CGRN 65

Purity regulation from Tegea

Date :

4th century BC

Justification: lettering (Hiller von Gaertringen).

Provenance

Tegea . Now in the Museum in Tegea (inv. no. 1210).

Support

Block of marble, conserving the right-hand part of a sacred law. The left-hand was originally engraved on one or two stones to the left. The stone is broken on the lower side.

  • Height: 45.5 cm
  • Width: 57.5 cm
  • Depth: 12.5 cm

Layout

The text is non-stoichedon. All lines seem to end in a complete word, but cf. line 4, where the interpretation of the lettertraces is uncertain and word-division might not be respected.

Letters: 0.1 cm high.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Hiller von Gaertringen IG V.2 4.

Cf. also: Sokolowski LSS 31.

Further bibliography: Parker 1983; Jost 1985; Dubois 1986: 34-37; Peels 2016.

Text


vacat
[..?.. ἐς τοῖ ἱ]εροῖ ἐξίεν· τὸ δ’ ἰερὸγ καθᾶραι
[..?..· τ]⟨ι⟩ δὲ ὑστέραι ἰμπλατίαι ἱλάσκεσθαι
[..?..]ιαιο[.]νι[...]ι[.]ι· τᾶι δὲ τρίται
[..?.. π]λέονος [....7...] πόλλωνος αιτη-
5 [..?.. τ]άνυ ερ[......11.....]επη[..] χοαί
[..?..]τον ἄρσενα· [εἴ τις ἂν] ἦι [π]ὸς θηλέαι
[..?.. θε]αρῶν καὶ ἱερέων κ[αὶ ἱε]ρομναμόνων
[..?.. μ]ηδὲν ἀπέχεν τὸς ὀρ[χη]στὰς
[..?..] μηδὲ αὐτὸ ἦνα]ι [καθα]ρὸν
10 [μηδὲ ..?..· εἰ δὲ ..?..]τοι τις τῶν ὀρ[χηστᾶ]ν τ[ῶν]
[..?..]μαι, τὸν δὲ ἰόντα [...5..]ινγ[..?..]
[..?..] μέστ’ ἂν ἀέλιος ὀν[τέλλοι]
[..?..]· [εἰ δὲ ..?.. κα]θίξετοι ἄνθρωπον [..4..] ε[ἴ]τε [..?..]
[..?..]α καθαρὸν ἦναι, εἴτ κα]θαρ[.]
15 [..?..] τεθναότος ἐπερο[..4..]ν· εἰ
[..?...] τὸν ἄνθρωπον διλιλ[...]ει ἀπὺ
[..?..] καθαρὸν ἦναι· ιλ[...6...]αι, ὅτι
[..?..]τε ἰκαστὰ οσαι· [ε] [δ’] έκων
[..?..]ρος τοῖ χλ[έ]οι· εἰ δχλος τοῖ
20 [..?..]λ[... καθ]αρὸν ἦναι· εἰ λέλαθε
[..?..]α εἴτε ἰν ἱεροῖ εἴτε ἰν ὁσίοι
[..?.. μέ]στε ζατὸν ἔοι ἄμοινα λ[..?..]
[..?..]ιγ[..?..]

Translation

[...] go out of the sanctuary. To purify the sanctuary [...] on the next (day?) appease with a flat cake (?) [...] on the third (day) [...] of more [...] of Apollo [... (5) ...] the following [...] with a libation (?) [...] the male. (If someone in some) way with a female [...] of theoroi and priests and hieromnemones [...] and let nothing hinder the dancers (?) from [...] nor is he himself to be (considered) pure (10) (nor [...] if ) [...] one of the dancers (?) of [...] but the one who goes [...] until the sun (rises?) [... if ...] has come, a man [...] either [...] he be pure, or pure (?) (15) of some dead person [...] If [...] the man [...] from he be pure [...], that [...] bring each of the things. If unvoluntarily [...] with the rubbish. If the rubbish (20) [...] he be pure. If unawares [...] either in a sacred place or in a divinely sanctioned place [...] until [...] is to be sought [...]

