CGRN 199

Example of the accounts of the Posideia and Ilithyia on Delos

Date :

178 BC

Justification: Delian chronology (Durrbach, Reger).

Provenance

Delos , sanctuary of Apollo.

Support

Marble fragment, perhaps from a stele, broken on the top and the right. The left margin appears to be intact and the empty space of approximately 2 lines at the bottom indicate that the bottom of the stele is preserved (Pouilloux notes a "bourrelet formant talon en saillie") and marks the end of the text.

  • Height: 22.5 cm
  • Width: 25 cm
  • Depth: 13 cm

Layout

Letters: 10 mm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Durrbach ID 445. We only include and discuss lines 1-16 here.

Further bibliography: Reger 1994: esp. Chap. 5 (pigs, firewood) and App. III; Lupu NGSL, p. 188 n. 39.

Text


λόγος τῶν ἐς τὰ Ποσίδεια· βοῦ ..?..]
𐅂𐅄ΔΔΔ· κριοὶ ΙΙ Ποσειδῶνι Ἀσ[φ]α[λ]είωι [καὶ Ὀρθωσίωι ..?..]
κάπρος 𐅂Δ𐅃𐅂𐅂𐅂· δελφάκια ΙΙΙ, 𐅂Δ[Δ]𐅂𐅂𐅂𐅂 · τροφὴ τούτοις 𐅂[Δ]𐅂𐅂𐅂· [γλυ]-
κέως
μέ(διμνοι) ΙΙΙ, τιμὴ 𐅂ΔΔΔΔ· οἴνο Κ]ν[ί]δ[ι]α Δ, τιμὴ 𐅂𐅄Δ· ἄλφιτα
5𐅂Δ𐅃· ξύλων ΤΔ, τιμὴ Δ𐅃· ὄξος 𐅂𐅂𐅂𐅂· ἀρτύματα
ἔλαιον 𐅂𐅃𐅂𐅂𐅂· σταφὶς 𐅂ΔΔ· κεραμίων 𐅂𐅂𐅂· ἄνθρακες 𐅂Δ𐅂𐅂· ἄννη-
σον
𐅂· ἐργάταις 𐅂Δ𐅃𐅂· μαγείρω[ι] 𐅂𐅃· ἐπισπλαγχνίδιοι 𐅃· ἐρέ-
βινθοι
𐅂Δ𐅃𐅂· κάρυα 𐅂ΔΔΔ𐅃𐅂· ἰσχάδες 𐅂𐅃𐅂· κληματίδες, ῥυ-
μοὶ
𐅂𐅂· τοῖς μὴ πορευομένοις εἰς ἀπόμοιραν 𐅄Δ𐅂· οἴνο[υ]
10Κῶια ΔΔΔ𐅃, τιμὴ 𐅂Η· νικητήριον ἁμίλλης ΔΔ· καὶ δευτε-
ρεῖον
Δ. ἔχομεν δὲ τὸ ἀποτεταγμένον 𐅂𐅅Η· τῶν ἡμιωβελί-
{λι}ων
𐅄· βύρσης Δ· δερμάτων 𐅂𐅂· κεράμου 𐅃𐅂. λόγος τῶν
εἰς Εἰλειθύαια· ἀπὸ τῶν ΔΔΔΔ· πρόβατον Δ𐅂𐅂𐅂𐅂· πυροὶ 𐅂Δ·
τυρὸς 𐅂𐅂· ἐρέβινθοι, κύαμοι 𐅂𐅂𐅂𐅂· σήσαμα 𐅂𐅂· μέλι 𐅂𐅂· στεφανώ-
15ματα
ΙΙΙΙ· ἀρτοκόπωι 𐅂𐅂· λάχανα 𐅂𐅂𐅂· τάριχος 𐅂𐅂𐅂· ὄψον 𐅃𐅂·
κάρυα 𐅂𐅂· οἶνος 𐅃𐅂𐅂𐅂.

