CGRN 108

Funerary law from Gambreion

Date :

ca. 300-200 BC

Justification: lettering. The letters appear "early Hellenistic" (open sigma with oblique bars, smaller round letters, etc.) so there is no need to presume a stricter date of the "end of the third century BC", as one finds in several editions and commentaries.

Provenance

Found at the site presumed to be Gambreion , several kilometers away from Pergamon. As reported in Boeckh CIG, Fellows found the inscription in the same area as CIG 3561, a document concerning lands, reused in small fountain at the site. Now presumably in the Musée du Cinquantenaire, Brussels (inv. no. unknown).

Support

Marble stele virtually intact, except worn and partly broken at the top. Measurements are not given in the available editions, but have been derived from a squeeze at the Université de Liège.

  • Height: at least 66 cm
  • Width: (top) 32 - (bottom) 33.5 cm
  • Depth: ? cm

Layout

Letters: 10-10.2 mm high; round letters: 6-7 mm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Boeckh CIG 3562. The readings are uncontroversial.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSAM 16; Le Guen-Pollet CDE 85; Frisone 2000: 139-154, with an extensive commentary.

Further bibliography: Parker 2004; Delli Pizzi 2011; Peels 2016.

Text

ἀγαθῆι τύχηι, ερονομοῦντος
Δημητρίου, μηνὸς Θαργηλιῶνος
δευτέραι, Ἀλέξων Δάμωνος εἶ-
πεν
· νόμον εἶναι Γαμβρειώταις
5τὰς πενθούσας ἔχειν φαιὰν ἐσθῆ-
τα
μὴ κατερρυπωμένην· χρῆσθαι
δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ τοὺς παῖδας
τοὺς πενθοῦντας ἐσθῆτι φαιᾶι,
ἐὰμ μὴ βούλωνται λευκῆι· ἐπιτε-
10λεῖν
δὲ τὰ νόμιμα τοῖς ἀποιχομέ-
νοις
ἔσχατον ἐν τρισὶ μησίν, τῶι δὲ
τετάρτωι λύειν τὰ πένθη τοὺς ἄν-
δρας
, τὰς δὲ γυναῖκας τῶι πέμπτωι,
καὶ ἐξανίστασθαι ἐκ τῆς κηδείας
15καὶ ἐκπορεύεσθαι τὰς γυναῖκας
τὰς ἐξόδους τὰς ἐν τῶι νόμωι γε-
γραμμένας
ἐπάναγκον· τὸν δὲ γυ-
ναικονόμον
τὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου αἱ-
ρούμενον
τοῖς ἁγνισμοῖς τοῖς πρὸ
20τῶν Θεσμοφορίων ἐπεύχεσθαι τοῖς ἐμ-
μένουσιν
καὶ ταῖς πειθομέναις τῶι-
δε
τῶι νόμωι εὖ εἶναι καὶ τῶν ὑπαρχόν-
των
ἀγαθῶν ὄνησιν, τοῖς δὲ μὴ πειθο-
μένοις
μηδὲ ταῖς ἐμμενούσαις τἀ-
25ναντία
· καὶ μὴ ὅσιον αὐταῖς εἶναι, ὡς
ἀσεβούσαις, θύειν μηθενὶ θεῶν ἐπὶ δέ-
κα
ἔτη· τὸν δὲ μετὰ Δημήτριον
στεφανηφόρον ταμίαν αἱρεθέντα
ἀναγράψαι τόνδε τὸν νόμον εἰς δύο
30στήλας καὶ ἀναθεῖναι τὴμ μὲν
μίαν πρὸ τῶν θυρῶν τοῦ Θεσμοφο-
ρίου
, τὴν δὲ πρὸ τοῦ νεὼ τῆς Ἀρτέ-
μιδος
τῆς Λοχίας· ἀνενεγκάτω
δὲ ὁ ταμίας τὸ ἀνάλωμα τὸ γε-
35νόμενον
εἰς τὰστήλας τῶι
πρώτωι λογιστηρίωι. vacat

