CGRN 170

Record of a sale of a (male) priesthood for an unknown cult on Chios

Date :

ca. 500-400 BC

Justification: lettering (Parker, with Matthaiou); see Commentary for discussion of the notion of a later copy proposed by Plassart - Picard.

Provenance

Chios . Exact findspot unknown. Now in the Archaeological Museum of Chios.

Support

Small stele of blue marble, roughly cut at the base for a length of 25 cm, probably in order to be inserted into the ground.

  • Height: unknown
  • Width: unknown
  • Depth: 10 cm

Layout

Stoichedon only in lines 1-2; otherwise the lines are of variable length.

Letters: 1.6 cm high. The letters are irregular: many are tilted to the left, including sigma; see Plassart - Picard for further remarks.

Bibliography

Edition here based on Plassart - Picard 1913: 224-228 no. 31, with ph. of a squeeze.

Cf. also: Hoffmann SGDI IV 51; Schwyzer DGE 692; Sokolowski LSS 78; Parker 2006: 72-73 with ph. fig. 3.

Text


ἐπ’ Ἀμφοτερο̑ π-
ρυτάνιος
Δαφ-
ναῖος ἐπρίατο τ-
ὴν ἱρητήην· τῶι ἱ-
5ρέωι
γίνεσθαι σπλ-
άγχνα
τὰ ἐς γόν-
ατα
καὶ γλάσσαι
καὶ γέρας.
vacat

Translation

In the year when Amphoteros was prytanis, Daphnaios bought the priesthood. To the priest (5) are given the entrails placed on the knees (of the statue), and the tongues and a prerogative.

Traduction

Sous la prytanie d'Amphoteros, Daphnaios a acheté la prêtrise. Au prêtre (5) sont octroyés les viscères placés sur les genoux (de la statue), ainsi que les langues et une part d'honneur.

Commentary

Given the irregularities in writing (variable stoichedon) and the seemingly poor execution (occasionally oddly incised letters), the inscription was deemed by Plassart and Picard to be a copy of an earlier text from Chios and an archaising inscription, a judgement which was followed by Sokolowski. However, this supposition has recently and rightly come under question: Parker (also adducing the judgement of Matthaiou) sees no reason why the inscription cannot belong to the fifth century BC, which was already the judgement of Adolf Wilhelm (in Schwyzer) on the basis of its letterforms.

Indeed, many records and acts of sale of priesthoods are known from Chios during the Classical period: cf. here CGRN 37, CGRN 49, and CGRN 50; many other priestly contracts from the island are known. The inscription was apparently cut principally to record the privileges, namely the sacrificial perquisites of the priest (lines 5-8). This was done on a small stone to be erected directly into the ground, presumably at the sanctuary in question. The cult in which the priest served is left unspecified, and thus remains unknown: the context would probably have been obvious given the place in which the priestly contract was set up. For the dialectal forms, cf. Plassart - Picard, Hoffmann, and Schwyzer.

Line 1: As Plassart and Picard note, the name Amphoteros is known from another inscription on Chios, BCH (1879) 317-318 no. 5, line 14; however, though the name is rare, it is unclear whether there was any relation between the two individuals mentioned in these texts. As attested from several decrees, the prytanis was an eponymous official in Classical and Hellenistic Chios. The name Daphnaios is not otherwise known on Chios and is rarely found in the Aegean islands (it is more common in mainland Greece).

Lines 5-6: For the specific portions of the entrails which were deposited "in the hands" and "on the knees", i.e. in the open hands and/or knees of seated statues at the center of the cult, see here e.g. CGRN 41, lines 12-13; these are common expressions apparently specific to Chios,

Line 7: For the priestly privilege of receiving the tongue of the sacrificial animal, commonly granted on Chios, cf. here CGRN 41, line 9. The generic plural γλάσσαι is presumably intended to make clear that the priest will receive the tongue of each and every sacrificial animal, whether one or many are offered.

Line 8: For the γέρας as a specific (but unclear) portion often granted as a separate item to priests on Chios, cf. here CGRN 36, line 3, with further discussion.

Publication

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License 4.0 .

All citation, reuse or distribution of this work must contain somewhere a link back to the URL http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be/ and the filename, as well as the year of consultation (see “Home” for details of how to cite).

Authors

  • Jan-Mathieu Carbon
  • Saskia Peels

Project Director

Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge

How To Cite

CGRN 170, l. x-x.

Alternatively, a more detailed version of this citation, with the relevant URL, can be:
CGRN 170, l. x-x (http://cgrn.philo.ulg.ac.be/file/170/).

The full citation of the CGRN in a list of abbreviations or a bibliography is the following:
J.-M. Carbon, S. Peels and V. Pirenne-Delforge, Collection of Greek Ritual Norms (CGRN), Liège 2015- (http://cgrn.ulg.ac.be, consulted in [2020]).