Translation

Account of the things (i.e. expenses) for the Posideia: an ox [...] 80 drachmae; 2 rams for Poseidon Asphaleios [and Orthosios ...]; a boar, 18 dr.; 3 piglets, 24 dr.; nurture for these (animals), 13 dr.; 3 medimnoi of grape-syrup, price 40 dr.; 10 Knidian measures of wine, price 60 dr.; barley-groats, (5) 15 dr.; for a talent and a half of wood, price 15 dr.; vinegar, 4 dr.; condiments [...]; olive-oil, 8 dr.; dried grapes (raisins), 20 dr.; for pottery wares (dishes), 3 dr.; coals, 12 dr.; anise, 1 dr.; for the workers, 16 dr.; for the butcher, 5 dr.; the thing for roasting the entrails (?), 5 dr.; chickpeas, 16 dr.; nuts, 36 dr.; figs, 6 dr.; faggots of kindling wood, logs, 2 dr.; for those who do not attend the distribution (of meat), (a fund of) 60 dr.; (10) 35 Koan measures of wine, price 100 dr.; victory-prize for the contest, 20 dr.; second prize, 10 dr.; we have received the appointed sum, 600 dr.; 50 half-obols; (sale?) of the ox-hide, 10 dr.; other skins [...]; for the pottery vessel, 6 dr.

Account for the festival of Ilithyia, from the 40 (assigned) dr.: a sheep, 14 dr.; wheat, 10 dr.; a cheese, 2 dr.; chickpeas, beans 4 dr.; sesame-seeds, 2 dr.; honey, 2 dr.; (15) 4 crowns; for the baker, 2 dr.; vegetables, 3 dr.; dried fish, 3 dr.; relish (sauce?), 6 dr.; nuts, 2 dr.; wine, 8 dr.

Traduction

Compte (des dépenses) pour les Posideia : un bovin [...] 80 drachmes; 2 béliers (non castrés) pour Poséidon Asphaleios [et Orthosios ...]; un verrat (non castré), 18 dr.; 3 porcelets, 24 dr.; nourriture pour ces (animaux), 13 dr.; 3 médimnes de sirop, prix 40 dr.; 10 mesures cnidiennes de vin, prix 60 dr.; grains d'orge, (5) 15 dr.; pour un talent et demi de bois, prix 15 dr.; vinaigre, 4 dr.; condiments [...]; huile d'olive, 8 dr.; raisins secs, 20 dr.; pour la vaisselle en terre cuite, 3 dr.; charbon, 12 dr.; anis, 1 dr.; pour les ouvriers, 16 dr.; pour le boucher, 5 dr.; l'objet pour rôtir les viscères (?), 5 dr.; pois chiches, 16 dr.; noix, 36 dr.; figues, 6 dr.; bois d'allumage, bûches, 2 dr.; pour ceux qui ne se rendent pas à la distribution (de viande), (un total de) 60 dr.; (10) 35 mesures coaques de vin, prix 100 dr.; prix de la victoire pour le concours, 20 dr.; deuxième prix, 10 dr.; nous avons reçu la somme fixée (de) 600 dr.; 50 demi-oboles; (vente ?) de la peau de boeuf, 10 dr.; autres peaux [...]; pour la vaisselle de céramique, 6 dr.

Compte (des dépenses) pour la fête d'Ilithyie, de 40 dr. (budgetés) : un mouton, 14 dr.; 10 dr. de blé; un fromage, 2 dr.; pois chiches, fèves, 4 dr.; sésame, 2 dr.; miel, 2 dr.; (15) 4 couronnes; pour le boulanger, 2 dr.; légumes, 3 dr.; poisson séché, 3 dr.; condiment, 6 dr.; noix, 2 dr.; vin, 8 dr.

Commentary

This inscription is not in and of itself a ritual norm but it is included here as a representative example of a type of document extremely well-evidenced on Delos, which does reflect ritual norms: namely, accounts and inventories found in the sanctuary of Apollo. These texts were not consulted for their prescriptive character, but were (like some of the other texts included in the present Collection) recorded as accounts of expenses entailed by normative ritual practice. Here, the accounts, frequently mentioned in Delian epigraphy, concern the festivals of Poseidon (lines 1-12) and of the goddess Ilithyia (12-16) respectively. Lines 16-28 of the inscription, not included here, record the proceeds of rental agreements.

The Posideia certainly took place in the month Posideon (contemporaneous with its Attic equivalent, in November/December), the last month of the Delian year. It is possible that the festival of Ilithyia, which occurs immediately afterward in the accounts, was chronologically related with the Posideia, i.e. perhaps occurring shortly afterward. At any rate, the comparison between the two festivals can be instructive. The Posideia appears to be an important festival and major sacrificial occasion, involving at least one ox, probably a number of sheep, a boar and three piglets, and two rams sacrificed to Poseidon Asphaleios and Poseidon Orthosios respectively. There were contests and prizes (lines 10-11) and other offerings. The total expenditure was superior to 600 drachmae (575 dr. are preserved in the items listed in the text). By contrast, the Eileithyaia are much smaller: only 40 drachmae are devoted it and a single sheep is sacrificed (but the items listed seem to go over budget, since they total 58 dr.). However, there are ritual elements here that we do not find included in the Posideia, for instance: cheese, bread, sesame, crowns, vegetables, and even fish and an amount of relish or sauce for a meal. Also, unlike the Posideia, no cult personnel or butcher is mentioned in connection with the sacrifice; in this regard, cp. the sacrifice to Ilithyia performed by women alone on Chios CGRN 38, lines A8-10.