Translation

With good fortune. When Demetrios was hieronomos, on the 2nd of the month Thargelion, Alexon son of Damon proposed: there is to be a law for the people of Gambreion, (5) that the women who are in mourning are to wear grey clothes, not dirty ones; and that men and children in mourning are also to wear grey clothes, unless they prefer to wear white. (10) The customary rites are to be fulfilled within three months for those who have gone to their end (i.e. died). On the fourth month men are freed from mourning, women on the fifth. And it is obligatory that they free themselves from their funerary duty (15) and participate in the processions (and outdoor activities) which are written in the (other?) law. The gynaikonomos appointed by the people for the purifications (20) prior to the Thesmophoria is to pray that "it will go well for those men who abide by and for women who obey his law, and they will have the enjoyment of their present blessings, but for those who do not obey it or abide by it, the opposite (will happen). (25) And it will not be pleasing to the gods for women (who disobey the law) to sacrifice, since they are impious, to any god for ten years". Let the treasurer chosen for the next year after (the year of) the stephanephoros Demetrios inscribe this law on two (30) stelae and erect one these stelae in front of the doors of the Thesmophorion, the other in front of the temple of Artemis Lochia. The treasurer is to report the expenditure (35) for the stelae in the first meeting of the logistai.

Traduction

À la bonne fortune. Alors que Démétrios était hiéronome, le 2 du mois de Thargelion, Alexôn fils de Damôn a fait la proposition : qu'une loi entre en vigueur pour les Gambreiotes, (5) que celles qui sont en deuil portent un vêtement gris, qui ne doit pas être sale; que les hommes et les enfants qui sont en deuil mettent aussi un vêtement gris, ou s’ils ne le souhaitent pas, un blanc. (10) Que l’on accomplisse les rites coutumiers durant trois mois pour ceux qui s'en sont allés, qu’au quatrième les hommes soient libérés du deuil, les femmes au cinquième, et il est impératif que les femmes abandonnent les soins funéraires (15) et sortent (pour rejoindre) les processions qui sont mentionnées par la loi. Que le gynéconome choisi par le peuple prie, lors des purifications (20) avant les Thesmophories, que ceux qui observent cette lois et celles qui lui obéissent jouissent bien des bonnes choses dont ils disposent, et, qu'à ceux qui ne lui obéiraient pas ou celles qui ne l'observeraient pas, (il advienne) le contraire. (25) Qu’il ne plaise pas aux dieux qu'en tant qu’impies, elles sacrifient à tout dieu pendant dix ans; que celui qui sera choisi trésorier (l'année) après (celle du) stéphanéphore Démétrios inscrive cette loi sur deux (30) stèles et en érige une devant les portes du Thesmophorion, et l’autre devant le temple d’Artémis Lochia. Le trésorier doit rendre compte de la dépense générée (35) pour les stèles à la première réunion des logistai.

(traduction S. Lebreton)

Commentary

This document is an official law of the city of Gambreion, a small community in the periphery of Pergamon. The law's concern is with funerary practices, something which is also in evidence in other cities, cp. esp. here CGRN 35 (Iulis on Keos). Funerary legislation also sometimes features as part of other documents or dossiers included in the present Collection, e.g. CGRN 82, side C (Delphi). After a short preamble with enactment clauses (lines 1-5), the substance of the regulation properly begins with a consideration of the colour and appearance of the clothing required to be worn by those who are mourning (lines 5-9); it then moves on to the question of the duration of funerary rites and other commemorations (9-17), before finally turning to a prayer that must be made by the gynaikonomos (17-27).

Particularly noteworthy is the special treatment reserved for women in this legislation (cf. notably Le Guen-Pollet's commentary). Women are singled out by most of the prescriptions involved here, as they are also in the law from Iulis. Contrary to men and children, women do not have a small degree of flexibility in the colour of their clothing (lines 5-9). They are allowed more time for performing funerary rites and mourning, but are then compelled to return to civic rituals that require a mandatory procession (9-17 again). Finally, the sanction imposed on women who contravene the oath or imprecation is explicitly spelled out, again contrary to the case for men. This is a severe exclusion from sacrifice for 10 years. Other elements of the law make it clear that its intended audience was women first and foremost: the oath is to be sworn before the Thesmophoria (19-20), which also involved men, but also contained female-only events; and the law is to be inscribed in front of two primarily female sanctuaries, namely the Thesmophorion itself and the sanctuary of Artemis Lochia (whose epithet indicates that she was concerned with childbirth; cp. Ilithyia).

Lines 5-9: The first considerations of the law concern the colour of clothes worn by those grieving, which were typically sombre but not completely dark. Men and children also have the choice to wear white clothes, which were common in funerary rites: CGRN 35; cp. also the references collected in Sokolowski and Frisone.