Traduction

[...] sortir du sanctuaire. Purifier le sanctuaire [...] suivant, apaiser d'un gâteau plat (?) [...] troisième (jour) [...] de plus [...] d'Apollon, [... (5) ...] ceux-là [...] avec une libation (?) [...] le mâle. (Si quelqu'un ...) avec une femelle [...] de théores et de prêtres et de hiéromnémons [...] que rien n'empêche les danseurs (?) [...] qu'il ne soit pas considéré comme pur (10) [ni... si] l'un des danseurs (?) de [...] mais celui qui va [...] jusqu'au [...] du soleil [... si ...] est venu, un homme [...] qu'il soit pur, ou pur (?) (15) d'un défunt [...] Si [...] l'homme [...] de qu'il soit pur [...], que [...] apporte chaque [...]. Si involontairement [...] avec la saleté. Si la saleté (20) [...] qu'il soit pur. S'il arrive [...] que ce soit dans un sanctuaire ou un (espace) religieusement protégé [...] jusqu'à [...] doit être cherché [...]

Commentary

As the left portion of this law was originally inscribed on a different block or blocks, the interpretation is rather uncertain. The text seems to give various purity regulations, and is seemingly related to a sanctuary and cult of Apollo (line 4). In the first lines, the text seems to give prescriptions of polluting circumstances that necessitate leaving the temple and purifying it (τὸ δ’ ἰερὸγ καθᾶραι). The oblique references to subsequent days (ὑστέραι ... τρίται) seem to prescribe further actions to be taken to restore the sanctuary to a state of pure normality. Among these is the injunction to appease the gods (ἱλάσκεσθαι). The next section of the inscription is difficult to interpret: it includes references to civic cult personnel, such as theoroi, priests and hieromnemones and perhaps to dancers. Recurrent from line 9 onwards is the phrase (μὴ) καθαρόν ἦναι (also lines 14, 16, 20), which has close parallels in other purity regulations, such as CGRN 3 (Kleonai). The text undoubtedly describes various circumstances under which a person is or is not to be considered pure. These regulations apparently relate, among other things to contact with a corpse (line 15) and perhaps to dirt (line 19). The participle ἀέκων (unwillingly, line 18) may be part of a clause about involuntary manslaughter, from which murderers are considered 'pure' elsewhere (e.g. CGRN 166 from Lato).

Line 1: ἐς is Arcadian for ἐκ, and it is governed by the dative. ἐξίεν is the present infinitive ἐξιέναι, καθάραι is the aorist infinitive of καθαίρω (Dubois, p. 35).

Line 2: ἱμπλατίαι is a hapax legomenon. Dubois plausibly argues that the general construction ἱλασκέσθαι + dat. (e.g. in the Hesiodic σπονδῇσι θύεσσι τε ἱλάσκεσθαι, Op. 318) may lead us to interpret ἰμπλατιαι as an instrumental dative, denoting some offering to restore the relationship with the god. The word may have a connection with another obscure word, ἐπίπλατορ, which, according to Hesychius, is a flat cake.

Lines 2-3: Dubois speculates that the reference to a ὑστέραι and a τρίτᾳ (sc. ἡμέρᾳ?) may also refer to subsequent days of a festival. The possible reference to dancers further on (lines 8, 10) make this hypothesis not unthinkable, but the prescription of purification rites in various stages seems more likely.

Line 4: Pausanias refers to a cult of Apollo at Tegea (cf. Jost, p. 148). Regarding the remaining letters ΑΙΤΗ, one might think of a form of the verb αἰτέω or αἴτημα.

Line 5: τάνυ is the neuter pl. of Arcadian ὅδε.

Line 6: Τhis appears to be some reference to sexual relations (Sokolowski). Alternatively, if we remove the proposed restorations, then the reference may be to male and female sacrificial animals (ἄρσην vs. θῆλυς).

Line 7: for the usage of the lexeme θεωρός as a title for magistrates in Arcadia, LSJ s.v. II.

Line 8: It is not immediately obvious what dancers (ὀρ[χη]στὰς) are doing in this context of a purity regulation. As the word is never fully preserved (cf. also line 10), one might think of other agents such as ὁρκισταί (officials administrating oaths) or yet other possibilities.

Line 12: μέστε' ἄν (μέστε is Arcadian of μέσφα until + gen.). Τhe next two letters, ὀν-, may be the Aeol. and Cypriot for ἄν-. Comparing the phrase ἅμ' ἠελίῳ ἀνιόντι 'at sun-rise', one may think the law prescribes a certain ritual or action during the night until sunrise.

Line 15: There may be an instance of the rare word ἔπερος 'woolly' here. Alternatively, one might think of some form of the verb ἐπέρομαι (ἐπείρομαι), though it is difficult to see which grammatical form would fit the gap of four letters. Such a suggestion might link this line with the αἰτη of line 4, if those letters are to be interpreted as a form of αἰτέω or αἴτημα.