For a different example of an account from Delos, arranged chronologically, see here IG XI.2 287; cp. and contrast also CGRN 57, the account from the deme of Aixone in Attica. For the prices mentioned in the account and their variability in different periods, readers are encouraged to consult the thorough study of Reger. Overall, the accounts inform us about several ritual agents, substances and objects that are seldom mentioned in ritual norms and unparalleled in the present Collection, such as condiments, dried raisins and nuts, or even chickpeas and anise.

Line 1: This line might be restored on the basis of other accounts which mention offerings during the Posideia (before the two rams to be sacrificed to Poseidon Asphaleios and Orthosios), e.g. ID 464 (ca. 170 BC), line 1: [βοὸ]ς (?) 𐅄ΔΔΔ𐅃· ἱερεῖα· [(number?)] ΔΔΔ. It is therefore possible that at least a number of sheep (perhaps other animals) are missing in the lacuna here. However, the price of 80 drachmae does correspond well with the price of an ox, and so the lacuna at the end of this line remains somewhat enigmatic. There appears to be only one ox sacrificed, as is clear from the later mention of the singular ox-hide in line 12.

Line 3: These terms for swine are to some degree specific to Delos, since they do not often occur elsewhere in the epigraphic evidence. It is therefore quite possible that κάπρος simply designates any mature pig, given that δέλφαξ also probably merely designates as piglet of any young age (cf. Lupu on the κάπρος). For the rearing of cattle and other animals in anticipation of sacrifice, as a means of fattening them up and creating more meat for feasting, see also SEG 45, 1508A-B; 50, 1100-1101 (Bargylia).

Line 5: For the use of vinegar in rituals, see also here CGRN 16 (Gortyn), lines 4 and 8.

Line 7: For butchers, see also here CGRN 45, fr. 3, line 25. The word ἐπισπλαγχνίδιος is unattested in literature, but found with some frequency in the Delian accounts (σπλαγχνίδιον is the diminutive of 'entrail' but neuter). It is unclear whether these are objects designed for roasting the entrails (so in LSJ Suppl. s.v.); other objects are mentioned in the accounts, for example earthenware vessels. Perhaps the word might also designate personnel whose responsibility it was to roast the entrails (though such people are usually invoked in the dative).

Line 9: For the phrase, referring to individuals "not attending the distribution of meat"—and thus receiving a fixed sum—cp. the converse expressions found in CGRN 146 (Phyxa), lines 8, 23, 25.

Line 12: A βύρσα here appears to properly designate an ox-hide, in opposition to the other hides and skins mentioned and deriving from sheep as well as swine (cp. Hdt. 3.110: βύρσα καὶ ἄλλα δέρματα, cited by LSJ s.v.).

Line 15: The word ὄψον is difficult to interpret precisely in this context, because it seems to have many different usages, but it probably refers to any sort of sauce or relish that could be eaten with grains (perhaps also consisting of or involving fish).

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 199, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 199, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/199/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2018]).