Lines 10-13: For the νόμιμα performed for the deceased (cf. also κηδεία in line 14), cp. again the rituals described in much greater detail in the law from Iulis, CGRN 35. The duration of funerary rites and posthumous commemorations varied considerably in different communities, sometimes being as brief as month, though here they can be more expansive, within certain limits which are imposed.

Lines 15-17: This phrase points to an existing law at Gambreion that required the mandatory participation of married women in certain processions and celebrations of the city. These may well have included the Thesmophoria itself, at which the imprecation or oath will be administered (see below), and perhaps other prominent rituals.

Lines 19-20: For the purifications before prior to the Thesmophoria, involving fasting, ablutions and other preparations by the women involved, see schol. Luc. Dial. meret. 2.1, which describes the festival and its purification in some detail. See also here CGRN 78 (Piraeus).

Lines 20-25: Though ἐπεύχομαι properly refers to a prayer made by gynaikonomos, this prayer employs the typical formulary of oaths: cp. e.g. IG XI.4 1296 (Delos, mid-3rd century BC) and see esp. the oaths administered prior to the mysteries at Andania, CGRN 222, lines 1-11, 26-28.

Lines 25-27: As noted above, the barring of women from sacrifice to any god for ten years is a severe sanction. Such an exclusion from sacrifice is seldom found in the epigraphical evidence: cf. SEG 6, 786 (Mopsuestia, Imperial), lines 16-17: καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ μὴ | ἐξὸν αὐτῷ ποιῆσαι κατὰ μηδένα | τρόπον, and cp. also Aischin. 3.110 (cited by Sokolowski). For discussions of religious terminology ('not ὅσιον', ἀσεβέω), cf. Parker, Delli Pizzi and Peels.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 108, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 108, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/108/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2017]).

