon), line 9.</p>
						
<p> Lines 14-15: These lines, although fragmentary, seem to refer to the prescription of opening and closing sacred buildings, such as those found in some sales of priesthood on the island (e.g. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_188/">CGRN 188</ref>, lines 8-10). On the acropolis of Halasarna, see <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_151/">CGRN 151</ref>, line 21.</p>



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