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			<p>Edition here based on Durrbach <bibl type="abbr" n="ID">ID</bibl> 445. We only include and discuss lines 1-16 here.</p>
			<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Reger 1994">Reger 1994</bibl>: esp. Chap. 5 (pigs, firewood) and App. III; Lupu <bibl type="abbr" n="NGSL">NGSL</bibl>, p. 188 n. 39.</p>	
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<lb xml:id="line_6" n="6"/><name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἔλαιον">ἔλ<add>α</add>ιον</w></name> <num value="13">U+10142U+10143U+10142U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="σταφίς">σταφὶς</w></name> <num value="20">U+10142ΔΔ</num>· <name type="object"><w lemma="κεράμιον">κεραμίων</w></name> U+10142U+10142U+10142·  <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἄνθραξ">ἄνθρακες</w></name> <num value="12">U+10142ΔU+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἄννησον">ἄννη
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/>σον</w></name> <num value="1">U+10142</num>· <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἐργάτης">ἐργάταις</w></name> <num value="16">U+10142ΔU+10143U+10142</num>· <name type="personnel"><w lemma="μάγειρος">μαγείρω<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied></w></name> <num value="5">U+10142U+10143</num>· <w lemma="σπλαγχνίδιον"><add>ἐπι</add>σπλαγχνίδιοι</w> <num value="5">U+10143</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἐρέβινθος">ἐρέ
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_8" n="8" break="no"/>βινθοι</w></name> <num value="16">U+10142ΔU+10143U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="κάρυον">κάρυα</w></name> <num value="36">U+10142ΔΔΔU+10143U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="ἰσχάς">ἰσχάδες</w></name> <num value="16">U+10142U+10143U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="κληματίς">κληματίδες</w></name>, <w lemma="">ῥυ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9" break="no"/>μοὶ</w> <num value="2">U+10142U+10142</num>· τοῖς <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="πορεύω">πορευομένοις</w> <w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="ἀπόμοιρα">ἀπόμοιραν</w></name> <num value="61">U+10144ΔU+10142</num>· <name type="liquid"><w lemma="οἶνος">οἴνο<supplied reason="lost">υ</supplied></w></name>
	    					
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<lb xml:id="line_11" n="11" break="no"/>ρεῖον</w></name> <num value="10">Δ</num>. <w lemma="ἔχω">ἔχομεν</w> δὲ τὸ <w lemma="ἀποτάσσω">ἀποτεταγμένον</w> <num value="600">U+10142U+10145Η</num>· τῶν <w lemma="ἡμιωβέλιον">ἡμιωβελί
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_12" n="12" break="no"/><surplus>λι</surplus>ων</w> <num value="50">U+10144</num>· <w lemma="βύρσα">βύρσης</w> <num value="10">Δ</num>· <name type="portion"><w lemma="δέρμα">δερμάτων</w></name> <gap reason="lost" quantity="2" precision="low"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="2" precision="low"/><num value="2">U+10142<unclear>U+10142</unclear></num>· <name type="object"><w lemma="κέραμος">κεράμου</w></name> <num value="6">U+10143U+10142</num>. <w lemma="λόγος">λόγος</w> τῶν
	    				 
<lb xml:id="line_13" n="13"/><w lemma="εἰς">εἰς</w> <name type="festival"><name type="deity" key="Ilithyia"><w lemma="Εἰλείθυια">Εἰλειθύαια</w></name></name>· <w lemma="ἀπό">ἀπὸ</w> τῶν <num value="40">ΔΔΔΔ</num>· <name type="animal" key="sheep"><w lemma="πρόβατον">πρόβατον</w></name> <num value="14">ΔU+10142U+10142U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="πυρός">πυροὶ</w></name> <num value="10">U+10142Δ</num>·	 
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_14" n="14"/><name type="dairy"><w lemma="τυρός">τυρὸς</w></name> <num value="2">U+10142U+10142</num>· <w lemma="ἐρέβινθος">ἐρέβινθοι</w>, <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="κύαμος">κύαμοι</w></name> <num value="4">U+10142U+10142U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="σήσαμον">σήσαμα</w></name> <num value="2">U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="liquid"><w lemma="μέλι">μέλι</w></name> <num value="2">U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="adornment"><w lemma="στεφάνωμα">στεφανώ
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_15" n="15" break="no"/>ματα</w></name> <num value="4">ΙΙΙΙ</num>· <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἀρτοκόπος">ἀρτοκόπωι</w></name> <num value="2">U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="vegetal"><w lemma="λάχανον">λάχανα</w></name> <num value="3">U+10142U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="animal" key="fish"><w lemma="τάριχος">τάριχος</w></name> <num value="3">U+10142U+10142U+10142</num>· 
	<w lemma="ὄψον">ὄψον</w> <num value="6">U+10143U+10142</num>· 	
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_16" n="16"/><name type="vegetal"><w lemma="κάρυον">κάρυα</w></name> <num value="2">U+10142U+10142</num>· <name type="liquid"><w lemma="οἶνος">οἶνος</w></name> <num value="18">U+10143U+10142U+10142U+10142</num>. 
	    					
