CGRN 168

Decree proposing cultic honours for (x) son of Drakon at Keramos

Date :

ca. 200-100 BC

Justification: lettering (Carbon, see above; characteristic of the mid-Hellenistic period).

Provenance

Keramos . Found in the village of Kırmevkii near Kemerdere (Ören = Keramos). Now in the Museum of Bodrum (no inv. no.).

Support

White marble stele, broken at the top and left, otherwise relatively intact.

  • Height: 52 cm
  • Width: 36 cm
  • Depth: 12-13 cm

Layout

Letters: 9 mm high. Description (Carbon): alpha with straight crossbar, open omega, but pronounced serifs, round letters usually of the same size as the others, angular and close sigma. Iota subscriptum is only seldom and irregularly implied: cf. lines 5, 13, 22.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Varinlioğlu I.Keramos 9, with ph. pl. 7.1.

Cf. also: SEG 35, 1090, not reprising the text but a note on the estimates of the population of the city.

Further bibliography: Schmidt 1908; Robert 1968; Strubbe 2004.

Text


[..?..]
[..?..]στ[..?..]
[..?.. ἀνασταθῆναι δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰκό]να ἀπὸ δραχ[μῶν]
[..?.. καὶ ἀναγραφῆν]αι ἐπὶ τοῦ βήματ[ος]
[ὅτι δῆμος ἐτίμησεν ...c.5..]ν Δράκοντος ἀρετῆς ἕν[ε]-
5[κεν
καὶ εὐνοίας τῆς εἰς ἑαυ]τόν· ὑπάρχειν δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ προ-
[εδρίαν
ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς] ἀγῶσιν· ἀναγορεύεσθαι δὲ αὐτοῦ
[καὶ τὰς τιμὰς κ]αθ’ ἕκαστον ἐνιαυτὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀγωνο-
[θέτου
ἐν τῶι ἀ]γῶνι τῶι γυμνικῶι· καλεῖσθαι δὲ αὐτὸν
[ἐπὶ τὴν κοινὴν ἑσ]τίαν τοῦ δήμου ὑπὸ τοῦ στεφανηφόρου
10[κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸ]ν ἕκαστον ἐν τοῖς Ταυροθυσίοις· στεφα-
[νοῦσθαι
δὲ κ]αὶ ἐν τῶι πρώτωι ἀγῶνι τῶι Διονυσίων ὑπὸ
[τοῦ ἀγωνοθέτ]ου καὶ ἀναγορεύεσθαι τὰς τιμὰς κατ’ ἐν[ι]-
[αυτὸν
ἕκαστο]ν· καὶ ἐπειδὰν μεταλλάξῃ τὸν βίον, ταφῆνα[ι]
[αὐτὸν δημοσία]ι· θύεσθαι δὲ αὐτῶι κατ’ ἐνιαυτὸν ἕκαστον
15[ὑπὸ τῶν ἱερομ]νημόνων ἐν μηνὶ Ἡραίωι τῆι δωδεκάτηι τοῖς
[γενεθλίοις αὐ]τοῦ κριὸν ἐπὶ βωμοῦ τοῦ ἀποδειχθέν-
[τος
καὶ κατ]ατίθεσθαι ὑπ’ αὐτῶν ἆθλα παισὶν καὶ ἐ-
[φήβοις
· ἀναγ]ραφῆναι δὲ καὶ τὰς τιμὰς αὐτοῦ ἐν στή-
[ληι
λιθίνηι καὶ] ἀνατεθῆναι ἐν τῶι ἐπιφανεστάτωι
20[τόπωι· ἑλέσ]θαι δὲ καὶ ἄνδρας, οἵτινες τῆς τε τῶν τι-
[μῶν
ἀναγρα]φῆς καὶ τῆς ἀναθέσεως τοῦ ἀνδριάν-
[τος
ποιήσο]νται πρόνοιαν. [vacat οἵδε] ᾑρέθησαν·
[..?..] Ἀθηνοδώρου, Μενέστρατος
[..?..ο]υ καθ’ ὑοθεσίαν δὲ Διομήδου,
25[..?..δ]ωρος Λέοντος, Ἄνδρων Θεαγένου.
[ψῆφοι αἷς ἔδ]οξε δοῦναι τὰς τιμὰς ἐνακόσιαι
[..?..] μία, αἷς δὲ μὴ
[?ἑκατὸν τεσσ]αράκοντα τέσαρες. vacat