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                <author>Jan-Mathieu Carbon</author>
                <author>Saskia Peels</author>
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                    <p>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike International License <ref target="http://creativecommons.org/" type="external">4.0</ref>.</p>
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                            <p>Small <rs type="objectType">stele</rs> of blue marble, roughly cut at the base for a length of 25 cm, probably in order to be inserted into the ground.</p>
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                                <height unit="cm">unknown</height>
                                <width unit="cm">unknown</width>
                                <depth unit="cm">10</depth>
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                        <layoutDesc><layout><p>Stoichedon only in lines 1-2; otherwise the lines are of variable length.</p>
                            <p>Letters: <height unit="cm">1.6</height>. The letters are irregular: many are tilted to the left, including <foreign>sigma</foreign>; see Plassart - Picard for further remarks.</p>
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                        <p><origDate notBefore="-0500" notAfter="-0400">ca. 500-400 BC</origDate></p>
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                <p> Edition here based on <bibl type="author_date" n="Plassart - Picard 1913">Plassart - Picard 1913</bibl>: 224-228 no. 31, with ph. of a squeeze.</p>
                <p> Cf. also: Hoffmann <bibl type="abbr" n="SGDI">SGDI</bibl> IV 51; Schwyzer <bibl type="abbr" n="DGE">DGE</bibl> 692; Sokolowski <bibl type="abbr" n="LSS">LSS</bibl> 78; <bibl type="author_date" n="Parker 2006">Parker 2006</bibl>: 72-73 with ph. fig. 3.</p>
  
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    <lb xml:id="line_1" n="1"/><w lemma="ἐπί">ἐπ’</w> Ἀμφοτερο̑ <name type="title"><w lemma="πρύτανις">π

    <lb xml:id="line_2" n="2" break="no"/>ρυτάνιος</w></name> Δαφ
 
    <lb xml:id="line_3" n="3" break="no"/>ναῖος <w lemma="πρίαμαι">ἐπρίατο</w> τ

    <lb xml:id="line_4" n="4" break="no"/>ὴν <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερατεία">ἱρητήην</w></name>· τῶι <name type="personnel"><w lemma="ἱερεύς">ἱ

    <lb xml:id="line_5" n="5" break="no"/>ρέωι</w></name> <w lemma="γίγνομαι">γίνεσθαι</w> <name type="portion"><w lemma="σπλάγχνον">σπλ

    <lb xml:id="line_6" n="6" break="no"/>άγχνα</w></name> τὰ <w lemma="εἰς">ἐς</w> <w lemma="γόνυ">γόν

    <lb xml:id="line_7" n="7" break="no"/>ατα</w> καὶ <name type="portion"><w lemma="γλῶσσα">γλάσσαι</w></name>

    <lb xml:id="line_8" n="8"/>καὶ <name type="portion"><w lemma="γέρας">γέρας</w></name>. 
    
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                <head>Translation</head>
                <p>In the year when Amphoteros was <foreign>prytanis</foreign>, Daphnaios bought the priesthood. To the priest (5) are given the entrails placed on the knees (of the statue), and the tongues and a prerogative.</p>
                
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                <head>Traduction </head>
        
                <p>Sous la prytanie d'Amphoteros, Daphnaios a acheté la prêtrise. Au prêtre (5) sont octroyés les viscères placés sur les genoux (de la statue), ainsi que les langues et une part d'honneur.</p>
                   
                
            </div>
            <div type="commentary">    
                <head>Commentary</head>    
                <p>Given the irregularities in writing (variable stoichedon) and the seemingly poor execution (occasionally oddly incised letters), the inscription was deemed by Plassart and Picard to be a copy of an earlier text from Chios and an archaising inscription, a judgement which was followed by Sokolowski. However, this supposition has recently and rightly come under question: Parker (also adducing the judgement of Matthaiou) sees no reason why the inscription cannot belong to the fifth century BC, which was already the judgement of Adolf Wilhelm (in Schwyzer) on the basis of its letterforms.</p>
<p>Indeed, many records and acts of sale of priesthoods are known from Chios during the Classical period: cf. here <ref target="CGRN_37">CGRN 37</ref>, <ref target="CGRN_49">CGRN 49</ref>, and <ref target="CGRN_50">CGRN 50</ref>; many other priestly contracts from the island are known. The inscription was apparently cut principally to record the privileges, namely the sacrificial perquisites of the priest (lines 5-8). This was done on a small stone to be erected directly into the ground, presumably at the sanctuary in question. The cult in
which the priest served is left unspecified, and thus remains unknown: the context would probably have been obvious given the place in which the priestly contract was set up. For the dialectal forms, cf. Plassart - Picard, Hoffmann, and Schwyzer.</p>

<p>Line 1: As Plassart and Picard note, the name Amphoteros is known from another inscription on Chios, <title>BCH</title> (1879) 317-318 no. 5, line 14; however, though the name is rare, it is unclear whether there was any relation between the two individuals mentioned in these texts. As attested from several decrees, the <foreign>prytanis</foreign> was an eponymous official in Classical and Hellenistic Chios. The name Daphnaios is not otherwise known on Chios and is rarely found in the Aegean islands (it is more common in mainland Greece).</p>       
         
<p>Lines 5-6: For the specific portions of the entrails which were deposited "in the hands" and "on the knees", i.e. in the open hands and/or knees of seated statues at the center of the cult, see here e.g. <ref target="CGRN_41">CGRN 41</ref>, lines 12-13; these are common expressions apparently specific to Chios,</p>

<p>Line 7: For the priestly privilege of receiving the tongue of the sacrificial animal, commonly granted on Chios, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_41">CGRN 41</ref>, line 9. The generic plural γλάσσαι is presumably intended to make clear that the priest will receive the tongue of each and every sacrificial animal, whether one or many are offered.</p>

<p>Line 8: For the γέρας as a specific (but unclear) portion often granted as a separate item to priests on Chios, cf. here <ref target="CGRN_36">CGRN 36</ref>, line 3, with further discussion.</p>                      
                
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