	    				</ab>
	    			</div>
	    			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
<p>Account of the things (i.e. expenses) for the Posideia: an ox [...] 80 drachmae; 2 rams for Poseidon Asphaleios [and Orthosios ...]; a boar, 18 dr.; 3 piglets, 24 dr.; nurture for these (animals), 13 dr.; 3 <foreign>medimnoi</foreign> of grape-syrup, price 40 dr.; 10 Knidian measures of wine, price 60 dr.; barley-groats, (5) 15 dr.; for a talent and a half of wood, price 15 dr.; vinegar, 4 dr.; condiments [...]; olive-oil, 8 dr.; dried grapes (raisins), 20 dr.; for pottery wares (dishes), 3 dr.; coals, 12 dr.; anise, 1 dr.; for the workers, 16 dr.; for the butcher, 5 dr.; the thing for roasting the entrails (?), 5 dr.; chickpeas, 16 dr.; nuts, 36 dr.; figs, 6 dr.; faggots of kindling wood, logs, 2 dr.; for those who do not attend the distribution (of meat), (a fund of) 60 dr.; (10) 35 Koan measures of wine, price 100 dr.; victory-prize for the contest, 20 dr.; second prize, 10 dr.; we have received the appointed sum, 600 dr.; 50 half-obols; (sale?) of the ox-hide, 10 dr.; other skins [...]; for the pottery vessel, 6 dr. </p>

<p>Account for the festival of Ilithyia, from the 40 (assigned) dr.: a sheep, 14 dr.; wheat, 10 dr.; a cheese, 2 dr.; chickpeas, beans 4 dr.; sesame-seeds, 2 dr.; honey, 2 dr.; (15) 4 crowns; for the baker, 2 dr.; vegetables, 3 dr.; dried fish, 3 dr.; relish (sauce?), 6 dr.; nuts, 2 dr.; wine, 8 dr. </p>
	    			
					
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
<p>Compte (des dépenses) pour les Posideia : un bovin [...] 80 drachmes; 2 béliers (non castrés) pour Poséidon Asphaleios [et Orthosios ...]; un verrat (non castré), 18 dr.; 3 porcelets, 24 dr.; nourriture pour ces (animaux), 13 dr.; 3 médimnes de sirop, prix 40 dr.; 10 mesures cnidiennes de vin, prix 60 dr.; grains d'orge, (5) 15 dr.; pour un talent et demi de bois, prix 15 dr.; vinaigre, 4 dr.; condiments [...]; huile d'olive, 8 dr.; raisins secs, 20 dr.; pour la vaisselle en terre cuite, 3 dr.; charbon, 12 dr.; anis, 1 dr.; pour les ouvriers, 16 dr.; pour le boucher, 5 dr.; l'objet pour rôtir les viscères (?), 5 dr.; pois chiches, 16 dr.; noix, 36 dr.; figues, 6 dr.; bois d'allumage, bûches, 2 dr.; pour ceux qui ne se rendent pas à la distribution (de viande), (un total de) 60 dr.; (10) 35 mesures coaques de vin, prix 100 dr.; prix de la victoire pour le concours, 20 dr.; deuxième prix, 10 dr.; nous avons reçu la somme fixée (de) 600 dr.; 50 demi-oboles; (vente ?) de la peau de boeuf, 10 dr.; autres peaux [...]; pour la vaisselle de céramique, 6 dr.</p>

<p>Compte (des dépenses) pour la fête d'Ilithyie, de 40 dr. (budgetés) : un mouton, 14 dr.; 10 dr. de blé; un fromage, 2 dr.; pois chiches, fèves, 4 dr.; sésame, 2 dr.; miel, 2 dr.; (15) 4 couronnes; pour le boulanger, 2 dr.; légumes, 3 dr.; poisson séché, 3 dr.; condiment, 6 dr.; noix, 2 dr.; vin, 8 dr.</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p>This inscription is not in and of itself a ritual norm but it is included here as a representative example of a type of document extremely well-evidenced on Delos, which does reflect ritual norms: namely, accounts and inventories found in the sanctuary of Apollo. These texts were not consulted for their prescriptive character, but were (like some of the other texts included in the present Collection) recorded as accounts of expenses entailed by normative ritual practice. Here, the accounts, frequently mentioned in Delian epigraphy, concern the festivals of Poseidon (lines 1-12) and of the goddess Ilithyia (12-16) respectively. Lines 16-28 of the inscription, not included here, record the proceeds of rental agreements.</p>
						