Line 19: Perhaps a reference to dirt (χλέος) that would result in ritual impurity, or possibly this is the dirt resulting from a cleansing. But Rhomaios proposes that this dirt is used sympathetically as a purificatory substance (cf. Harpocr. s.v. χλῆδος), and cf. Parker, p. 231.

Line 21: The opposition inherent in the phrase εἴτε ἰν ἱεροῖ εἴτε ἰν ὁσίοι refers to two levels of sacrality, hieros being what is owned by or has been consecrated to the gods, and hosios referring to what is sanctioned by them. Here, the phrase most probably refers to a spatial distinction; cp. e.g. Ar. Lys. 742-73 and the lemma in the Suda s.v. ὅσιον. For a more complete discussion of τἀ τε ἱερὰ καὶ τὰ ὅσια, and an argument against interpreting this as a dichotomy of "sacred" vs. "profane", cf. Peels.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 65, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 65, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/65/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2020]).

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                <head>Bibliography</head>
                <p>Edition here based on Hiller von Gaertringen <bibl type="abbr" n="IG V.2">IG V.2</bibl> 4.</p>
                <p>Cf. also: Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 31.</p>
                <p>Further bibliography: <bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 1983">Parker 1983</bibl>; 
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Jost 1985">Jost 1985</bibl>; 
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Dubois 1986">Dubois 1986</bibl>: 34-37; 
                    <bibl type="author_date" n="Peels 2016">Peels 2016</bibl>.</p>
                
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            <div type="translation" xml:lang="eng">
                <head>Translation</head>
                <p>[...] go out of the sanctuary. To purify the sanctuary [...] on the next (day?) appease with a flat cake (?) [...] on the third (day) [...] of more [...] of Apollo [... (5) ...] the following [...] with a libation (?) [...] the male. (If someone in some) way with a female [...] of <foreign>theoroi</foreign> and priests and     <foreign>hieromnemones</foreign> [...] and let nothing hinder the dancers (?) from [...] nor is he himself to be (considered) pure (10) (nor [...] if ) [...] one of the dancers (?) of [...] but the one who goes [...] until the sun (rises?) [... if ...] has come, a man [...] either [...] he be pure, or pure (?) (15) of some dead person [...] If [...] the man [...] from he be pure [...], that [...] bring each of the things. If unvoluntarily [...] with the rubbish. If the rubbish (20) [...] he be pure. If unawares [...] either in a sacred place or in a divinely sanctioned place [...] until [...] is to be sought [...]</p>
                
            </div>
            <div type="translation" xml:lang="fre">
                <head>Traduction </head>
                <p>[...] sortir du sanctuaire. Purifier le sanctuaire [...] suivant, apaiser d'un gâteau plat (?) [...] troisième (jour) [...] de plus [...] d'Apollon, [... (5) ...] ceux-là [...] avec une libation (?) [...] le mâle. (Si quelqu'un ...) avec une femelle [...] de théores et de prêtres et de hiéromnémons [...] que rien n'empêche les danseurs (?) [...] qu'il ne soit pas considéré comme pur (10) [ni... si] l'un des danseurs (?) de [...] mais celui qui va [...] jusqu'au [...] du soleil [... si ...] est venu, un homme [...] qu'il soit pur, ou pur (?) (15) d'un défunt [...] Si [...] l'homme [...] de qu'il soit pur [...], que [...] apporte chaque [...]. Si involontairement [...] avec la saleté. Si la saleté (20) [...] qu'il soit pur. S'il arrive [...] que ce soit dans un sanctuaire ou un (espace) religieusement protégé [...] jusqu'à [...] doit être cherché [...]</p>
                
                
            </div>
            <div type="commentary">
                <head>Commentary</head>
                <p>As the left portion of this law was originally inscribed on a different block or blocks, the interpretation is rather uncertain. The text seems to give various purity regulations, and is seemingly related to a sanctuary and cult of Apollo (line 4). In the first lines, the text seems to give prescriptions of polluting circumstances that necessitate leaving the temple and purifying it (τὸ δ’ ἰερὸγ καθᾶραι). The oblique references to subsequent days (ὑστέραι ... τρίται) seem to prescribe further actions to be taken to restore the sanctuary to a state of pure normality. Among these is the injunction to appease the gods (ἱλάσκεσθαι). The next section of the inscription is difficult to interpret: it includes references to civic cult personnel, such as <foreign>theoroi</foreign>, priests and <foreign>hieromnemones</foreign> and perhaps to dancers. Recurrent from line 9 onwards is the phrase (μὴ) καθαρόν ἦναι (also lines 14, 16, 20), which has close parallels in other purity regulations, such as <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_3">CGRN 3</ref> (Kleonai). The text undoubtedly describes various circumstances under which a person is or is not to be considered pure. These regulations apparently relate, among other things to contact with a corpse (line 15) and perhaps to dirt (line 19). The participle ἀέκων (unwillingly, line 18) may be part of a clause about involuntary manslaughter, from which murderers are considered 'pure' elsewhere (e.g. <ref target="http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/CGRN_166">CGRN 166</ref> from Lato).</p>
                