Translation

[...] And to set up a statue of him [costing ...] drachmae [...] and to inscribe on the base that the people honour [(x)] son of Drakon for his virtue (5) [and his goodwill towards itself]. He is to have priority seating in all of the games; and his [honours] are to be announced each year by the agonothetes during the athletic games. He is to be called to the common hearth of the people by the stephanephoros (10) each year during the festival of the Taurothysia. He is to be crowned in the first contest of the festival of the Dionysia by the agonothetes and his honours are (also) to be proclaimed (there) annually; and when he has died, he is to be buried [at public expense]. A ram is to be sacrificed to him annually (15) by the hieromnemones on the 12th of the month Heraion, his birthday celebrations, on the altar which has been designated; and prizes are to be established by them (i.e. the hieromnemones) for the boys and for the ephebes. His honours are to be written up on a stone stele, which is to be set up in the most conspicuous (20) [place]. Men are to be chosen who will take care of the inscribing of the honours and the erection of the statue.

The following were selected: [(x)] son of Athenodoros, Menestratos [son of ...] by adoption son of Diomedes, 25) [...]doros son of Leon, Andron son of Theagenes. Ballots by which were voted to give the honours: nine hundred [...] and one; negative votes: [a hundred?] and forty-four.

Traduction

[...] Et d'ériger sa statue [coûtant...] drachmes [...] et de faire inscrire sur sa base que le peuple honore [(x)] fils de Drakon pour sa vertu (5) [et sa bienveillance envers lui]. Il aura un siège prioritaire lors de tous les concours; et les [honneurs] à son égard seront annoncés chaque année par l'agonothète durant les concours athlétiques. Il sera invité au foyer commun du peuple par le stéphanéphore (10) chaque année durant la fête des Taurothysia. Il sera couronné lors du premier concours des Dionysia par l'agonothète et ses honneurs seront (également) proclamés annuellement (i.e. à cette occasion); et lorsqu'il sera mort, il sera enterré [sur fonds publics]. Un bélier lui sera sacrifié annuellement (15) par les hiéromnémons le 12 du mois d'Heraion, sa date anniversaire, sur l'autel qui aura été désigné; et des prix seront établis par eux (les hiéromnémons) pour les garçons et les éphèbes. Les honneurs à son égard seront inscrits sur une stèle de pierre, qui sera érigée (20) à [l'endroit] le plus visible. Des hommes seront choisis pour s'occuper de l'inscription des honneurs et de l'installation de la statue.

Voici ceux qui ont été choisis: [(x)] fils d'Athenodorors, Menestratos [fils de ...] par adoption le fils de Diomède, (25) [...]dore le fils de Léon, Andron fils de Theagenes. Votes par lesquels il a plu de conférer les honneurs : neuf cents [...] et un, contre [cent ?] quarante-quatre.

Commentary

The inscription is an honorific decree, almost certainly belonging to the city of Keramos, for a certain individual whose name is not preserved (but we know he was the son of a certain Drakon, cf. line 4). Commentary (see Varinlioğlu and SEG) has particularly focussed on the conclusion of the text (lines 26-28), which partially preserves a number of votes for and against the proposal of the honours. Since probably a thousand or so voters are in evidence, this might provide a rough estimate of the democratic population of the Karian city of Keramos (1000+ male voters; probably several multiples of this for the total population including non-citizens?). Here, however, we only offer a brief commentary on the cultic rites proposed as honours for this individual. Several of these honours, notably the honorific statue with its inscribed base (lines 2-5), the public proclamation of the honours during contests and festivals (lines 6-8 and 12-13), are typical of Hellenistic honours. These and others match particularly well, though more modestly, those accorded to Olympichos at Mylasa: cf. CGRN 150 (Labraunda). Other honorific decrees from Keramos, both more terse and more fragmentary, mention a similar registry of honours, though they do not appear to prescribe sacrifices and cult per se: cf. esp. I.Keramos 7-8 (for a gymnasiarch called Lykiskos). For a discussion of cultic honours for benefactors in Asia Minor, see Strubbe.

