CGRN 10

Purity regulation (?) from Gortyn, notably concerning the harbour

Date :

ca. 500-475 BC

Justification: lettering and style (Guarducci).

Provenance

Gortyn . Reused near the gate of the Odeon.

Support

Wall block, intact on all sides, though worn on the right and with some letters abraded on the surface.

  • Height: 33 cm
  • Width: 112 cm
  • Depth: unknown

Layout

Boustrophedon. Letters: 2.5-3 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Guarducci IC IV 146, who prints a careful text, with photographs (both of the stone and a squeeze) and a drawing.

Other editions: Comparetti 1926; Guarducci 1942 185-190.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 114.

Further bibliography: Willetts 1962: 239-243; Darmezin 1999: 96; Parker - Scullion 2016: 239-241.

Text


[..?..]
[..?..] ἐπιβασίας κάθαρσις πιναίων· αἰ [..?..]
[..?..]ασι ἀδαμίαι συνθλάθθαντανς καὶ κ[..?..]
[..?..]τανς κατὰ νόμον τῶ π[ιναί]ω πεδεπιθ[ῦσαι ..?..]
[..?.. ἤ]μην τὸ ἐπίναιον· αἰ δὲ μὴ ἀγγελιτείη α[..?..]
5[..?..]ια καθαρα[ν]τὰνς πεδεπιθῦσαι κ’ ἦ μὴ [..?..]
[..?..·] α [κ’] ἐν Ϝίδαιπόλις θύωντι τὰν ενα[..?..]
[..?..]αν ἢ τὰν τριϝετηρίαν ἢ τὰν ἀρὰν· αἴ τις α[..?..]
[..?..] ἀμέραν ἐσκομισαῖμεν καὶ ϝέρεν τὰ επ[..?..]
[..?..]ντα πλὰν μὴ σαλπίνδε καὶ μ]ήτ’ ἐν τᾶι ϝ[..?..]
[..?..]

Translation

[...] of the embarking (?) a purification of the harbours (?). If (?) [...] those crushing together (or: making a contract?) without penalty and [...] according to the norm (or: law) of the harbour are to add a sacrifice afterward [...] the harbour is to be (e.g. pure). But if there is no announcement (?) [...] (5) those who have made a purification are to add a sacrifice afterward and if there is no [...]. If the city sacrifices on Mount Ida, the [...] or the biennial occasion or the prayer. If anyone [...] "a day, may we bring in" (?) and banish (or: carry?) the [...] only not to sound the trumpet and neither in the [... nor... ].

Traduction

[...] de l'embarquement (?) une purification des ports (?). Si (?) [...] ceux qui écrasent ensemble (ou: font un contrat ensemble ?) sans pénalité et [...] selon la norme (ou la loi) du port on doit ajouter un sacrifice [...] le port sera alors (e.g. pur). Mais si aucune annonce (?) n'est faite [...] (5) ceux qui ont fait une purification doivent ajouter un sacrifice et s'il n'y a pas [...]. Si la cité sacrifie sur le Mont Ida, le [...] ou la fête bisannuelle ou la prière. Si quelqu'un [...] « une journée, que nous puissions apporter » (?) et bannir (?) (ou porter ?) les [...] seulement ne pas sonner de la trompette et ni dans la [... ni ...].

Commentary

This text is only partially preserved and thus its context and content are far from clear. Its beginning could have been inscribed on blocks to the top and to the left, while its continuation would have followed to the bottom and the right. It appears to propose various cases for purification, much like other casuistic regulations in the present Collection. According to Guarducci, the document was perhaps even more composite, proposing first (lines 1-5) purifications dealing with the harbour (ἐπίναιον; but found once in line 1 in the plural), while the remainder of the extant document discussed a major sacrifice to Zeus on Mt. Ida (lines 5-9). It is difficult to be certain about this. Several words and expressions employed in the text are obscure, and it is regrettable that it is so fragmentary, since it seems to describe certain rituals in some detail (note e.g. the use of a trumpet in line 9, which is the sort of indication almost never mentioned in our documents).