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					<p>Edition here based on Boeckh <bibl type="abbr" n="CIG">CIG</bibl> 3562. The readings are uncontroversial. </p>
					<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSAM">LSAM</bibl> 16; Le Guen-Pollet <bibl type="abbr" n="CDE">CDE</bibl> 85; <bibl type="author_date" n="Frisone 2000">Frisone 2000</bibl>: 139-154, with an extensive commentary.</p>
					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2004">Parker 2004</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Delli Pizzi 2011">Delli Pizzi 2011</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Peels 2016">Peels 2016</bibl>.</p>
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	    				<ab>	    				
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><name type="epithet" key="Agathe"><w lemma="ἀγαθός">ἀγαθῆι</w></name> <name type="deity" key="Tyche"><w lemma="τύχη">τύχηι</w></name>, <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερονομέω"><unclear>ἱερ</unclear>ονομοῦντος</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2"/><w lemma="Δημήτριος">Δημητρίου</w>, <w lemma="μείς">μηνὸς</w> <name type="month"><w lemma="Θαργήλια">Θαργηλιῶνος</w></name>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_3" n="3"/><w lemma="δεύτερος">δευτέραι</w>, <w lemma="Ἀλέξων">Ἀλέξων</w> <w lemma="Δάμων">Δάμωνος</w> <w lemma="εἶπον">εἶ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/>πεν</w>· <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμον</w></name> <w lemma="εἰμί">εἶναι</w> <name type="ethnic" key="Gambreion"><w lemma="Γαμβρειώτης">Γαμβρειώταις</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5"/>τὰς <name type="death"><w lemma="πενθέω">πενθούσας</w></name> <w lemma="ἔχω">ἔχειν</w> <name type="colour2"><w lemma="φαιός">φαιὰν</w></name> <name type="clothing"><w lemma="ἐσθής">ἐσθῆ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6" break="no"/>τα</w></name> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <name type="quality"><w lemma="καταρρυπόω">κατερρυπωμένην</w></name>· <w lemma="χράω">χρῆσθαι</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7"/>δὲ καὶ τοὺς <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἄνδρας</w></name> καὶ τοὺς <name type="person"><w lemma="παῖς">παῖδας</w></name>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/>τοὺς <name type="death"><w lemma="πενθέω">πενθοῦντας</w></name> <name type="clothing"><w lemma="ἐσθής">ἐσθῆτι</w></name> <name type="colour2"><w lemma="φαιός">φαιᾶι</w></name>,
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9"/><w lemma="ἐάν">ἐὰμ</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="βούλομαι">βούλωνται</w> <name type="colour2"><w lemma="λευκός">λευκῆι</w></name>· <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="ἐπιτελέω">ἐπιτε
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_10" n="10" break="no"/>λεῖν</w></name> δὲ τὰ <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμιμος">νόμιμα</w></name> τοῖς <w lemma="ἀποίχομαι">ἀποιχομέ
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11" break="no"/>νοις</w> <name type="death"><w lemma="ἔσχατος">ἔσχατον</w></name> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <w lemma="τρεῖς">τρισὶ</w> <w lemma="μείς">μησίν</w>, τῶι δὲ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12"/><w lemma="τέταρτος">τετάρτωι</w> <w lemma="λύω">λύειν</w> τὰ <name type="death"><w lemma="πένθος">πένθη</w></name> τοὺς <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἄν
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13" break="no"/>δρας</w></name>, τὰς δὲ <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυναῖκας</w></name> τῶι <w lemma="πέμπτος">πέμπτωι</w>,
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/>καὶ <w lemma="ἐξανίστημι">ἐξανίστασθαι</w> <w lemma="ἐκ">ἐκ</w> τῆς <name type="death"><w lemma="κηδεία">κηδείας</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15"/>καὶ <w lemma="ἐκπορεύω">ἐκπορεύεσθαι</w> τὰς <name type="person"><w lemma="γυνή">γυναῖκας</w></name>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/>τὰς <w lemma="ἔξοδος">ἐξόδους</w> τὰς <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τῶι <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμωι</w></name> <w lemma="γράφω">γε
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_17" n="17" break="no"/>γραμμένας</w> <w lemma="ἐπάναγκος">ἐπάναγκον</w>· τὸν δὲ <name type="personnel"><w lemma="γυναικονόμος">γυ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18" break="no"/>ναικονόμον</w></name> τὸν <w lemma="ὑπό">ὑπὸ</w> τοῦ <name type="group"><w lemma="δῆμος">δήμου</w></name> <w lemma="αἱρέω">αἱ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19" break="no"/>ρούμενον</w> τοῖς <name type="purification"><w lemma="ἁγνισμός">ἁγνισμοῖς</w></name> τοῖς <w lemma="πρό">πρὸ</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20"/>τῶν <name type="festival"><w lemma="θεσμοφόρια">Θεσμοφορίων</w></name> <name type="invocation"><w lemma="ἐπεύχομαι">ἐπεύχεσθαι</w></name> τοῖς <w lemma="ἐμμένω">ἐμ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21" break="no"/>μένουσιν</w> καὶ ταῖς <w lemma="πείθω">πειθομέναις</w> <w lemma="ὅδε">τῶι
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22" break="no"/>δε</w> τῶι <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμωι</w></name> <w lemma="εὖ">εὖ</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">εἶναι</w> καὶ τῶν <w lemma="ὑπάρχω">ὑπαρχόν
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_23" n="23" break="no"/>των</w> <w lemma="ἀγαθός">ἀγαθῶν</w> <w lemma="ὄνησις">ὄνησιν</w>, τοῖς δὲ <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="πείθω">πειθο
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_24" n="24" break="no"/>μένοις</w> μηδὲ ταῖς <w lemma="ἐμμένω">ἐμμενούσαις</w> <w lemma="ἐναντίος">τἀ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_25" n="25" break="no"/>ναντία</w>· καὶ <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <name type="authority"><w lemma="ὅσιος">ὅσιον</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐταῖς</w> <w lemma="εἰμί">εἶναι</w>, <w lemma="ὡς">ὡς</w>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_26" n="26"/><name type="punishment"><name type="authority"><w lemma="ἀσεβέω">ἀσεβούσαις</w></name></name>, <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="θύω">θύειν</w></name> <w lemma="μηθείς">μηθενὶ</w> <name type="deity" key="unclear"><w lemma="θεός">θεῶν</w></name> <w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπὶ</w> <w lemma="δέκα">δέ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_27" n="27" break="no"/>κα</w> <w lemma="ἔτος">ἔτη</w>· τὸν δὲ <w lemma="μετά">μετὰ</w> <w lemma="Δημήτριος">Δημήτριον</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_28" n="28"/><name type="title"><w lemma="στεφανηφόρος">στεφανηφόρον</w></name> <name type="title"><w lemma="ταμίας">ταμίαν</w></name> <w lemma="αἱρέω">αἱρεθέντα</w>
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_29" n="29"/><w lemma="ἀναγράφω">ἀναγράψαι</w> <w lemma="ὅδε">τόνδε</w> τὸν <name type="authority"><w lemma="νόμος">νόμον</w></name> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <w lemma="δύο">δύο</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_30" n="30"/><objectType key="stele"><w lemma="στήλη">στήλας</w></objectType> καὶ <w lemma="ἀνατίθημι">ἀναθεῖναι</w> τὴμ μὲν
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_31" n="31"/><w lemma="εἷς">μίαν</w> <w lemma="πρό">πρὸ</w> τῶν <name type="structure"><w lemma="θύρα">θυρῶν</w></name> τοῦ <name type="structure"><name type="epithet" key="Thesmophoros"><w lemma="Θεσμοφόριον">Θεσμοφο
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_32" n="32" break="no"/>ρίου</w></name></name>, τὴν δὲ <w lemma="πρό">πρὸ</w> τοῦ <name type="structure"><w lemma="ναός">νεὼ</w></name> τῆς <name type="deity" key="Artemis"><w lemma="Ἄρτεμις">Ἀρτέ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_33" n="33" break="no"/>μιδος</w></name> τῆς <name type="epithet" key="Lochia"><w lemma="Λοχία">Λοχίας</w></name>· <w lemma="ἀναφέρω">ἀνενεγκάτω</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_34" n="34"/>δὲ ὁ <name type="title"><w lemma="ταμίας">ταμίας</w></name> τὸ <w lemma="ἀνάλωμα">ἀνάλωμα</w> τὸ <w lemma="γίγνομαι">γε
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_35" n="35" break="no"/>νόμενον</w> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <objectType key="stele"><w lemma="στήλη">τὰστήλας</w></objectType> τῶι
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_36" n="36"/><w lemma="πρότερος">πρώτωι</w> <w lemma="λογιστήριον">λογιστηρίωι</w>. <space extent="unknown" unit="line"/>	