Lines 8-10: The invitation to a meal at the public hearth or at the prytaneion is typical of honorific decrees in Greek cities. Here, it is further specified by being an annual honour, to occur only during one of the principal civic festivals, the Taurothysia. Cp. again I.Keramos 7 (the same honours for Lykiskos), as well as the honours for Olympichos, some of which occur during the Taureia (Taurophonia) at Mylasa: CGRN 150, lines 21-24.

Lines 13-18: Burial at public expense is well-attested as an honour, cp. again I.Keramos 7 (there, with a funeral also); cf. more generally Robert. It is not known whether the cultic honours are to be enacted immediately or whether they are also conditional on the death of the individual (like the burial). The syntax is not decisive, but seems to suggest that no logical or chronological order is envisaged by the decree. The former option may therefore be preferable: namely, that the sacrificial rituals could begin while the honourand was still alive. A ram is often sacrificed in heroic and personal cult: see here CGRN 104 (Halikarnassos), lines 34-37, and CGRN 143 (Laodikeia-on-the-Lykos), lines 26-29; in both cases, cult while living seems clear. The new occasion for celebration is the birthday celebration of the honourand (the month Heraios and the calendar of Keramos are not well-understood). Genethlia as cultic celebrations only seem to gain in prominence during the mid to late Hellenistic period, and particularly during the Roman period; see still Schmidt on this subject. By contrast with other honorands, such as the dynast Olympichos, this individual at Keramos does not appear to receive his own altar, but rather the sacrifices will be performed on an existing structure (the phrase ἐπὶ βωμοῦ τοῦ ἀποδειχθέν|τος is vague; presumably the established altar of a god is meant or a customary one in the gymnasion, where contests could be held?). The final phrase, though again quite allusive, appears to suggest that a new contest, perhaps athletic and evidently for both boys and ephebes, will be established as a further honour, and that this will take place during the birthday celebrations. The cultic agents known as hieromnemones are seldom in evidence in Karia, though cf. I.Tralleis 20 and 35; pace Varinlioğlu, they are not to be seen as reflecting a 'Dorian' influence on Keramos.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 168, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 168, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/168/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2019]).

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					<p>Edition here based on Varinlioğlu <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Keramos">I.Keramos</bibl> 9, with ph. pl. 7.1.</p>
					<p>Cf. also: <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl> 35, 1090, not reprising the text but a note on the estimates of the population of the city.</p>
					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Schmidt 1908">Schmidt 1908</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Robert 1968">Robert 1968</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Strubbe 2004">Strubbe 2004</bibl>.</p>
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<lb xml:id="line_17" n="17" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τος</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <w lemma="κατατίθημι"><supplied reason="lost">κατ</supplied>ατίθεσθαι</w> <w lemma="ὑπό">ὑπ’</w> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτῶν</w> <name type="object"><name type="festival"><w lemma="ἆθλον">ἆθλα</w></name></name> <name type="person"><w lemma="παῖς">παισὶν</w></name> καὶ <name type="person"><w lemma="ἔφηβος">ἐ
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_18" n="18" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">φήβοις</supplied></w></name><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <w lemma="ἀναγράφω"><supplied reason="lost">ἀναγ</supplied>ραφῆναι</w> δὲ καὶ τὰς <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="τιμή">τιμὰς</w></name> <w lemma="αὐτός">αὐτοῦ</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> <objectType key="stele"><w lemma="στήλη">στή
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_19" n="19" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ληι</supplied></w></objectType> <w lemma="λίθινος"><supplied reason="lost">λιθίνηι</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <w lemma="ἀνατίθημι">ἀνατεθῆναι</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τῶι <w lemma="ἐπιφανής">ἐπιφανεστάτωι</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_20" n="20"/><w lemma="τόπος"><supplied reason="lost">τόπωι</supplied></w><supplied reason="lost">·</supplied> <w lemma="αἱρέω"><supplied reason="lost">ἑλέσ</supplied>θαι</w> δὲ καὶ <name type="person"><w lemma="ἀνήρ">ἄνδρας</w></name>, <w lemma="ὅστις">οἵτινες</w> τῆς τε τῶν <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="τιμή">τι
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_21" n="21" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">μῶν</supplied></w></name> <w lemma="ἀναγραφή"><supplied reason="lost">ἀναγρα</supplied>φῆς</w> καὶ τῆς <w lemma="ἀνάθεσις">ἀναθέσεως</w> τοῦ <w lemma="ἀνδριάς">ἀνδριάν
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_22" n="22" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τος</supplied></w> <w lemma="ποιέω"><supplied reason="lost">ποιήσο</supplied>νται</w> <w lemma="πρόνοια">πρόνοιαν</w>. <supplied reason="lost"><space extent="unknown" unit="character"/></supplied> <supplied reason="lost">οἵδε</supplied> <w lemma="αἱρέω">ᾑρέθησαν</w>·
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_23" n="23"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> Ἀθηνοδώρου, Μενέστρατος
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_24" n="24"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><supplied reason="lost">ο</supplied>υ <w lemma="κατά">καθ’</w> <w lemma="υἱοθεσία">ὑοθεσίαν</w> δὲ Διομήδου,
	   