Line 2: This line contains two relatively obscure words, which may or may not be taken together. The first, ἀδαμίαι, is most likely interpreted as "without penalty" or without any constraint or fine, cp. Darmezin no. 131, lines 22-23: ἀνυπεύθυνος ὢν | [κὴ] ἀδάμιος. The second word, however, is much less certain. As far as we can tell, it could either be a feminine accusative plural present (active) participle from συναλλάσσω, in which case it would refer to contracts and agreements (so Guarducci); or, as we interpret it here since the reading on the stone suggests it and since the feminine participle would perhaps be surprising, it could be the masculine accusative plural present participle from συνθλάσσω, "to beat together" (see also another similar form of the participle in line 5). According to this interpretation then, the verb might refer to a gesture of violence which could either be done "with impunity" or would require purification.

Line 3: μεταθύειν properly denotes a sacrifice which must be performed "after" purification or propitiation, see CGRN 12 (Delphi), line 4, which also makes good sense here; ἐπιθύειν could denote adding or placing a sacrifice, perhaps on an altar. The form μετεπιθύειν is unique, and the semantic values of the multiple prefixes in the compound verb are not easy to define; see also line 5. On these verbs, see also now Parker - Scullion.

Line 4: ἀγγελιτείη is obscure, but certainly a form of ἀγγέλλω.

Line 6: This line refers to a sacrifice performed by the city on Mount Ida. On the cult of Zeus Idaios, see Willetts.

Line 7: On the biennial (trieteric) festival celebrated by the Gortynians, see IC IV 80, lines 1-3, where the people of Rhittenia are to provide 350 staters' worth of sacrificial animals for this major occasion.

Line 8: Given the voice in the first person plural, this appears to be a segment of reported speech, perhaps the "imprecation" or invocation mentioned in the preceding line, or e.g. a speech by a herald. The form ϝέρεν, perhaps from φέρω but also potentially from ἀείρω, appears to denote removal or banishment in inscriptions from Olympia, cf. Minon IED 12. But here, a more straightforward sense of "carry" or "lift" is a plausible alternative.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 10, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 10, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/10/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2017]).

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	    				<author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
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					<head>Bibliography</head>
					<p>Edition here based on Guarducci <bibl type="abbr" n="IC IV">IC IV</bibl> 146, who prints a careful text, with photographs (both of the stone and a squeeze) and a drawing.</p>
					<p>Other editions: <bibl type="author_date" n="Comparetti 1926">Comparetti 1926</bibl>; <bibl type="author_date" n="Guarducci 1942">Guarducci 1942</bibl> 185-190.</p>
					<p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 114.</p>
					<p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Willetts 1962">Willetts 1962</bibl>: 239-243; <bibl type="author_date" n="Darmezin 1999">Darmezin 1999</bibl>: 96; <bibl type="author_date" n="Parker - Scullion 2016">Parker - Scullion 2016</bibl>: 239-241.</p>
		
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<lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" rend="right-to-left"/><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/><orig>ασι</orig> <name type="punishment"><w lemma="ἀζημία">ἀδαμίαι</w></name> <w lemma="συνθλάσσω"><w lemma="συναλλάσσω">συν<unclear>θ</unclear>λάθθαντανς</w></w> καὶ <orig>κ</orig><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/>
	    					
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<lb xml:id="line_5" n="5" rend="left-to-right"/><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/><orig>ια</orig> <name type="purification"><w lemma="καθαίρω">καθαρ<unclear>α</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied>τὰνς</w></name> <name type="sacrifice"><w lemma="μετεπιθύω">πεδεπιθῦσαι</w></name> κ’ ἦ <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/>

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<lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" rend="left-to-right"/><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/><orig>αν</orig> ἢ τὰν <name type="festival"><w lemma="τριετηρίς">τριϝετηρίαν</w></name> ἢ τὰν <name type="invocation"><w lemma="ἀρά">ἀρὰν</w></name>· <w lemma="εἰ">αἴ</w> <w lemma="τις">τις</w> <orig>α</orig><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/>
	    					