<p>The Posideia certainly took place in the month Posideon (contemporaneous with its Attic equivalent, in November/December), the last month of the Delian year. It is possible that the festival of Ilithyia, which occurs immediately afterward in the accounts, was chronologically related with the Posideia, i.e. perhaps occurring shortly afterward. At any rate, the comparison between the two festivals can be instructive. The Posideia appears to be an important festival and major sacrificial occasion, involving at least one ox, probably a number of sheep, a boar and three piglets, and two rams sacrificed to Poseidon Asphaleios and Poseidon Orthosios respectively. There were contests and prizes (lines 10-11) and other offerings. The total expenditure was superior to 600 drachmae (575 dr. are preserved in the items listed in the text). By contrast, the Eileithyaia are much smaller: only 40 drachmae are devoted it and a single sheep is sacrificed (but the items listed seem to go over budget, since they total 58 dr.). However, there are ritual elements here that we do not find included in the Posideia, for instance: cheese, bread, sesame, crowns, vegetables, and even fish and an amount of relish or sauce for a meal. Also, unlike the Posideia, no cult personnel or butcher is mentioned in connection with the sacrifice; in this regard, cp. the sacrifice to Ilithyia performed by women alone on Chios <ref target="CGRN_38">CGRN 38</ref>, lines A8-10.</p>
						
<p>For a different example of an account from Delos, arranged chronologically, see here <bibl type="abbr" n="IG XI">IG XI</bibl>.2 287; cp. and contrast also <ref target="CGRN_57">CGRN 57</ref>, the account from the deme of Aixone in Attica. For the prices mentioned in the account and their variability in different periods, readers are encouraged to consult the thorough study of Reger. Overall, the accounts inform us about several ritual agents, substances and objects that are seldom mentioned in ritual norms and unparalleled in the present Collection, such as condiments, dried raisins and nuts, or even chickpeas and anise.</p>
							
<p>Line 1: This line might be restored on the basis of other accounts which mention offerings during the Posideia (before the two rams to be sacrificed to Poseidon Asphaleios and Orthosios), e.g. <bibl type="abbr" n="ID">ID</bibl> 464 (ca. 170 BC), line 1: [βοὸ]ς (?) U+10144ΔΔΔU+10143· ἱερεῖα· [(number?)] ΔΔΔ. It is therefore possible that at least a number of sheep (perhaps other animals) are missing in the lacuna here. However, the price of 80 drachmae does correspond well with the price of an ox, and so the lacuna at the end of this line remains somewhat enigmatic. There appears to be only one ox sacrificed, as is clear from the later mention of the singular ox-hide in line 12.</p>

<p>Line 3: These terms for swine are to some degree specific to Delos, since they do not often occur elsewhere in the epigraphic evidence. It is therefore quite possible that κάπρος simply designates any mature pig, given that δέλφαξ also probably merely designates as piglet of any young age (cf. Lupu on the κάπρος). For the rearing of cattle and other animals in anticipation of sacrifice, as a means of fattening them up and creating more meat for feasting, see also <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 45, 1508A-B; 50, 1100-1101 (Bargylia).</p> 

<p>Line 5: For the use of vinegar in rituals, see also here <ref target="CGRN_16">CGRN 16</ref> (Gortyn), lines 4 and 8.</p> 
				
<p>Line 7: For butchers, see also here <ref target="CGRN_45">CGRN 45</ref>, fr. 3, line 25. The word ἐπισπλαγχνίδιος is unattested in literature, but found with some frequency in the Delian accounts (σπλαγχνίδιον is the diminutive of 'entrail' but neuter). It is unclear whether these are objects designed for roasting the entrails (so in <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> Suppl. s.v.); other objects are mentioned in the accounts, for example earthenware vessels. Perhaps the word might also designate personnel whose responsibility it was to roast the entrails (though such people are usually invoked in the dative).</p>

<p>Line 9: For the phrase, referring to individuals "not attending the distribution of meat"—and thus receiving a fixed sum—cp. the converse expressions found in <ref target="CGRN_146">CGRN 146</ref> (Phyxa), lines 8, 23, 25.</p>

<p>Line 12: A βύρσα here appears to properly designate an ox-hide, in opposition to the other hides and skins mentioned and deriving from sheep as well as swine (cp. Hdt. 3.110: βύρσα καὶ ἄλλα δέρματα, cited by <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v.).</p>
				
<p>Line 15: The word ὄψον is difficult to interpret precisely in this context, because it seems to have many different usages, but it probably refers to any sort of sauce or relish that could be eaten with grains (perhaps also consisting of or involving fish).
						</p>
					</div>
			</body>
    	</text>
	</TEI>