<lb xml:id="line_25" n="25"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ωρος Λέοντος, Ἄνδρων Θεαγένου.
	    				
<lb xml:id="line_26" n="26"/><w lemma="ψῆφος"><supplied reason="lost">ψῆφοι</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">αἷς</supplied> <w lemma="δοκέω"><supplied reason="lost">ἔδ</supplied>οξε</w> <w lemma="δίδωμι">δοῦναι</w> τὰς <name type="genericOffering"><w lemma="τιμή">τιμὰς</w></name> <w lemma="ἐνακόσιοι">ἐνακόσιαι</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_27" n="27"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <w lemma="εἷς">μία</w>, αἷς δὲ <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w>
	    					
<lb xml:id="line_28" n="28"/><w lemma="ἑκατόν"><supplied reason="lost">?ἑκατὸν</supplied></w> <w lemma="τεσσαράκοντα"><supplied reason="lost">τεσσ</supplied>αράκοντα</w> <w lemma="τέσσαρες">τέσαρες</w>. <space extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
	    				
	    				</ab>
	    			</div>
	    			<div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
					<head>Translation</head>
<p>[...] And to set up a statue of him [costing ...] drachmae [...] and to inscribe on the base that the people honour [(x)] son of Drakon for his virtue (5) [and his goodwill towards itself]. He is to have priority seating in all of the games; and his [honours] are to be announced each year by the <foreign>agonothetes</foreign> during the athletic games. He is to be called to the common hearth of the people by the <foreign>stephanephoros</foreign> (10) each year during the festival of the Taurothysia. He is to be crowned in the first contest of the festival of the Dionysia by the agonothetes and his honours are (also) to be proclaimed (there) annually; and when he has died, he is to be buried [at public expense]. A ram is to be sacrificed to him annually (15) by the <foreign>hieromnemones</foreign> on the 12th of the month Heraion, his birthday celebrations, on the altar which has been designated; and prizes are to be established by them (i.e. the hieromnemones) for the boys and for the ephebes. His honours are to be written up on a stone stele, which is to be set up in the most conspicuous (20) [place]. Men are to be chosen who will take care of the inscribing of the honours and the erection of the statue.</p>
	    				
<p>The following were selected: [(x)] son of Athenodoros, Menestratos [son of ...] by adoption son of Diomedes, 25) [...]doros son of Leon, Andron son of Theagenes. Ballots by which were voted to give the honours: nine hundred [...] and one; negative votes: [a hundred?] and forty-four.
					</p>
				</div>
				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
<p>[...] Et d'ériger sa statue [coûtant...] drachmes [...] et de faire inscrire sur sa base que le peuple honore [(x)] fils de Drakon pour sa vertu (5) [et sa bienveillance envers lui]. Il aura un siège prioritaire lors de tous les concours; et les [honneurs] à son égard seront annoncés chaque année par l'agonothète durant les concours athlétiques. Il sera invité au foyer commun du peuple par le stéphanéphore (10) chaque année durant la fête des Taurothysia. Il sera couronné lors du premier concours des Dionysia par l'agonothète et ses honneurs seront (également) proclamés annuellement (i.e. à cette occasion); et lorsqu'il sera mort, il sera enterré [sur fonds publics]. Un bélier lui sera sacrifié annuellement (15) par les hiéromnémons le 12 du mois d'Heraion, sa date anniversaire, sur l'autel qui aura été désigné; et des prix seront établis par eux (les hiéromnémons) pour les garçons et les éphèbes. Les honneurs à son égard seront inscrits sur une stèle de pierre, qui sera érigée (20) à [l'endroit] le plus visible. Des hommes seront choisis pour s'occuper de l'inscription des honneurs et de l'installation de la statue.</p>
						