	    				
	    				</ab>
	    			</div>
	    			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
<p>With good fortune. When Demetrios was <foreign>hieronomos</foreign>, on the 2nd of the month Thargelion, Alexon son of Damon proposed: there is to be a law for the people of Gambreion, (5) that the women who are in mourning are to wear grey clothes, not dirty ones; and that men and children in mourning are also to wear grey clothes, unless they prefer to wear white. (10) The customary rites are to be fulfilled within three months for those who have gone to their end (i.e. died). On the fourth month men are freed from mourning, women on the fifth. And it is obligatory that they free themselves from their funerary duty (15) and participate in the processions (and outdoor activities) which are written in the (other?) law. The <foreign>gynaikonomos</foreign> appointed by the people for the purifications (20) prior to the Thesmophoria is to pray that "it will go well for those men who abide by and for women who obey his law, and they will have the enjoyment of their present blessings, but for those who do not obey it or abide by it, the opposite (will happen). (25) And it will not be pleasing to the gods for women (who disobey the law) to sacrifice, since they are impious, to any god for ten years". Let the treasurer chosen for the next year after (the year of) the <foreign>stephanephoros</foreign> Demetrios inscribe this law on two (30) stelae and erect one these stelae in front of the doors of the Thesmophorion, the other in front of the temple of Artemis Lochia. The treasurer is to report the expenditure (35) for the stelae in the first meeting of the <foreign>logistai</foreign>.	
					</p>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
<p>À la bonne fortune. Alors que Démétrios était hiéronome, le 2 du mois de Thargelion, Alexôn fils de Damôn a fait la proposition : qu'une loi entre en vigueur pour les Gambreiotes, (5) que celles qui sont en deuil portent un vêtement gris, qui ne doit pas être sale; que les hommes et les enfants qui sont en deuil mettent aussi un vêtement gris, ou s’ils ne le souhaitent pas, un blanc. (10) Que l’on accomplisse les rites coutumiers durant trois mois pour ceux qui s'en sont allés, qu’au quatrième les hommes soient libérés du deuil, les femmes au cinquième, et il est impératif que les femmes abandonnent les soins funéraires (15) et sortent (pour rejoindre) les processions qui sont mentionnées par la loi. Que le gynéconome choisi par le peuple prie, lors des purifications (20) avant les Thesmophories, que ceux qui observent cette lois et celles qui lui obéissent jouissent bien des bonnes choses dont ils disposent, et, qu'à ceux qui ne lui obéiraient pas ou celles qui ne l'observeraient pas, (il advienne) le contraire. (25) Qu’il ne plaise pas aux dieux qu'en tant qu’impies, elles sacrifient à tout dieu pendant dix ans; que celui qui sera choisi trésorier (l'année) après (celle du) stéphanéphore Démétrios inscrive cette loi sur deux (30) stèles et en érige une devant les portes du Thesmophorion, et l’autre devant le temple d’Artémis Lochia. Le trésorier doit rendre compte de la dépense générée (35) pour les stèles à la première réunion des <foreign>logistai</foreign>.
					</p>
					<p>(traduction S. Lebreton)</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p>This document is an official law of the city of Gambreion, a small community in the periphery of Pergamon. The law's concern is with funerary practices, something which is also in evidence in other cities, cp. esp. here <ref target="CGRN_35">CGRN 35</ref> (Iulis on Keos). Funerary legislation also sometimes features as part of other documents or dossiers included in the present Collection, e.g. <ref target="CGRN_82">CGRN 82</ref>, side C (Delphi). After a short preamble with enactment clauses (lines 1-5), the substance of the regulation properly begins with a consideration of the colour and appearance of the clothing required to be worn by those who are mourning (lines 5-9); it then moves on to the question of the duration of funerary rites and other commemorations (9-17), before finally turning to a prayer that must be made by the <foreign>gynaikonomos</foreign> (17-27).</p> 
						