                <p>Line 1: ἐς is Arcadian for ἐκ, and it is governed by the dative. ἐξίεν is the present infinitive ἐξιέναι, καθάραι is the aorist infinitive of καθαίρω (Dubois, p. 35).</p>
                
                <p> Line 2: ἱμπλατίαι is a <foreign>hapax legomenon</foreign>. Dubois plausibly argues that the general construction ἱλασκέσθαι + dat. (e.g. in the Hesiodic σπονδῇσι θύεσσι τε ἱλάσκεσθαι, <title>Op.</title> 318) may lead us to interpret ἰμπλατιαι as an instrumental dative, denoting some offering to restore the relationship with the god. The word may have a connection with another obscure word, ἐπίπλατορ, which, according to Hesychius, is a flat cake.</p>
                
                <p> Lines 2-3: Dubois speculates that the reference to a ὑστέραι and a τρίτᾳ (sc. ἡμέρᾳ?) may also refer to subsequent days of a festival. The possible reference to dancers further on (lines 8, 10) make this hypothesis not unthinkable, but the prescription of purification rites in various stages seems more likely.</p>
                
                <p> Line 4: Pausanias refers to a cult of Apollo at Tegea (cf. Jost, p. 148). Regarding the remaining letters ΑΙΤΗ, one might think of a form of the verb αἰτέω or αἴτημα.</p>
                
                <p> Line 5: τάνυ is the neuter pl. of Arcadian ὅδε.</p>
                
                <p> Line 6: Τhis appears to be some reference to sexual relations (Sokolowski). Alternatively, if we remove the proposed restorations, then the reference may be to male and female sacrificial animals (ἄρσην vs. θῆλυς).</p>
                
                <p> Line 7: for the usage of the lexeme θεωρός as a title for magistrates in Arcadia, <bibl type="abbr" n="LSJ">LSJ</bibl> s.v. II.</p>
                
                <p> Line 8: It is not immediately obvious what dancers (ὀρ[χη]στὰς) are doing in this context of a purity regulation. As the word is never fully preserved (cf. also line 10), one might think of other agents such as ὁρκισταί (officials administrating oaths) or yet other possibilities.</p>
                
                <p> Line 12: μέστε' ἄν (μέστε is Arcadian of μέσφα until + gen.). Τhe next two letters, ὀν-, may be the Aeol. and Cypriot for ἄν-. Comparing the phrase ἅμ' ἠελίῳ ἀνιόντι 'at sun-rise', one may think the law prescribes a certain ritual or action during the night until sunrise.</p>
                
                <p> Line 15: There may be an instance of the rare word ἔπερος 'woolly' here. Alternatively, one might think of some form of the verb ἐπέρομαι (ἐπείρομαι), though it is difficult to see which grammatical form would fit the gap of four letters. Such a suggestion might link this line with the αἰτη of line 4, if those letters are to be interpreted as a form of αἰτέω or αἴτημα.</p>
                
                <p> Line 19: Perhaps a reference to dirt (χλέος) that would result in ritual impurity, or possibly this is the dirt resulting from a cleansing. But Rhomaios proposes that this dirt is used sympathetically as a purificatory substance (cf. Harpocr. s.v. χλῆδος), and cf. Parker, p. 231.</p>
                
                <p> Line 21: The opposition inherent in the phrase εἴτε ἰν ἱεροῖ εἴτε ἰν ὁσίοι refers to two levels of sacrality, <foreign>hieros</foreign> being what is owned by or has been consecrated to the gods, and <foreign>hosios</foreign> referring to what is sanctioned by them. Here, the phrase most probably refers to a spatial distinction; cp. e.g. Ar. <title>Lys.</title> 742-73 and the lemma in the <title>Suda</title> s.v. ὅσιον. For a more complete discussion of τἀ τε ἱερὰ καὶ τὰ ὅσια, and an argument against interpreting this as a dichotomy of "sacred" vs. "profane", cf. Peels.</p>
                
                
                
            </div>
        </body>
    </text>
</TEI>