<p>Voici ceux qui ont été choisis: [(x)] fils d'Athenodorors, Menestratos [fils de ...] par adoption le fils de Diomède, (25) [...]dore le fils de Léon, Andron fils de Theagenes. Votes par lesquels il a plu de conférer les honneurs : neuf cents [...] et un, contre [cent ?] quarante-quatre. 
					</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p>The inscription is an honorific decree, almost certainly belonging to the city of Keramos, for a certain individual whose name is not preserved (but we know he was the son of a certain Drakon, cf. line 4). Commentary (see Varinlioğlu and <bibl type="abbr" n="SEG">SEG</bibl>) has particularly focussed on the conclusion of the text (lines 26-28), which partially preserves a number of votes for and against the proposal of the honours. Since probably a thousand or so voters are in evidence, this might provide a rough estimate of the democratic population of the Karian city of Keramos (1000+ male voters; probably several multiples of this for the total population including non-citizens?). Here, however, we only offer a brief commentary on the cultic rites proposed as honours for this individual. Several of these honours, notably the honorific statue with its inscribed base (lines 2-5), the public proclamation of the honours during contests and festivals (lines 6-8 and 12-13), are typical of Hellenistic honours. These and others match particularly well, though more modestly, those accorded to Olympichos at Mylasa: cf. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_150">CGRN 150</ref> (Labraunda). Other honorific decrees from Keramos, both more terse and more fragmentary, mention a similar registry of honours, though they do not appear to prescribe sacrifices and cult <foreign>per se</foreign>: cf. esp. <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Keramos">I.Keramos</bibl> 7-8 (for a gymnasiarch called Lykiskos). For a discussion of cultic honours for benefactors in Asia Minor, see Strubbe.</p>
							
<p>Lines 8-10: The invitation to a meal at the public hearth or at the prytaneion is typical of honorific decrees in Greek cities. Here, it is further specified by being an annual honour, to occur only during one of the principal civic festivals, the Taurothysia. Cp. again <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Keramos">I.Keramos</bibl> 7 (the same honours for Lykiskos), as well as the honours for Olympichos, some of which occur during the Taureia (Taurophonia) at Mylasa: <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_150">CGRN 150</ref>, lines 21-24.</p>

<p>Lines 13-18: Burial at public expense is well-attested as an honour, cp. again <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Keramos">I.Keramos</bibl> 7 (there, with a funeral also); cf. more generally Robert. It is not known whether the cultic honours are to be enacted immediately or whether they are also conditional on the death of the individual (like the burial). The syntax is not decisive, but seems to suggest that no logical or chronological order is envisaged by the decree. The former option may therefore be preferable: namely, that the sacrificial rituals could begin while the honourand was still alive. A ram is often sacrificed in heroic and personal cult: see here <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_104/">CGRN 104</ref> (Halikarnassos), lines 34-37, and <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_143/">CGRN 143</ref> (Laodikeia-on-the-Lykos), lines 26-29; in both cases, cult while living seems clear. The new occasion for celebration is the birthday celebration of the honourand (the month Heraios and the calendar of Keramos are not well-understood). <foreign>Genethlia</foreign> as cultic celebrations only seem to gain in prominence during the mid to late Hellenistic period, and particularly during the Roman period; see still Schmidt on this subject. By contrast with other honorands, such as the dynast Olympichos, this individual at Keramos does not appear to receive his own altar, but rather the sacrifices will be performed on an existing structure (the phrase ἐπὶ βωμοῦ τοῦ ἀποδειχθέν|τος is vague; presumably the established altar of a god is meant or a customary one in the gymnasion, where contests could be held?). The final phrase, though again quite allusive, appears to suggest that a new contest, perhaps athletic and evidently for both boys and ephebes, will be established as a further honour, and that this will take place during the birthday celebrations. The cultic agents known as <foreign>hieromnemones</foreign> are seldom in evidence in Karia, though cf. <bibl type="abbr" n="I.Tralleis">I.Tralleis</bibl> 20 and 35; <foreign>pace</foreign> Varinlioğlu, they are not to be seen as reflecting a 'Dorian' influence on Keramos.
							
							
							
						</p>
					</div>
			</body>
    	</text>
	</TEI>