CGRN 110

Excerpt from the sacrificial calendar at Kamiros (concerning sacrifices to Helios)

Date :

ca. 300-200 BC

Justification: early to mid-Hellenistic lettering (Pugliese Carratelli).

Provenance

Kamiros , on the island of Rhodes. Now in the Museum of Rhodes.

Support

Small marble stele, broken at the bottom.

  • Height: 17 cm
  • Width: 19.5 cm
  • Depth: 6 cm

Layout

Letters: 1.1 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Pugliese Carratelli Tit.Cam. 152.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 97; Badoud 2015: 446-447, TRI no. 67 with ph.

Further bibliography: Segre 1951; Badoud 2015: 11-35; Iversen 2017: 192-197; Carbon forthc.

Text


Δαλίου νευμηνίαι
Ἁλίωι βοῦν λευκὸν
πυρρόν, ἰκάδι βοῦν
λευκὸνπυρρὸν
5δαμιουργὸς θύει.
Πανάμου ἔσω ἰκά-
δος
αἴγας τρεῖς
ἰεροποιοὶ θύον[τι]
κα ερ[..?..]
[..?..]

Translation

On the 1st of the month Dalios, (5) to Helios, an ox, white or tawny; the demiourgos sacrifices it; on the 20th, an ox, white or tawny.

Within (i.e. before) the 20th of Panamos, three goats; the hieropoioi sacrifice them; and [...]

Traduction

Le 1er du mois de Dalios, (5) à Hélios un boeuf, blanc ou fauve; le démiurge le sacrifie ; le 20 : un boeuf, blanc ou fauve.

Avant le 20 Panamos, trois caprins; les hiéropes les sacrifient; et [...]

Commentary

The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here CGRN 62 and CGRN 63, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. CGRN 109 for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. CGRN 115 for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc.

Here, the excerpt concerns rites for Helios, presumably at the principal sanctuary of this god at Kamiros.

Lines 1-5: The first of Dalios is perhaps to be identified with a major celebration at Kamiros in honour of several gods, also Athena Polias (CGRN 109) and the Muses with Mnemosyne (CGRN 113). The Dalia is a good possibility, and the role of the δαμιουργός here as the principal sacrificial agent confirms the importance of the celebration for the local community and the polity as a whole, since he was the most important civic magistrate at Kamiros (he is also frequently associated with the ἰεροποιοί, cf. Tit.Cam. 9-16). An analogous celebration is to take place later, before the 20th of the same month. In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen), Dalios was the first month of the year (ca. August/September). The month of Dalios happened near the end of summer, which can seasonally be reckoned to be an appropriate time to worship the sun. On both occasions, the god receives an ox whose colour is prescribed as a choice between white and tawny. Specifications of the colour of sacrificial animals are rare in ritual norms. Blackness is sometimes emphasised in certain sacrifices (cf. here CGRN 32, line 34, from Thorikos). Here, by contrast, the underlying notion of the colour choice seems the concern to offer an animal with a light and non-black appearance, which aptly echoes the brightness which is a quality of the Sun god (cp. also CGRN 117, lines 5-6, for a similar sacrifice to Helios at Lindos, on 14 Hyakinthios).

Lines 6-9: Panamos also takes place in the summertime (immediately before Dalios in the standard Rhodian calendar). Instead of a specific date, a deadline of the 20th or of the first two decades of the month is prescribed; cf. LSJ s.v. εἴσω (II; though this usage occurs usually in later sources). Neither the sacrifice of three goats (probably he-goats to a male god) performed by the ἰεροποιοί (and perhaps others, line 9) nor the reason for this dating are otherwise known.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 110, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 110, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/110/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
	    				<author>Saskia Peels</author>
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					<head>Bibliography</head>
			<p>Edition here based on Pugliese Carratelli <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 152.</p>
					
<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 97; <bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud 2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>: 446-447, TRI no. 67 with ph.</p>
					