<p>Particularly noteworthy is the special treatment reserved for women in this legislation (cf. notably Le Guen-Pollet's commentary). Women are singled out by most of the prescriptions involved here, as they are also in the law from Iulis. Contrary to men and children, women do not have a small degree of flexibility in the colour of their clothing (lines 5-9). They are allowed more time for performing funerary rites and mourning, but are then compelled to return to civic rituals that require a mandatory procession (9-17 again). Finally, the sanction imposed on women who contravene the oath or imprecation is explicitly spelled out, again contrary to the case for men. This is a severe exclusion from sacrifice for 10 years. Other elements of the law make it clear that its intended audience was women first and foremost: the oath is to be sworn before the Thesmophoria (19-20), which also involved men, but also contained female-only events; and the law is to be inscribed in front of two primarily female sanctuaries, namely the Thesmophorion itself and the sanctuary of Artemis Lochia (whose epithet indicates that she was concerned with childbirth; cp. Ilithyia).</p>
													
<p>Lines 5-9: The first considerations of the law concern the colour of clothes worn by those grieving, which were typically sombre but not completely dark. Men and children also have the choice to wear white clothes, which were common in funerary rites: <ref target="CGRN_35">CGRN 35</ref>; cp. also the references collected in Sokolowski and Frisone.</p>
						
<p>Lines 10-13: For the νόμιμα performed for the deceased (cf. also κηδεία in line 14), cp. again the rituals described in much greater detail in the law from Iulis, <ref target="CGRN_35">CGRN 35</ref>. The duration of funerary rites and posthumous commemorations varied considerably in different communities, sometimes being as brief as month, though here they can be more expansive, within certain limits which are imposed.</p>
						
<p>Lines 15-17: This phrase points to an existing law at Gambreion that required the mandatory participation of married women in certain processions and celebrations of the city. These may well have included the Thesmophoria itself, at which the imprecation or oath will be administered (see below), and perhaps other prominent rituals.</p>
						
<p>Lines 19-20: For the purifications before prior to the Thesmophoria, involving fasting, ablutions and other preparations by the women involved, see schol. Luc. <title>Dial. meret.</title> 2.1, which describes the festival and its purification in some detail. See also here <ref target="CGRN_78">CGRN 78</ref> (Piraeus).</p>  
							
<p>Lines 20-25: Though ἐπεύχομαι properly refers to a prayer made by <foreign>gynaikonomos</foreign>, this prayer employs the typical formulary of oaths: cp. e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XI">IG XI</bibl>.4 1296 (Delos, mid-3rd century BC) and see esp. the oaths administered prior to the mysteries at Andania, <ref target="CGRN_222">CGRN 222</ref>, lines 1-11, 26-28.</p>

<p>Lines 25-27: As noted above, the barring of women from sacrifice to any god for ten years is a severe sanction. Such an exclusion from sacrifice is seldom found in the epigraphical evidence: cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 6, 786 (Mopsuestia, Imperial), lines 16-17: καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ μὴ | ἐξὸν αὐτῷ ποιῆσαι κατὰ μηδένα | τρόπον, and cp. also Aischin. 3.110 (cited by Sokolowski). For discussions of religious terminology ('not ὅσιον', ἀσεβέω), cf. Parker, Delli Pizzi and Peels.</p>
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