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<lb xml:id="line_9" n="9" rend="left-to-right"/><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/><orig>ντα</orig> <w lemma="πλήν">πλὰν</w> <w lemma="μή">μὴ</w> <w lemma="σαλπίζω">σαλπίνδε<supplied reason="lost">ν</supplied></w> <supplied reason="lost">καὶ</supplied> <w lemma="μήτε"><supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied>ήτ’</w> <w lemma="ἐν">ἐν</w> τᾶι <orig>ϝ</orig><gap extent="unknown" unit="character" reason="lost"/>
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					<head>Translation</head>
<p>[...] of the embarking (?) a purification of the harbours (?). If (?) [...] those crushing together (or: making a contract?) without penalty and [...] according to the norm (or: law) of the harbour are to add a sacrifice afterward [...] the harbour is to be (e.g. pure). But if there is no announcement (?) [...] (5) those who have made a purification are to add a sacrifice afterward and if there is no [...]. If the city sacrifices on Mount Ida, the [...] or the biennial occasion or the prayer. If anyone [...] "a day, may we bring in" (?) and banish (or: carry?) the [...] only not to sound the trumpet and neither in the [... nor... ].
					</p>
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				<div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
					<head>Traduction</head>
<p>[...]  de l'embarquement (?) une purification des ports (?). Si (?) [...] ceux qui écrasent ensemble (ou: font un contrat ensemble ?) sans pénalité et [...] selon la norme (ou la loi) du port on doit ajouter un sacrifice [...] le port sera alors (e.g. pur). Mais si aucune annonce (?) n'est faite [...] (5) ceux qui ont fait une purification doivent ajouter un sacrifice et s'il n'y a pas [...]. Si la cité sacrifie sur le Mont Ida, le [...] ou la fête bisannuelle ou la prière. Si quelqu'un [...] « une journée, que nous puissions apporter » (?) et bannir (?) (ou porter ?) les [...] seulement ne pas sonner de la trompette et ni dans la [... ni ...].
 					</p>
				</div>
					<div type="commentary">    
						<head>Commentary</head>    
<p>This text is only partially preserved and thus its context and content are far from clear. Its beginning could have been inscribed on blocks to the top and to the left, while its continuation would have followed to the bottom and the right. It appears to propose various cases for purification, much like other casuistic regulations in the present Collection. According to Guarducci, the document was perhaps even more composite, proposing first (lines 1-5) purifications dealing with the harbour (ἐπίναιον; but found once in line 1 in the plural), while the remainder of the extant document discussed a major sacrifice to Zeus on Mt. Ida (lines 5-9). It is difficult to be certain about this. Several words and expressions employed in the text are obscure, and it is regrettable that it is so fragmentary, since it seems to describe certain rituals in some detail (note e.g. the use of a trumpet in line 9, which is the sort of indication almost never mentioned in our documents).</p>

<p>Line 2: This line contains two relatively obscure words, which may or may not be taken together. The first, ἀδαμίαι, is most likely interpreted as "without penalty" or without any constraint or fine, cp. Darmezin no. 131, lines 22-23: ἀνυπεύθυνος ὢν | [κὴ] ἀδάμιος. The second word, however, is much less certain. As far as we can tell, it could either be a feminine accusative plural present (active) participle from συναλλάσσω, in which case it would refer to contracts and agreements (so Guarducci); or, as we interpret it here since the reading on the stone suggests it and since the feminine participle would perhaps be surprising, it could be the masculine accusative plural present participle from συνθλάσσω, "to beat together" (see also another similar form of the participle in line 5). According to this interpretation then, the verb might refer to a gesture of violence which could either be done "with impunity" or would require purification.</p>

<p>Line 3: μεταθύειν properly denotes a sacrifice which must be performed "after" purification or propitiation, see <ref target="CGRN_12">CGRN 12</ref> (Delphi), line 4, which also makes good sense here; ἐπιθύειν could denote adding or placing a sacrifice, perhaps on an altar. The form μετεπιθύειν is unique, and the semantic values of the multiple prefixes in the compound verb are not easy to define; see also line 5. On these verbs, see also now Parker - Scullion.</p>
						
<p>Line 4: ἀγγελιτείη is obscure, but certainly a form of ἀγγέλλω.</p>
						
<p>Line 6: This line refers to a sacrifice performed by the city on Mount Ida. On the cult of Zeus Idaios, see Willetts.</p>
						
<p>Line 7: On the biennial (trieteric) festival celebrated by the Gortynians, see <bibl type="abbr" n="IC IV">IC IV</bibl> 80, lines 1-3, where the people of Rhittenia are to provide 350 staters' worth of sacrificial animals for this major occasion.</p>
						
<p>Line 8: Given the voice in the first person plural, this appears to be a segment of reported speech, perhaps the "imprecation" or invocation mentioned in the preceding line, or e.g. a speech by a herald. The form ϝέρεν, perhaps from φέρω but also potentially from ἀείρω, appears to denote removal or banishment in inscriptions from Olympia, cf. Minon <bibl type="abbr" n="IED">IED</bibl> 12. But here, a more straightforward sense of "carry" or "lift" is a plausible alternative.</p>
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