<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Segre 1951">Segre 1951</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Badoud 2015">Badoud 2015</bibl>: 11-35; <bibl type="author_date" n="Iversen 2017">Iversen 2017</bibl>: 192-197; <bibl type="author_date" n="Carbon forthc.">Carbon forthc.</bibl></p>
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	    				<head>Text</head>
	    				<ab>	
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Δάλιος">Δαλίου</w></name> <w lemma="νουμηνία">νευμηνίαι</w>
	   <lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/>	<name type="deity" key="Helios"><w lemma="ἥλιος">Ἁλίωι</w></name> <name type="animal" key="ox"><name type="gender"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦν</w></name></name> <name type="colour1"><w lemma="λευκός">λευκὸν</w></name>
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/>ἢ <name type="colour1"><w lemma="πυρρός">πυρρόν</w></name>, <w lemma="εἰκάς">ἰκάδι</w> <name type="animal" key="ox"><w lemma="βοῦς">βοῦν</w></name>
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4"/><name type="colour1"><w lemma="λευκός">λευκὸν</w></name> ἢ <name type="colour1"><w lemma="πυρρός">πυρρὸν</w></name>
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/><name type="title"><w lemma="δημιουργός">δαμιουργὸς</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύει</w></name>.
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><name type="month"><w lemma="Πάναμος">Πανάμου</w></name> <w lemma="εἴσω">ἔσω</w> <w lemma="εἰκάς">ἰκά
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/>δος</w> <name type="animal" key="goat"><w lemma="αἴξ">αἴγας</w></name> <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρεῖς</w>
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/><name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱεροποιός">ἰεροποιοὶ</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύ<unclear>ον</unclear><supplied reason="lost">τι</supplied></w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/><unclear>καὶ</unclear> <w lemma="unclear"><unclear>ἰερ</unclear></w><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>

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					<head>Translation</head>
					
<p>On the 1st of the month Dalios, (5) to Helios, an ox, white or tawny; the <foreign>demiourgos</foreign> sacrifices it; on the 20th, an ox, white or tawny.</p>
<p>Within (i.e. before) the 20th of Panamos, three goats; the <foreign>hieropoioi</foreign> sacrifice them; and [...]</p> 	
				</div>
				
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					<head>Traduction</head>
<p>Le 1er du mois de Dalios, (5) à Hélios un boeuf, blanc ou fauve; le démiurge le sacrifie ; le 20 : un boeuf, blanc ou fauve.</p>
					<p>Avant le 20 Panamos, trois caprins; les hiéropes les sacrifient; et [...]</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
						
<p>The inscription is one of a large number of extracts from a sacrificial calendar inscribed or recodified in the late Classical or early Hellenistic period and disseminated at various local sanctuaries, presumably as punctual reminders and short regulations in and of themselves (for the early beginning of such excerpts, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_62">CGRN 62</ref> and <ref target="CGRN_63">CGRN 63</ref>, both from Lindos). The excerpts perhaps come from the general sacrificial calendar of the unified city of Rhodes or perhaps equally probably from that of Kamiros itself. See e.g. <ref target="CGRN_109">CGRN 109</ref> for further examples from Kamiros; e.g. <ref target="CGRN_115">CGRN 115</ref> for others from Lindos. For a general discussion of these excerpts, see Segre and Carbon forthc.</p>

<p>Here, the excerpt concerns rites for Helios, presumably at the principal sanctuary of this god at Kamiros.</p>						
						
						<p>Lines 1-5: The first of Dalios is perhaps to be identified with a major celebration at Kamiros in honour of several gods, also Athena Polias (<ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_109/">CGRN 109</ref>) and the Muses with Mnemosyne (<ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_113/">CGRN 113</ref>). The Dalia is a good possibility, and the role of the δαμιουργός here as the principal sacrificial agent confirms the importance of the celebration for the local community and the polity as a whole, since he was the most important civic magistrate at Kamiros (he is also frequently associated with the ἰεροποιοί, cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="Tit.Cam.">Tit.Cam.</bibl> 9-16). An analogous celebration is to take place later, before the 20th of the same month. In the reconstruction of the Rhodian calendar refined by Badoud and generally adopted here (for a different view, see Iversen), Dalios was the first month of the year (ca. August/September). The month of Dalios happened near the end of summer, which can seasonally be reckoned to be an appropriate time to worship the sun. On both occasions, the god receives an ox whose colour is prescribed as a choice between white and tawny. Specifications of the colour of sacrificial animals are rare in ritual norms. Blackness is sometimes emphasised in certain sacrifices (cf. here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_32/">CGRN 32</ref>, line 34, from Thorikos). Here, by contrast, the underlying notion of the colour choice seems the concern to offer an animal with a light and non-black appearance, which aptly echoes the brightness which is a quality of the Sun god (cp. also <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_117/">CGRN 117</ref>, lines 5-6, for a similar sacrifice to Helios at Lindos, on 14 Hyakinthios).</p>
										
<p>Lines 6-9: Panamos also takes place in the summertime (immediately before Dalios in the standard Rhodian calendar). Instead of a specific date, a deadline of the 20th or of the first two decades of the month is prescribed; cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. εἴσω (II; though this usage occurs usually in later sources). Neither the sacrifice of three goats (probably he-goats to a male god) performed by the ἰεροποιοί (and perhaps others, line 9) nor the reason for this dating are otherwise known.</p>
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